Published on February 5, 2014
Open Textbook Publishing & Adoption Cyril Oberlander, SUNY Geneseo David Harris, OpenStax College David Ernst, University of Minnesota February 5, 2014 11:00 am Pacific, 2:00 pm Eastern
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Welcome Please introduce yourself in chat window Cyril Oberlander Director of Library Services SUNY Geneseo David Harris Editor-in-Chief OpenStax College Moderator: Una Daly Director of Community College Outreach OpenCourseWare Consortium David Ernst Chief Information Officer College of Education University of Minnesota
Agenda • Introduction • Open Textbook Facts • Open SUNY Textbook Initiative • OpenStax College • Open Textbook Library, U of Minnesota •Q&A
CCCOER • Promote adoption of OER to enhance teaching and learning – Expanding access to education – Supporting professional development – Advancing the community college mission Funded by the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
240+ Colleges in 15 States & Provinces
Textbook Prices • Textbooks prices rose 82% since 2002 – 6 % increase per year • 2 to 3 times inflation rate • Average student spends $1168 annually on supplies Source: GAO Report 2013, College Board. Student PIRGs
There is a direct relationship between textbook costs and student success 60%+ do not purchase textbooks at some point due to cost 35% take fewer courses due to textbook cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to textbook cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to cost 14% have dropped a course due to textbook cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to textbook cost Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus www.projectkaleidoscope.org
Open SUNY Textbooks Cyril Oberlander Director of Library Services Milne Library, Geneseo
Open SUNY Textbooks A SUNY Libraries & Innovative Instruction Technology Grant funded open textbook publishing program Cyril Oberlander Library Director, State University of New York at Geneseo & PI for Open SUNY Textbooks firstname.lastname@example.org
Why Open Textbooks? 1.Cost to Students College Board say students or parents spend $1,200 per year on textbooks & supplies, this at a time when tuition increases? US GAO 2005 report says 2003 spending on course materials was roughly $6.49 billion dollars. In 2013, GAO reported an 82% cost increase from 2002-2012. 2012 Florida Student Textbook survey • 64% students didn’t buy textbook, 49% took fewer courses, 45% didn’t register for course, and 27% dropped a course. Survey n=22K+ Higher education cost is critical access issue. Is textbook cost an opportunity cost?
Open Textbooks Publishing: Why? http://www.newyorkfed.org/regional/Brown_presentation_GWU_2013Q2.pdf
Why? Where is the Win-Win? 2. Cost to Library & Institution a. Course Reserves: Staff time placing on reserves, checking in/out of reserves, removing from reserves, overdue fine processing & disputes. Some libraries are also purchasing textbooks. b. Interlibrary Loan: To borrow or not, either way, the library is paying: • • Don’t borrow policy: All book ILLs not automated (Direct Request) to watch out for textbook requests. Borrow policy: Students keep for the semester, you charge overdues/lost books, when returned, process reimbursements both ways. c. Perceived Value/Problem: Students and parents perceive we are part of the problem. • While libraries ask if publishing is sustainable, people are asking if higher education is sustainable.
Why? Creating a Win-Win 3. Empower teaching & learning + teachers & learners. Future of learning environments & higher education needs fewer hurdles, reduction of barriers, and a variety of learning engagement strategies and tools Learning Environment F2F, Online, Hybrid Learning MOOC Learning Management Systems • • • • • Digital Assets Text Audio Video Interactive (Quizzes, etc.) Learning Analytics Open Textbooks
What do SUNY students think? Source: http://www.studentassembly.org/wpcontent/uploads/1314-40-TextbookAffordability-Solutions-As-Passed.pdf
What do some faculty think? “Publishers… hoard enormous war chests from sales of educational materials, and we should question whether they have taken control of teaching and learning processes that would be more appropriately owned and overseen by academics… I could self-publish the book online under a Creative Commons license that allows noncommercial use but not remixing. Ultimately, I chose this latter publishing model because it gave me the greatest control over my project and the potential for the greatest impact… We need to realize our power as authors and publishers. Working collaboratively, we can create dynamic teaching and learning environments.” Joe Moxley, “Open Textbook Publishing: Who is best suited to control textbooks: the faculty or the publishers? There are ways to make sure it is the faculty”, in Academe, September-October 2013, American Association of University Professors: http://www.aaup.org/article/open-textbook-publishing
What do some faculty think? “My profession has done a great job of taking literature away from people, of making it seem inaccessible. This is my answer to that. As my career is winding down, I would like to give literature back, make people realize that they can read literature and enjoy it. I really believe in this project and the book.” Professor Steinberg
How? Pilot #1 Open SUNY Textbooks 1. $20K IITG Grant awarded from SUNY to 5 libraries July 2012: SUNY Geneseo, Brockport, Environmental Science & Forestry, Univ. of Buffalo, Upstate. Fredonia joined Jan. 2013 2. Call for authors sent to 34K SUNY Faculty on Nov. 2012. Offered $3K for Authors + ( $1K to Authors that involve students involved in production & assess student learning) + $1K to peer reviewer 3. In 2 weeks, 38 proposals Grant funding limited to 4 titles. Libraries added ~$40K to fund producing 15 Open Textbooks Fall 2013 – Spring 2014 15 Open Textbooks • • • • • • • • 1 in Anthropology 1 in Business 2 in Computer Sciences 2 in Education 3 in English 2 in Mathematical Sciences 1 in Music Education 3 in Sciences Some interactivity; multiple choice, etc.
