Published on March 15, 2014
Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) .
Why OLEDs Lighting efficiency Incandescent bulbs are inefficient Fluorescent bulbs give off ugly light LEDs (ordinary light emitting diodes) are bright points; not versatile OLEDs may be better on all counts Displays: Significant advantages over liquid crystals Faster Brighter Lower power Cost and design LEDs are crystals; LCDs are highly structured; OLEDs are not – Malleable; can be bent, rolled up, etc. Easier to fabricate In general, OLED research proceeds on many fronts
Plan of talk Light-Emitting Diode Bands and Conduction Semiconductor Standard Diode Light Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Organic Semiconductors Organic Diode Light Emission
Electrons in a Lattice Atom has bound states Discrete energy levels Partially filled by electrons Periodic array of atoms (cf. QM textbook) Effectively continuous bands of energy levels Also partially filled V(r) r E V(x) r E
The Bands on Stage E E E EE Gap No Ga p Smal l Gap Insulator Conductor Semiconductor Doped Semiconductors
Doping – Add Impurities N-type P-type
The Bands on Stage E E E EE Gap No Ga p Smal l Gap Insulator Conductor Semiconductor Doped Semiconductors N-type P-type
Diode: p-type meets n-type E E
Diode: p-type meets n-type E E
Diode: p-type meets n-type E E
Diode: p-type meets n-type E E Electric Field Excess Positive Ions Excess Negative Ions
Diode: p-type meets n-type Electric Field Try to make current flow to left? Depletion Zone Grows
Diode: p-type meets n-type Electric Field Try to make current flow to right? Current Flows! Electrons in higher band meet Holes in lower band Current
Excitons Electron in higher band meets a hole in lower band The two form a hydrogen-like bound state! Exciton! Like “positronium” Can have any orbital angular momentum Can have spin 0 or spin 1 Annihilation Rate is slow Electron falls into hole Energy emitted Energy released as electron falls into hole May turn into vibrations of lattice (“phonons”) – heat May turn into photons (only in some materials) Infrared light (if gap ~ 1 eV) – remote control Visible light (if gap ~ 2-3 eV) – LED May excite other molecules in the material (if any; see below) E N-type
Organic Semiconductors These are not crystals! Not periodic structures Band structure is somewhat different “Orbitals” determined by shape of organic molecule Quantum chemistry of pi bonds, not simple junior QM Polymers are common Conduction is different Electrons or holes may wander along a polymer chain As with inorganic conductors Some materials allow electrons to move Some materials allow holes to move – typical for organics!! Doping is more difficult Doping typically not used Instead electrons/holes are provided by attached metals
The basic OLED Anode Cathode Conductive Layer Emissive Layer
The basic OLED Anode Cathode • The holes move more efficiently in organics Conductive Layer Emissive Layer
The basic OLED Anode Cathode Conductive Layer Emissive Layer • The holes move more efficiently in organics • Excitons begin to form in emissive layer
The Exciton Exits in a Flash As before, excitons eventually annihilate into Molecular vibrations heat (typical) Photons (special materials, rare) But with organics, can add Fluorescent molecules Phosphorescent molecules e.g. attach to end of polymer Light can be generated indirectly: Exciton can transfer its energy to this molecule Molecule is thus excited Returns to ground state via fluorescence or phosphorescence Greatly increases likelihood (per exciton) of light emission Also allows for different colors determined by the light-emitting molecule(s), not the exciton
OLEDs Similar physics to LEDs but Non-crystalline No doping; use cathode/anode to provide needed charges Fluorescence/phosphorescence enhance excitonlight probability Manufacturing advantages Soft materials – very malleable Easily grown Very thin layers sufficient Many materials to choose from Relatively easy to play tricks To increase efficiency To generate desired colors To lower cost Versatile materials for future technology
Some references How Stuff Works http://electronics.howstuffworks.com Craig Freudenrich, “How OLEDs work” Tom Harris, “How LEDs Work” Hyperphysics Website http ://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/pnjun.html “The P-N Junctions”, by R Nave Connexions Website http://cnx.org “The Diode”, by Don Johnson Webster Howard, “Better Displays with Organic Films” Scientific American, pp 5-9, Feb 2004 M.A. Baldo et al, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices” Nature 395, 151-154 (10 September 1998) Various Wikipedia articles, classes, etc.
A neat trick Exciton Spin 0 (singlet) Spin 1 (triplet) Can transfer its energy but not its spin to molecule Thus spin-1 can’t excite fluorescents Lose ¾ of excitons But Use phosphors Bind to polymer so that exciton can transfer spin Then 4 times as many excitons cause light emission P
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