Operating Systems ofthe Home

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Information about Operating Systems ofthe Home

Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Sigfrid

Source: authorstream.com

Slide2:  CIRCUIT – A path through which electricity flows from a source to the outlets and back to the source A well-planned electrical system can prevent overloading of circuits, loss of power, and even electrical fires. There are numerous components of an electrical system: AMPERE – A unit of current used to measure the amount of electricity flowing through a wire during a specific amount of time CIRCUIT BREAKER – A device that opens (turns off or “trips”) and closes (turns on) a circuit; it opens automatically when a circuit is overloaded CONVENIENCE OUTLET – A device attached to a circuit that allows appliances or lighting to draw off electricity from a circuit CONDUCTOR – Any material which permits the flow of electricity; usually a wire Slide3:  FUSE – A safety device that was a forerunner to the circuit breaker; it opens automatically when a circuit is overloaded by melting a link its chamber SERVICE ENTRANCE PANEL – The main distribution box that receives the electricity as it comes into the house and distributes it to various points throughout the home; it contains the main disconnect switch and the fuses or circuit breakers VOLTAGE – A measure of the pressure which forces the electrical current through a wire WATT – A measure of electrical power; the number of amperes in a circuit multiplied by the number of volts = the number of watts the circuit provides Slide4:  Expanding an electrical system is expensive and time- consuming, so care should be taken to account for present and future needs during initial planning. Electrical engineers, draftsman, and certified electricians draw and follow detailed electrical diagrams. Slide5:  This is a duplex receptacle that accommodates a two-prong plug plus a grounding terminal for three-prong plugs. This type of outlet provides 110/120V of electricity for nearly all uses in the home. The GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter) receptacle has “test” and/or “reset” buttons. It protects against electric shock if there is a short in an appliance. It is especially important to use these outlets in areas near water sources, such as by the bathroom vanity or pool. Some appliances require 220/240V of electricity. These are usually large heat-producing appliances such as kitchen ranges and clothes dryers, or some window air-conditioners. These receptacles are usually larger in size with openings specifically arranged for three-pronged plugs. Slide6:  There are three primary parts to a residential plumbing system: The water supply system The wastewater removal system The plumbing fixtures Slide7:  Building main Cold water lines are routed through the house, or to the hot water heater; they may to a water treatment system here first The residential water supply begins at a city water main or at a private well. The pipe leading from one of those sources then enters the house under pressure via a building main . A shutoff valve controls the water entering the house. From there it branches off, but may be routed through a treatment system such as a water softener or water filter first. Some cold water is routed throughout the house, while some is sent to a hot water heater before it is circulated. Shut off valves near fixtures or branch lines allow you to shut off sections of plumbing instead of the entire system. THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM Slide8:  THE WASTEWATER REMOVAL SYSTEM Wastewater is carried down the drains and to a sanitary sewer or private septic tank. The wastewater system is not pressurized, but depends on gravity for drainage. Waste water contains harmful gases. The loop in a pipe under a sink (called a trap) holds water in it to prevent the gases from entering the house. Then ventilation systems called soil stacks extend from inside the house to an opening above the roofline to allow the gases to vent out. Slide9:  THE PLUMBING FIXTURES A plumbing fixture is any appliance that is connected to the plumbing system, such as a shower stall, bathtub, sink, dishwasher, or toilet. When selecting plumbing fixtures you should consider style, size, fixture material, floor or wall support for the fixture, and the water supply and drain requirements. Slide10:  A total climate control system involves temperature control, humidity control, air circulation, and air cleaning. FIREPLACES The firebox actually contains the fire, and must be a fire-proof substance. At the top of the firebox is the damper, which controls the burn rate and prevents downdrafts of cold air. The flue carries smoke to the outside of the house and facilitates a draft. The draft draws in sufficient oxygen for the fire to burn. Safety from sparks is a major concern with some fireplaces. A fireplace might burn wood, which requires a wood supply, wood storage, and ash removal. Instead, it could be electric or gas-fired to resemble a wood fire, and might be controlled by a wall switch or remote control. In general, a fireplace consists of a firebox, damper, and flue. A fireplace can provide a certain ambiance or warmth or both. Slide11:  STOVES Stoves generally provide more efficient heat than fireplaces, and are usually fueled by either wood or coal. If you stand close to the stove you can feel the radiant heat from the hot exterior surface. With the addition of a fan, airflow is improved and circulates the heated air throughout the room or house. Slide12:  CONVENTIONAL HEATING SYSTEMS A FORCED WARM-AIR SYSTEM uses a furnace and electricity or gas (natural gas or liquid propane) to heat the air, a blower to bring cold air into the furnace and push heated air out, and a system of ductwork to distribute the air throughout the home. A thermostat is used to set the desired temperature, and the furnace responds in heating cycles. A HYDRONIC SYSTEM uses hot water to heat a home. Water is heated in a boiler by gas, fuel oil, wood, coal, or electricity. The hot water is pumped through pipes in floors or leading to radiators within the living space. As the water cools, it is recirculated. ELECTRIC RADIANT SYSTEMS use resistance wiring to produce heat in the wire. The wires are embedded in the ceiling or floor or mounted in baseboard convectors. CENTRAL HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS use a refrigeration unit consisting of a compressor, a refrigerant fluid, and heat exchangers. In cold weather, the heat is removed from outside air and pumped into the house. Slide13:  SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS uses glass and concrete in the structure of the house to collect and contain heat without an air distribution system. ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS use special solar collectors to absorb heat and send it to a collection area filled with water or stones. Distribution of heat from the collection area is accomplished with forced air or a water pump. Slide14:  COOLING SYSTEMS CENTRAL HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS use a refrigeration unit consisting of a compressor, a refrigerant fluid, and heat exchangers. In warm weather, heat is removed from in the house and pumped outside. COMPRESSOR-CYCLE SYSTEMS use a highly compressed chemical refrigerant to cool air. It uses a compressor/condenser unit located outside the home. This system is used in conjunction with a furnace, using the blower to circulate the cooled air throughout the house. As the air is cooled, moisture condenses and is drained away… dehumidifying the air and increasing the level of comfort. WINDOW AIR CONDITIONERS are not cooling systems, but do provide local cooling. It is more expensive and less efficient than central air systems. The compressor, condenser, cooling coil, and fan are all in one unit. They are installed directly in a window to draw in air. They plug in, and operate on 120V or 240V. Slide15:  The purpose of insulation in a structure is to prevent excessive heat loss in cold weather and excessive heat gain in warm weather. The insulation material resists the flow of heat through it. Common insulation materials include fiberglass, foamed glass, foamed plastics, and expanded minerals such as vermiculite. An insulation’s level of resistance to heat is designated as it’s R-value. The higher the R-Value, the better the insulating qualities. Different areas of your home need different levels of insulation. Recommendations for midwest housing are: Attic: R-38 to R-44, Sidewalls: R-11 to R-18, Basement: R-10 to R-19 ,Crawlspace: R-19 Slide16:  Low humidity in the home can cause throat and skin irritation and cracks in wooden furniture. When air is dry, static electricity also builds up. A humidifier, a free-standing unit or one attached to a forced-air furnace, can add moisture to the air. Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air. High humidity in the home feels sticky and uncomfortable. It can even cause wooden doors, windows, and drawers to swell and stick. Excess humidity in the home, caused by leaks or improper ventilation, can encourage the growth of mold. It can smell bad and deteriorate air quality. It can even cause toxic black mold, which has been linked to memory loss and breathing problems. Condensation may occur as well, causing wood to warp. A dehumidifier, often a portable unit, removes evaporated water from the air by condensing it on cold coils. The accumulated water would need to be drained away or emptied periodically. Slide17:  Warm air rises and cold air falls, so a fan to circulate the air can moderate temperatures. A ceiling fan can blow air down, or in reverse… it can draw air up. Good air circulation can prevent air in the home from becoming stale, and can add to comfort levels. A circulation system on a central heating system brings in fresh air from the outside. It and attic fans help with air circulation as well. Any type of fan can move the air and help eliminate areas with high concentrations of moisture, smoke, or fumes. Slide18:  An air cleaning device removes dust and foreign materials from the air, improving air quality and possibly diminishing some allergies. Built-in filters on furnaces or electronic air cleaning grids remove dust particles, smoke, odors, and pet dander from the air. A grid works by placing an electronic charge on each airborne contaminant and attaching these particles to a metal plate. The accumulated dust and dirt is removed when the filter is changed or cleaned. Slide19:  Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane, coal, oil, charcoal, and wood. This gas is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It can cause headaches, nausea, and dizziness in low levels or unconsciousness, brain damage, or death at high levels. A carbon monoxide detector sounds an alarm as gas levels approach unacceptable levels. Smoke detectors should be placed on each level of the house, or even outside each bedroom. They are powered by batteries or by household current with a battery backup. They detect the presence of smoke particles present during a fire, sounding an alarm to alert residents. Radon is an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas. Radon is in soil, ground water, and building materials. High levels may increase the risk of lung cancer. Good ventilation and air circulation can prevent these high levels. Slide20:  Security: perimeter entry, glass breakage, smoke/heat detection, and motion sensing High water detection, temperature monitoring, and power loss Notification when children arrive home from school Control lighting and other devices remotely from any telephone Supervise children's play areas, the front door, the pool, or other areas Remote home surveillance & monitoring from any computer Room-to-room intercom and door intercom Entry access and keyless entry Driveway vehicle alert Automatically alerts law officials (monthly service fee required) Components such as keypads, sensors, cameras, computers, and telephones can be used to set up a home security system. Slide21:  “Energy” costs money and is a limited resource, so care should be taken to conserve it. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the average home uses energy as follows: 44% for heating and cooling 33% for lighting, cooking, and appliances 14% for water heating 9 % for the refrigerator Use weather stripping and caulk/foam to seal cracks around windows, doors, walls, and floors. Change air filters in the heating and cooling systems of your home once a month or as needed. Replace older appliances with new, more energy efficient models. Replace regular incandescent light bulbs with newer more efficient light bulbs. Set your hot water heater at the “normal” 120 degree F setting. Use cold water for washing clothes whenever possible. Run clothes and dishwashers with full loads. Adjust or program your thermostat, raising it in the summer and lowering it in the winter when you’re not home. Slide22:  Use shades, overhangs, awnings, trees, curtains, or blinds to block the sun and keep your home cool in warm weather. Put your computer in “hibernate” mode when not in use for 10 minutes or more. Install storm windows and doors as needed. Keep the fireplace damper closed unless a fire is going. Scrape but don’t rinse dishes before putting them in the dishwasher. Avoid using the rinse/hold feature unless necessary. Run the dishwasher full, but not overloaded. Let the dishes air dry. Keep the clothes dryer vent clean. Dry heavy items separately from lightweight items. Use the moisture sensor instead of the timed cycle if it’s available. Turn off lights when not in use. Take advantage of daylight by using light-emitting window treatments. Slide23:  Landline telephones, television, and computer communications require pre-wiring in homes. This interior wiring branches out from a network interface device on the outside of the home. Use care in planning this wiring. Updates are expensive and time consuming, and exposed wiring may be visible on the outside of the home. Plan for present and future needs. Slide25:  Preparing individuals for life and work Strengthening families Empowering communities Created by Barbara L. Swarthout, Family & Consumer Sciences teacher at Elkhorn High School

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