Published on March 3, 2014
Motivation ASSIGNMENT 6 Motivation Organization Behavior Dr. D. Gopala Krishna TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051 Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Motivation 1. Define Motivation Motivation means to move to activate. Anything that initiates activity whether internal or external is motivating. Motivation is the activation (energizing) of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. The process of motivation lies in understanding the meaning and relationship between needs, drives and incentives. Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The three key elements are intensity (How hard a person tries?), direction (channeled in the right direction?) and persistence (how long a person can maintain the effort). 2. How motivation performance? is related to productivity and Motivation is the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction and energizes & directs goal-oriented behavior. Goal oriented behavior has a positive impact on productivity. The sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work do it well. This is job satisfaction. This feeling is enhanced if those in authority recognize the significance of the work done and its value. Thus positive motivation leads to positive attitude towards work increasing the job satisfaction and eventually performance. A motivated person thus produces higher productivity and performance. Workers who are content with their jobs, who feel challenged, who have the opportunity to fulfill their goals will exhibit less destructive behavior on the job. They will be absent less frequently, they will be less inclined to change jobs, and, most importantly, they will produce at a higher level. 3. What is the importance of motivation? Motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higher quality work at a higher level of efficiency. Motivation benefits for an individual are: 1) Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals 2) Motivation helps job satisfaction 3) Motivation will help in self-development of individual 4) An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team Motivation benefits to organization are: 1) Puts human resources into action 2) Improves level of efficiency of employees resulting in increase in productivity, reducing cost of operations and improving overall efficiency Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Motivation 3) Leads to achievement of organizational goals resulting in best possible utilization of resources, creation of co-operative work environment, and making employees goal directed 4) Builds friendly relationship improving stability, reduction of unrest in employees and make employee adaptable to the changes. 4. Compare and contrast three important content theories of motivation Content Theory explains why human needs change with time. It explains why human needs change, but not how they change. Content theories explain the specific factors that motivate behavior. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for selfactualization at the top. The hierarchy is (from bottom to top) 1) Physiological Needs: Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. This include Air, water, Food, Clothing, Shelter etc 2) Safety Needs: With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. This includes Personal security, financial security, Health and well-being, Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts. 3) Social Need: After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness 4) Esteem Need: All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. 5) Self-Actualization: "What a man can be, he must be. This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Motivation Alderfer’s ERG Theory ERG Theory is similar to the famous Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The three core needs are: 1) Existence: These include the needs for things such as food, drink, shelter, and safety. 2) Relatedness: The need to feel connected to other individuals or a group. Establishing and maintaining relationships fulfill these needs. 3) Growth: At the top of the hierarchy are Growth Needs, the needs for personal achievement and self-actualization. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Herzberg felt that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction do not exist on the same continuum, but on dual scales. In other words, certain things, which Herzberg called hygiene factors, could cause a person to become unhappy with their job in their absence. These things, including pay, job security, company policy and physical work environment, could never bring about job satisfaction. Hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction but do not lead to satisfaction. Motivating factors, on the other hand, can increase job satisfaction. Giving employees things such as a sense of recognition, responsibility, advancement, or achievement can bring satisfaction about. Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Motivation 5. Explain Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation In 1964, Vroom developed the Expectancy theory through his study of the motivations behind decision-making. His theory is relevant to the study of management. The VROOMS expectation theory interlinks effort to perform to results to reward. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory, which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence. • • • Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P) Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O) Valence- V(R) Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Motivation For example: Employee desiring promotion feels that superior performance is a strong factor in achieving the goal. Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
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