Published on March 21, 2014
Oral Communication Prepared By Gull Zareen 3/20/2014 1Gull Zareen
Winnie-the-Pooh It is more fun to talk with someone who doesn't use long, difficult words but rather short, easy words like "What about lunch?" 3/20/2014 2Gull Zareen
Objectives By the end of today’s session, students will be able to identify • The meaning of Oral Message, and its comparison with written message • Purpose in oral presentation • Planning strategies for oral presentation • Choosing information to include in oral presentation. • Ways of Organizing the information. • Strategies to Deliver an effective presentation • Handling questions. 3/20/2014 3Gull Zareen
Verbal communication • It is written or oral message that uses words to exchange ideas/information. • The means of verbal communication are Written communication • Oral communication • Non Verbal communication • Its an unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language. It includes facial expressions, gestures, eye contact physical appearance etc..3/20/2014 4Gull Zareen
ORAL COMMUNICATION • Anything that emanates from the mouth is referred as oral communication. • Attributes of good oral communication- • Sounds and sound combinations, • Stress, Rhythm, • Intonation, • Speed, pausing, • Clarity of articulation, • Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech) 3/20/2014 5Gull Zareen
Among individual • Face-to-face communication • Interviews • Telephone conversation • Grapevine 3/20/2014 6Gull Zareen
AMOUNG GROUPS • Negotiations • Meetings • Lecture/speech • Presentations Conference/seminars/workshops 3/20/2014 7Gull Zareen
Advantages Immediate feedback Better relationships Time saving Effective tool of persuasion Effective tool of group communication, Economical Allows to measure effectiveness immediately It’s the only way out during an emergency3/20/2014 8Gull Zareen
Disadvantage s Possibility of misunderstanding Unsuitable for long messages No legal validity Distortion in passing the message Constrained by physical barriers Lack of retention/documentation Ineffective when the target group is spread out 3/20/2014 9Gull Zareen
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION The power of writing is eloquently expressed in the saying “pen is mightier than the sword” organization. Written communication has acquired great significance in the life of individuals as well as business 3/20/2014 10Gull Zareen
Methods of written Communication in an organization • letters, • memoranda, • notices, • circulars, • agenda, • manuals, • handbooks, • reports, • orders, • inquiries, • complains, • quotations, • contracts, etc… 3/20/2014 11Gull Zareen
Advantages • Ready reference • Legal defense • Promotes uniformity • Mass access • Suitable for distance communication • Image building • Accurate and an ambiguous • Permanent in nature • Permits substitution and revision 3/20/2014 12Gull Zareen
Disadvantages • Limited to literature world • Time consuming • Lot of paper work • Needs expertise in expression • Lack of immediate feedback • Costly • More hours needed • No immediate clarification 3/20/2014 13Gull Zareen
Comparison: Written and Oral Factors Immediate feedbacks is not required need immediate feedback. Legality kept as record, thus they can be used as evidence. it cannot be used as evidence Acceptance Not Easily acceptance Easily acceptable. Barriers More Barriers Fewer Barriers Knowledge Higher level of knowledge and literacy is required Even illiterate people can participate. Audience Size Large Limited Cost More Expensive Less Expensive3/20/2014 14Gull Zareen
Feedback Immediate feedbacks is not required and it is not possible as well Needs immediate feedback, and it is possible as well. Time Taken Written Message takes more time to reach the audience Takes little time to prepare and transmit. Distortion and reliability Written message cannot be easily distorted thus more reliable High possibility for the oral message to be distorted, thus less reliable. Formality Used to maintain formal communication relationships forms Used to maintain informal communication relationship forms Record It always has a permanent record It seldom has a permanent record Significance Most significant in all types of organizations Less significant in organizational context Flexibility Rigid Highly Flexible 3/20/2014 15Gull Zareen
Purpose in Oral Presentation 3/20/2014 16Gull Zareen
Purpose in Oral Presentation • Oral presentations, like written presentations, must be designed around a specific purpose. • As a speaker, you must know your purpose. • You must conceive your purposes in terms of your audience's perspective. • The oral presentation must make purpose clearly evident at the beginning. • By knowing what they will be hearing from the beginning of the presentation, the audience can more easily focus their attention on the content presented and see connections between parts of the talk.3/20/2014 17Gull Zareen
As you plan, state your goal in One Sentence. • Then, as you begin your presentation, state your goal in terms of your audience's background and attitude; • Announce your purpose early in the presentation to prepare your audience for the main ideas to come. • You may want to restate the purpose in words familiar to the audience. 3/20/2014 18Gull Zareen
Main purpose of your presentation Immediate Objectives • to report the status of a project, • to summarize a problem, • to describe a plan, • to propose an action, Long-range objective • may be to highlight or document important specific issues within the topic about which you are speaking • Establish credibility • You may want the audience to dislike another proposed solution, • to desire a more comprehensive solution, • or decide there isn't a problem after all. 3/20/2014 19Gull Zareen
