Published on March 9, 2014
Option 1B 1
1B.2 Nitrogen Nitrogen is a very stable inert diatomic gaseous element. It is the most abundant gas in the air (78%) It has a triple pure covalent bond and is a non-polar molecule. 2
Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen is a vital element – used to make proteins. Nitrogen Fixation: is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds that can be used by plants. 1. Natural Fixation 2. Artificial Fixation (Haber-Bosch Process) 3
Natural Fixation A During thunderstorms the lightning flashes provides enough energy for nitrogen and oxygen to react forming nitrogen monoxide which spontaneously reacts with air to form nitrogen dioxide which dissolves in rainwater to form nitrous and nitric acid. 2NO 2NO + O2 = 2NO2 N2 + O2 = 2NO2 + H2O = HNO2 + HNO3 4
These acids (nitrous & nitric acid) fall to earth in rainwater and form nitrates in the soil, which are absorbed by plants and used to make proteins. Animals get their protein by either eating plants or eating other animals. 5
Nitrogen Cycle 6
Nitrogen Cycle 7
B Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: some are free living in the soil, while others are found in the roots of legumes in nodules. They convert the atmospheric nitrogen into a form that the plant can use – nitrates. 8
Uses of Nitrogen Gas N2 gas is used in food packaging e.g. in a bag of crisps it acts a ‘cushion’ to help prevent them getting broken and because of its inertness N2 helps keep them fresh for longer by preventing oxidation which causes fat to go rancid. 9
Uses of Nitrogen Gas N2 gas is used to flush out empty oil tankers when they are idle to reduce the risk of flammability. N2 is used in the unloading of oil from ships as it acts as a ‘blanket’ above oil and prevents vapours from igniting. N2 is used to make ammonia (NH3) in Haber Bosch Process. 10
Uses of Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen is used in medicine to remove warts and to store donor organs. It is also used in the food industry to make ice cream and to quick freeze foods. 11
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