Published on December 18, 2013
Organ Systems in the Human Body Presented by Essence Perry
SystemsThe human body is classified in one main way; body systems
I. Immune System Purpose: ❖ To protect the body from diseases, bacteria, fungi, and viruses Organs that make up the Immune System1. Thymus 2. Spleen 3. Lymph Nodes
Thymus Definition: ❖ An organ situated in the neck that produces T cells for the immune system. The human thymus becomes much smaller at puberty. ❖
Spleen Definition: ❖ An organ that produces, removes blood cells and an important part of the immune system.
Lymph Nodes Definition: ❖ Small, bean-shaped organs clustered mostly in the neck, armpit and groin with a type of white blood cell that filters bacteria, viruses and other foreign substances such as cancer cells.
II. Integumentary Function: ❖ Protects the body from various types of external damage, e.i. excretion, homeostasis, and melanin. Examples of damage: ❖ Dehydration ❖ Abrasions Organs: ❖ Skin
Skin or Dermis(3 layers) EpidermisOuter layer of skin, sheds every 2 weeks Hypodermis Stores body fat DermisHair follicles start here, pain sensors, nerve endings, blood vessels, and glands.
III. Skeletal System 5 Purposes of the Skeletal System I. Support II. Protection III. Mineral Storage IV. Blood Cell Reproduction V. Mineral Distributer
Skeletal System Fun Facts ● A baby is born with 300 bones ● An adult has 206 bones ● A female pelvis is larger and flatter than a males
IV. Muscular System 3 Functions: ❖ Circulates blood/ other bodily fluids ❖ Help complete daily actions ❖ Maintain posture
Muscle Fun Facts Muscles: ❖ Soft tissue that help complete daily actions ❖ You have 650 muscles ❖ Muscles take up ½ the weight of the human body ❖ Muscles are 3x as dense as fat ❖ Nervous System control muscles ❖ There are 3 types of muscles smooth, cardiac and skeletal
Smooth/Visceral Muscle Found in: ❖ Stomach ❖ Intestines ❖ Blood vessels Characteristics: ❖ Weakest of all muscles ❖ Involuntary ❖ Do not tire easy ❖ Not striated
Cardiac Muscle Found in: ❖ Only the Heart Characteristics: ❖ Pumps blood through body ❖ Involuntary ❖ Stimulates itself to contract
Skeletal Muscles Found in: ❖ Connect to skeletons Characteristics: ❖ Allow us to move ❖ Voluntary ❖ Striated ❖ Tendons attach muscles to bones Striated: ❖ When a cell is banded, making it move faster
Muscle Specialists ❖ Rheumatologist ❖ Orthopedists ❖ Neurologists
V. Nervous System ❖ The nervous system is a collection of nerves and neurons that control the body ❖ There are 3 parts of the nervous systems, cranial, autonomic, central.
Nervous System Organs/Parts Central● Brain ● Spinal Cord ● Retina(in eyeball) Cranial● Brain ● Eyes ● Nose ● Other parts of the head Autonomic● Lungs ● Heart ● Stomach ● Intestines ● Bladder ● Sex organs
Neurological Process Neurons send signals through a fiber, AXONS Axons release junctions called SYNAPSES Synapses give commands in a fraction of a millisecond
Neuron in action
Cervical- blue Thoracic- pink Lumbar- green Sacral- orange
VI. Endocrine System Function: ❖ Produces chemicals that control many of the bodies activities, growth and development ❖ Controls a body’s response to a drastic event ❖ Produces hormones
VI. Endocrine System Characteristics/ Facts: ❖ Made up of glands ❖ Releases/produces chemicals ❖ During changes in emotions, the Endocrine system stops the hormones ❖ The Endocrine system releases chemicals directly into the bloodstream
Endocrine System Glands/Parts ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Pituitary gland(brain) Hypothalamus(brain) Thyroid Gland Parathyroid(brain) Adrenal gland Thymus gland Pancreas Gland Ovaries Testes
Hormones Produced ❖ Regulate Metabolism ❖ Growth/Development (female-estrogen male-testosterone) ❖ Tissue Function ❖ Sexual Function ❖ Reproduction ❖ Sleep and Mood
VIII.Circulatory System Functions: ❖ Flows the blood ❖ Transports nutrients ❖ Spreads oxygen and other gases ❖ “Highway for blood” ❖ Carries hormones to and from cells ❖ Fights off diseases ❖ Homeostasis ❖ Stable pH balance ❖ Moves lymph (clear fluid that gets rid of waste)
BLOOD FACTS❖ 2,000 gallons of blood travel through 60,000 miles of blood vessels ❖ Adults have 5-6 quarts of blood ❖ Blood is plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
How the Circulatory System works The Circulatory system works on 3 systems: ● Heart(Cardiovascular) ● Lungs(Pulmonary) ● Arteries,veins,coronary, portals,and vessels (Systematic)
Circulatory System 1. The pulmonary circulatory system (lungs) sends oxygen deprived blood from the heart 2. Then returns oxygenated blood to the heart through the pulmonary vein. 3. Oxygen-deprived blood enters the right artery of the heart and flows through the right atrioventricular valve into the right ventricle (in the heart.)
Circulatory System 2.0 4. From there it is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery on its way to the lungs (heart to lungs.) 5. When it gets to the lungs, carbon dioxide is released from the blood and oxygen is absorbed. The pulmonary vein sends the oxygen-rich blood back to the heart.
IX.Reproductive System Function: ❖ To create new life, offspring ❖ The female and male reproductive system is entirely different
IX. Urinary System Function: ❖ Release urine from the body Organs/Parts: ❖ Kidneys ❖ Ureters ❖ Urethra ❖ Nephron ❖ Bladder
Urinary System Facts ❖ Adults have 1.42 liters of urine a day ❖ A healthy bladder can hold 16 oz. of urine ❖ Medication can affect the amount of urine produced ❖ Beverages like coffee can increase urine production ❖ Small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters about every 10 to 15 seconds.
Urinary System ❖ The kidneys remove urea ( waste product formed by the breakdown of proteins) from the blood through small filtering units called nephrons. ❖ Substances form as the urine passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. ❖ From the kidneys, urine travels to the bladder.
X. Digestive System Functions: ● Breaks down food into useful molecules ● Moves molecules through the bloodstream ● Eliminates Waste
Organs/ Parts I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. Epiglottis Liver Gallbladder Small Intestine Mouth Salivary Glands Esophagus Rectum/Anus Stomach Pancreas Large Intestine
Digestion Definition: When the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules. Ex. Carbs break down into energy Mechanical Digestion: When the body is PHYSICALLY breaking down food Chemical Digestion: When the CHEMICALLY body breaks down food.
Absorption Definition: When nutrients pass the “digestive walls” into the the bloodstream. Materials (fiber) are absorbed and are eliminated into feces.
THANKS www.brainpop.com www.howstuffworks.com www.livescience.com www.animals.about.com www.factspy.com
Organ systems consists of groups of organs that function cooperatively in the body. Credit: PIXOLOGICSTUDIO/Science Photo Library/Getty Images
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