Purpose in Oral Presentation Ask yourself following questions: • What is my purpose in giving this oral presentation? • Is there (should there be) a long-range purpose? • What is the situation that led to this presentation? • Given my audience's background and attitudes, do I need to reshape my purpose to make my presentation more acceptable to my audience? 3/20/2014 20Gull Zareen
Purpose in Oral Presentation • Keep your purpose in mind as you select information to include in your presentation. • The audience is often a client, So You want to convey your enthusiasm, your technical expertise and your professional judgment to them • Keep this audience in mind as you decide what to include in your presentation. 3/20/2014 21Gull Zareen
Advantages of Identifying the Purpose • Identifying the purpose also helps you to decide • what approach(es) and structure are most appropriate to use. • Will your approach be formal or informal? • Do you want your audience to interact with you? • Will you include role play, a PowerPoint presentation, a demonstration or a discussion? 3/20/2014 22Gull Zareen
Strategies to Plan Oral Presentation 3/20/2014 23Gull Zareen
Strategies to Plan an Oral Presentation • Planning an oral presentation requires several steps. • Consider not only content but also the way in which you will present information and interact with your audience. • It is important to outline each aspect of your presentation thoroughly beforehand. • Doing so will allow you to relax on the day of your presentation. 3/20/2014 24Gull Zareen
Step #1 • Time Determination . • If you have a maximum presentation time of 10 minutes, decide how many of those minutes you will use to answer questions asked by your audience. 3/20/2014 25Gull Zareen
Step # 2 Create an outline of the oral presentation • Divide the presentation into three parts: • An introduction: To establish why the importance of your topic; • A body: Main information; • A conclusion: which will impart concluding statements about why the topic is important. 3/20/2014 26Gull Zareen
Step # 3: Gather a list of resources. • Strengthen your oral presentation with references and facts proven by other scholars who have studied the topic. • Include a list of quotes and anecdotes that relate to the topic of your presentation and that inject humor or great insight into the topic. 3/20/2014 27Gull Zareen
Step # 4: Materials and Resources • Decide the materials you will use during your oral presentation. • Decide if handouts or other on-hand literature will be necessary to provide audience members with an overview of the presentation. • Determine if visual aids such as a slide show or poster boards will be necessary to simplify hard-to-understand language, terms and concepts. 3/20/2014 28Gull Zareen
Step # 5 Method of Interaction interact with your audience during the presentation, Consider ways to incorporate: • role-playing, • audience participation • and storytelling, if possible, • or interact with your audience by walking among your audience and making eye contact. 3/20/2014 29Gull Zareen
Selecting Information 3/20/2014 30Gull Zareen
While selecting information Keep in mind: • Your purpose • Your Audience • Given Time • Setting 3/20/2014 31Gull Zareen
Finding relevant Information • Research on the Topic and Find Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material: • Libraries • Periodicals • Newspapers • Reference Materials • Government Documents • The Internet/World Wide Web Search Engines • Online Libraries 3/20/2014 32Gull Zareen
Tests of Supporting Material • Is Information Specific? • Is Source an Expert? • Is Source Unbiased? • Is Information Timely? • Is Information Relevant to Point Made? • Does Information Support the Point? • Is Information Timely? 3/20/2014 33Gull Zareen
Structure of a presentation 3/20/2014 34Gull Zareen
Introduction • Signal the beginning (Anecdote can be used) • Greet the audience • Introduce yourself • Give title and introduce subject: What exactly are you going to speak about? Situate the subject in time and place, in relation to the audience and/or its importance. Give a rough idea or a working definition of the subject. • Announce your outline. 3/20/2014 35Gull Zareen
Aims • Give your objectives (purpose, aim, goals) • Presentations generally have two purposes: General purpose: • to inform: • to give an overview, • to present, • to summarize, • to outline; • to discuss the current situation or to explain how to do something or how something is done. • Specific one: • What you want the audience to takeaway with them after listening to you, • what you want them to do, • what they should remember. 3/20/2014 36Gull Zareen
Main Body (Actual Content ) • What information should you give in your speech? • Quality of Content: All your information should support your purpose. In most cases you will have to limit the content, as time is usually precious! • Quantity of Content: How much information should you give? • Enough to clearly develop your ideas. • Don’t forget to illustrate through examples. 3/20/2014 37Gull Zareen
Sequencing your Content: • logical; • Chronological order; • from general to specific; • from known to unknown; • from accepted to controversial; • cause/effect; • problem/solution. 3/20/2014 38Gull Zareen
