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Organic Chemistry

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Information about Organic Chemistry
Education

Published on May 13, 2010

Author: kwarne

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A set of slides created to teach Organic Chemistry to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.
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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY K WarneSAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

Distillation of Crude OilSAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

Homologous seriesThis is a series of compounds which all contain the samefunctional group, and have similar chemical properties.ALKANES ALKENES ALCOHOLSCH CH2 =CH2 CH3OH 4CH -CH CH2 =CH –CH3 CH3CH2OH 3 3CH -CH -CH CH =CH – CH – CH 3 2 3 2 2 3Each has a general formula: ALKANES: CnH ALKENES: CnH ALCOHOLS: CnH OH 2n+2 2n 2n+1The members of the series differ by the number of CH2 units. CH -CH , CH -CH -CH , CH -CH -CH -CH 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3Graduation in physical properties: eg: boiling points. CH (GAS), C H (LIQUID), C H (SOLID) 4 8 18 30 62SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLYAs chains get longer Melting points increase (London forces get stronger)

H H H H H HH C C C C C C H H H H H H H C H H C H H 3-ethylhexane SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

Examples of Alkenes H H ETHENE, C2H4 C C OR CH2 CH2 H HH H C C PROPENE CH2 CH CH3H CH3TASK: Use ball & stick models or sketches to construct and name 3different structures for C4H8 each one with one double bond. CH3CH2CH CH2 BUT-1-ENE CH3C CH2 METHYL CH3CH CHCH3 CH3 PROPENE SAMPLE ONLY BUT-2-ENE SAMPLE ONLY

Carboxylic Acids RGENERAL FORMULA C O Carboxyl group OH -COOH Acidic reaction CH3COOH + H2O  CH3COO- + H3O+EXAMPLESHCOOH methanoic acidCH3COOH ethanoic acid  Illustrate the structures of these examples. Name the anion formed in the acidicCH3CH2COOH propanoic acid reaction. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

FORMATION OF ESTERS• GENERALLY: ACID + ALCOHOL ESTER + WATER catalysed by H+ ions normally from conc. H2SO4 O O R C + H O R/ R C + H2O OH O R/ O OH C + CH3OH H C + H2O OH O CH3methanoic methanol methyl methanoateCH3CH2OH + CH3CH2COOH CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 + H2Oethanol ONLY SAMPLE propanoic SAMPLE ONLY ethyl propanoate

AMIDES NOT 2010 O H C H C N H H H O H O C H H H H C N C H C H C C H N H H C H H H H H HSAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

Physical PropertiesRecognize and apply to particular examples the relationship between melting points, boiling points, vapour pressure, viscosity and intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces including dispersion or London forces number and type of functional group, chain length, branched chains) PHYSICAL PROPERIES DEPEND ON THESE! •vapour pressure •melting points •boiling points BONDING & STRUCTURE •viscosity •IMF •Chain Length •Branches THESE •Functional groups (no & type) SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

BONDING & STRUCTURE • Chain Length – long chains increase IMF H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C H Lots of dipoles H H H H H H H strong force! δ+ δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ- H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H Large surface area  stronger van der waals forces (IMF) • Branches – shorten chain – reduce IMF Fewer dipoles H weak force! Shorter or H H C H H C H branched H H δ+ H Hchains have HC C CH δ- HC C CHless surface δ+ H H H H area .: H C H δ- H C Hweaker IMF SAMPLE ONLY H δ+ SAMPLE ONLY H δ-

Addition reactions• Unsaturated compounds undergo addition reactions to form saturated compounds e.g. With any halogen (F2 Cl2 Br2 & I2) CH2=CH2 + Cℓ2  CH2Cℓ-CH2Cℓ With Br2 (aq) (brown liq) the decolourization is used as a test for alkenes• hydrohalogentaion - addition of HX - halogenation - addition of X2 – CH3CH=CH2 + HX  CH3CHXCH3 (no water present)• hydration - addition of H2O – CH3CH=CH2 + H2O  CH3CH OHCH3 (acid catalyst) (The X-atom or OH-group attaches to the more substituted C-atom.)• hydrogenation - addition of H2 CH3CH=CH2 + H2  CH3CH2CH3 (high temp Ni cat.) (Used inONLYhardening of oils to make ONLY SAMPLE the SAMPLE margarine) (alkene dissolved in a non-polar solvent with catalyst (Pt, Pd or Ni) in an H 2

Elimination reactions• * Saturated compounds (haloalkanes, alcohols, alkanes) undergo elimination reactions to form unsaturated compounds e.g. CH2CℓCH2Cℓ  CH2=CHCℓ + HCℓ• - dehydrohalogentaion - elimination of HX from a haloalkane (alkene with the more highly substituted double bond is the major product). – CH3CH2CH2 X  (hot )• dehydration - elimination of H2O from an alcohol (alkene with the more highly substituted double bond is the major product). – CH3CH2CH2 OH  ( conc )• dehydrogenation - elimination of H2 from an alkane. -. CH3CH2CH3 • cracking of alkanes C16 H34  C9H20 +SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY + 2 CH2=CH2 ( )

Substitution reactionsReactions of HX with alcohols e.g. ALCOHOL + HX  HALOALKANE + WATER (CH3)3OH + HBr →• Reactions where the OH of alcohols are substituted with a halogen e.g. HALOALKANE + KOH  (CH3)3Br + KOH →• Two types of saturated structure can be inter-converted by substitution as shown in the above two reaction equations. ALCOHOL  HALOALKANE • * Reactions of X2 with alkanes in the presence of light (prior knowledge from Grade 11).SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY• Cl + CH4  2

Substitution Conditions• Tertiary alcohols: HBr or HCl room temp• Primary & Secondary: cH2SO4 solid NaBr/KBr cH2SO4 + NaBr(s)  HBr (+ Na2SO4) Treat primary and secondary alcohols with concentrated H 2SO4 and solid NaBr (or KBr). The H2SO4 and solid NaBr react to form HBr: H2SO4 + NaBr → HBr + NaHSO4The HBr reacts with the alcohol to form the bromoalkane: e.g. CH3CH2OH + HBr → CH3CH2Br + H2O SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

Keith Warne• This is a SAMPLE presentation only• The full presentations contain loads more slides (20-100) and are available on the click2learn website here• http://www.click2learn.co.za/shop/lessoncloud-grade-12-science-slides/ (paste into your browser if link above does not work)• I have other resources available from my Science Café site feel free to have a lookSAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY

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InStyler | 10/02/15
Nice article, It was helpful. InStyler http://www.topwiki.net/category/instyler/

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