How? Pilot #1 Open SUNY Textbooks 4. Editorial workflow managed by libraries. Collectively, we provide Instructional Design support (Librarians & Consultant), Copy Edit (Librarians or Hired), Graphic design & layout (Milne Library), etc. 1 2 3 4 Author sends Manuscript (Word or LaTeX/PDF) Peer reviewer provides author & editor feedback Author responds to Reviewer Comments; provides revised manuscript Copy Editing Copy Editors work with Word (track changes) or hard copy Copy Editing Librarians or Freelance 5 Managing Editor finalizes comments & sends to Author 6 Author reviews changes; revises, accepts, declines changes 8 7 Text Layout Final Proof Managing Editor + Production Editor Author & Proofreader reviews and approves to publish Proofreading Librarians or Freelance
How? Pilot #1 Open SUNY Textbooks 5. Host FREE online Open Textbooks as PDF & ePub on Open Monograph Press (PKP) and catalog in OCLC WorldCat & Minnesota Open Textbook Catalog & Merlot. 6. Print on Demand also offered to authors – more incentives. Amazon.com Print On Demand (optional) http://opensuny.org PDF ePub3 Multimedia & Interactivity
Open SUNY Textbooks http://opensuny.org
Open SUNY Textbooks Pilot 2 http://opensuny.org 8 Participating libraries in the Pilot 2 • SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry • SUNY Fredonia • SUNY Geneseo • SUNY Monroe Community College • SUNY Oswego • The College at Brockport • Upstate Medical University • University at Buffalo with support from other SUNY libraries; Morrisville, Buffalo State University, open invitation to 64 campuses and SUNY Press
Open SUNY Textbook Pilot 2 Initial Phase: 12/18/2013 – 3/1/2014 Call for Authors Proposals due 1/31/14 Selection Review Approval or Revise & Resubmit 46 proposals received 7 Community College proposals Funded to publish 16 1. Proposals reviewed to see if they meet minimum guidelines: SUNY Faculty, complete submission, etc. 2. Blind Abstract Selection Review with a questionnaire to faculty in corresponding disciplines; in consultation with librarians. Rubric excerpt: • • • • • • Clear Abstract: Scale 0 - 5 How likely you would select this textbook for a course? Scale 0 – 5 Strengths of this proposal? What courses might this textbook be useful for? What are crucial components or features for this textbook? Would you be willing to serve as a peer reviewer? Opportunity for engaging discussions about OERs between teaching faculty and librarians. 3. Compile all the scores = Market Analysis for Adoption & Peer Review
Open SUNY Textbook Pilot 2 Initial Phase: 12/18/2013 – 3/1/2014 Call for Authors Proposals due 1/31/14 Approval or Revise & Resubmit Selection Review Writing Phase: 3/1/2014 – 1/15/2015 Services Librarians, Instructional Author writing Designers, Templates, etc. Author provides manuscript Editing Phase: 6/1/2014 – 6/1/2015 Peer Reviews Author Revision Copy Editing Author Revision Text Layout & Proofing Access & Marketing Phase: 9/1/2014 – 9/1/2015 Publish Catalog (OCLC, Merlot, Open Textbook Catalog) Market
Building long-term infrastructure: Textbooks as valued service for teaching & learning Rich & high-quality learning environment with open & interactive textbooks, OERs, etc. Teaching Faculty Catalog Students PDF EPUB Amazon.com Print On Demand (optional) Multimedia & Interactivity Amazon.com Integration Tool Teaching Faculty compose Quizzes, or add objects to customize textbooks from DAM Digital Asset Management (repository of objects textbook components) Learning Analytics Engine
OpenStax College David Harris Editor-in-Chief
nanotubes Knowledge Forms a Network algebra geometry art history proteomics linguistics
computer hardware and software textbooks learning music newspapers
OER Basics: The Licenses
OER Enhancing Academic Freedom At the Course Level: • OER provides faculty with more choices for their courses • OER allows for permission free editing and adaptation • OER prevents faculty from being locked into a particular platform or system In the market place: • OER should not be legislated or mandated • OER needs to stand on it’s on vis a vis publisher materials