Conclusion • The end or the conclusion of your talk should include four parts: • A brief reminder of what you tried to show in your presentation and how you tried to do so, • A short conclusion, • Thanks to the audience for listening, • And an invitation to ask questions, make comments or open a discussion. 3/20/2014 39Gull Zareen
Strategies to deliver an Effective Oral Presentation Nothing says “naptime” like a speaker who presents information in a dull, uninteresting way. (Nancy Durate) 3/20/2014 40Gull Zareen
Strategies to deliver an Effective Oral Presentation • Most useful skills a person can have. • From making political speeches to leading a meeting among colleagues, • Keep your oral presentation clear, organized and audible. • There are certain ways to hold your audience's attention 3/20/2014 41Gull Zareen
1. Outline or Cue Cards • No matter how informal a presentation, chances are you will want some way to keep yourself on topic. • We either continue on one idea, or to jump from point to point. • Like a thesis sentence, a basic idea of what to discuss and how to do so helps. • For more impromptu communication, a mental outline is sometimes all you will have time to prepare. • Regardless of how much time you have to get your speech ready, organization is key. 3/20/2014 42Gull Zareen
2. Visual Aids • People learn in different ways, including those who respond more readily to printed material than to verbal commands. • Using visual aids is a good way to make sure that your ideas are explained fully to all members of the audience. • Visual aids come in many forms, from pictures to charts to PowerPoint projects. 3/20/2014 43Gull Zareen
Make Eye Contact • Disguise your fear. • Looking at audience: • forces them to pay more attention. • Makes them more interested. • This is not just a psychological reaction, but also aural: if you are looking directly at someone, it is usually easier to hear what he is saying. • Attention is always reciprocated 3/20/2014 44Gull Zareen
Enunciate and Project • Speaking clearly. • Be audible • paying attention to how you pronounce words and phrases. • Speak slower than usual . • Speak correctly. • Time your breathing around your words so you can project sound directly from the diaphragm. 3/20/2014 45Gull Zareen
Three most common mistakes • ‘The most watched TED Talks were not given by presenters who stood there, just clicking through slides.’ Durate • Rather, they—are entertaining and interactive. • They understand that the delivery of their message needs contrast in order to be more than a boring slideshow. 3/20/2014 46Gull Zareen
Mistake: Forgetting we live in a media-saturated society • Impatient culture. • Thanks to the entertainment industry: • Audiences have become accustomed to quick action, rapid scene changes, and soundtracks that make the heart race. • They have set high expectations for visual and visceral stimulation • And have undermined our ability to sit attentively for an hour while a speaker drones on. • The key to getting and holding attention is to always have something new happening. 3/20/2014 47Gull Zareen
Mistake: Just standing there • It’s time to start changing up delivery methods. • Do anything other than stand in front of the room, to create an element of surprise that will keep your audience interested. • Changing delivery modes can include physical movement on the stage, but that’s just the tip of the iceberg. • Use alternate media, multiple presenters, and interaction to keep your talk alive. 3/20/2014 48Gull Zareen
Mistake: Depending on slides to communicate • Overusing slides diminishes the power of this connection. • To avoid death-glares—or worse yet, snoring sounds—from your audience, you must bring a sense of human interaction. • Make it personal; make it surprising; make it real. • Emphasize on Connectedness: You may be comfortable with your wall of jargon , but what people are really looking for is some kind of human connection. 3/20/2014 49Gull Zareen
Ways to transform from Traditional • Our natural survival instincts compel us to watch changing visual events with close attention. • Changes in media, • Alternating presenters, • a dramatic gesture. • By using both traditional and nontraditional delivery methods, you build contrast into your presentation. 3/20/2014 50Gull Zareen
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HANDLING QUESTIONS 3/20/2014 52Gull Zareen
HANDLING QUESTIONS • You are the expert • Prepare among friends • Insist that they challenge you • It’s OK to say you don’t know, or haven’t done the experiment yet. • The three “D”’s Defend Deflect Defer(delay) 3/20/2014 53Gull Zareen
Handling questions • Before presentation anticipate questions; • During question and answer session: Listen to entire question Make sure you understand it Repeat question out loud Credit person for asking question Respond to question honestly and the best way you can 3/20/2014 54Gull Zareen
Handling Questions • If you cannot answer, – Redirect question to audience – Offer to find out answer later • Check clarity of your response before taking on next question • Try not to contradict each other when giving a team presentation 3/20/2014 55Gull Zareen
References: • ORAL PRESENTATION SKILLS A PRACTICAL GUIDE© C. STORZ and the English language teachers of the Institute national de télécommunications, EVRY FRANCE • http://ezinearticles.com/?10-Tips-For- Powerful-Presentations&id=1279572 • Effective Business Communications by Herta A. Murphy, Jane P. Thomas, Mcgraw Hill. • Don’t Be Boring: 3 Mistakes That Are Making You a Dull Speaker — Part 3 © 2014 Duarte, Inc. • Graphic Credit: Jonathan Valiente, Duarte, Inc. 2014 3/20/2014 56Gull Zareen
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