OER: Students and DRM Digital Rights Management X Limits access Open Licenses Unlimited Access (never expires) Unlimited printing/use across devices Encourages sharing on informal learning networks
High Level Goals of OpenStax College • Increase access to high quality open education content • Provide students financial relief “Student indebtedness exceeds $1 trillion”-NY Times, 5/12/13 “ Seven in 10 college students said they had not purchased a textbook at least once because they had found the price too high. ”, Chronicle of Higher Education, 8/23/11
Limitations of the OER 1.0 Model • • Inconsistent quality standards We make it very difficult for faculty to find “turn key” solutions • • • Lack of cooperation with “For Profit” providers A sustainable reward structure for content producers Learning, not free must be the priority
Meeting the OER Challenge Ease of Use Make it easy to find the materials. Free is not enough Establish development models to ensure quality Scope and Sequence Develop resources to support existing curricula Essential Learning Resources Partner with groups that can enhance content http://www.openstaxcollege.org
Foundation Support for OER 2.0
College Physics Takes Off! Number of Adoptions: 245 Web views 1,814,236 Downloads 205,700 $$ Saved $2,600,000 American River College….UT Austin….UMASS….Austin CC…Pittsburg State U….
1/20/13 OpenStax College Metrics $$ Saved: Web Views: Textbook Downloads: Number of students Adoptions: Foundations: Partners: >$5,500,000 3,140,000 401,666 58,000+ 432 7 14
A Growing Distributed Ecosystem
1. What’s the catch or obligation? 2. “I don’t like X or you don’t have y” 3. Do you have SSO? 4. May I adapt and distribute without permission? 5. Do you have comp copies? 6. With no sales reps how do I get service? 7. What about revisions? 8. Who do I call if I find an error? 9. Can my bookstore order physical copies?
Together We Can Build A Sustainable Future First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. Mohandas Gandhi
Open Textbook Library University of Minnesota David Ernst Chief Information Officer College of Education
What we ponder… “What keeps faculty from adopting open textbooks?”
Lack of Urgency BARRIER: There is little sense of urgency for change. SOLUTION: Faculty Development
11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 MN Higher Education Funding - $/FTE 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 http://www.sheeo.org State Funding Tuition Revenue
Billions Lack of Urgency $1,300 $1,200 $1,100 $1,000 $900 $800 $700 $600 $500 $400 1/2006 1/2007 1/2008 1/2009 Student Loan Debt 1/2010 1/2011 Consumer Revolving Credit 1/2012 1/2013
Lack of Urgency In your academic career, has the cost of required textbooks caused you to: 63.6% Not purchase required textbook 49.2% Take fewer courses 45.1% Not register for a specific course 33.9% Earn a poor grade because I could not afford to buy the textbook 26.7% Drop a course 17.0% Fail a course because I could not afford to buy the textbook
Awareness of Open BARRIER: Faculty don’t know what open textbooks are. SOLUTION: Faculty Development
Awareness of Open Free Books eBooks
Awareness of Open vs. Some Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved
Discoverability BARRIER: Faculty don’t know where to find open textbooks. SOLUTION: One central catalog of open textbooks. open.umn.edu
Quality? BARRIER: Faculty don’t know the quality of open textbooks. SOLUTION: Faculty peer review of open textbooks.
Faculty Engagement BARRIER: “Interesting, but I’m really busy.” SOLUTION: An engagement strategy Incentives for faculty to engage in open textbooks.
Faculty Engagement Ask faculty to review an open textbook.
Adoptions: Yes! 10 faculty ~$200,000 savings since Fall 2012
??? BARRIER: ??? SOLUTION: ???
open.umn.edu email@example.com David Ernst
Open Education Week http://openeducationweek.org
Thank you for attending! Please type your question in the chat window or click on the talk button. Contact Information Una Daly firstname.lastname@example.org Cyril Oberlander email@example.com David Harris firstname.lastname@example.org David Ernst email@example.com
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