Published on February 26, 2014
The Impact of 3D printing, DIY, The Impact of 3D printing, DIY, Hacking and Open Design on Hacking and Open Design on future design practice future design practice matt . dexter @ shu . ac . uk
We have been here before
DTP By now virtually everyone has heard the term, "desktop publishing," which is the current buzz-word for producing documents with almost typeset quality using equipment that can sit on a desktop. While the term is a misnomer - the equipment does not really publish desktops, nor does it actually "publish" from a desktop... Bowman & Renshaw, 1989
DTp? By now virtually everyone has heard the term, "3D Printing," which is the current buzz-word for producing artefacts with almost traditionally manufactured quality using equipment that can sit on a desktop. While the term is a misnomer - the equipment does not really print in 3D...
design response Ehn & Kyng, 1991
Ehn & Kyng, 1991
Ehn & Kyng, 1991
Ehn & Kyng, 1991
Ehn & Kyng, 1991
participatory design • • • Design as mediator for change Collaboration with affected creatives, and managers Democratisation of DTP; not solely the preserve of ‘professionals’ (Bowman & Renshaw, 1989)
participatory design There are moral and pragmatic reasons to include people in the development of products that will affect their lives. Carroll & Rosson, 2007
opportunities ( Design ) When the novice takes a seat in front of a microcomputer which is equipped with a powerful page layout software package full of fonts, type sizes, and graphics capabilities, creating an extremely garbled document cluttered with junk - lasercrud - becomes a possibility... Bowman & Renshaw, 1989
3D printing • • You’re (probably) not out of a job But what is your job?
definition Personalised products Maker / co designer Interactive digital design & fabrication process Community / co designer adapted from Orchestral Manoeuvres In Design, (Atkinson, 2011)
enablers • Internet Web 2.0 - Collaborative - Social • Distributed Digital Manufacture 3D Printing
where? fab lab
4x freedoms “The freedom to use the design, including making items based on it, for any purpose... The freedom to study how the design works, and change it to make it do what you wish.” Katz, 2011
issues • Copyright IP, Patents, etc... who gets paid, and for what? • Reliability ISO, EU, BSI standardisation. How do you standardise open? • Business Linked to point 1- making money & running a businesses...
copyright • Standard copyright ‘I reserve all rights.’ Lasts 70 years after author’s death • Creative Commons ‘I reserve some / no rights’. Based on copyright legislation • GPL - Copyleft ‘Share this as I share’ - Reciprocity... anti-business* *Pearson (2000)
The New Design* • Going beyond mass customisation... Making design open • Engaging users & consumers... Designing design toolkits • Rethinking Innovation... Emphasis on systems rather than ‘product’ *Adapted from Press (2011) - emphasis mine
brave new world • Using designerly thinking* to imagine new systems, environments and ‘ecosystems’ to enable design activity • Collaborating with participants in these environments to create artefacts for distributed manufacture *Cross, 2007
brave new world • • Designer as conductor Designer as a designer of tool kits for innovation  Atkinson, 2011 Press, 2011  von Hippel, 2005 
References - ATKINSON, P (2011). Orchestral Manoeuvres In Design. In:Van Abel, B (et al), Open Design Now Amsterdam, BIS Publishers. - BOWMAN, J. P., & RENSHAW, D. A. (1989). Desktop Publishing: Things Gutenberg Never Taught You. Journal of Business Communication, 26(1), 57–77. doi:10.1177/002194368902600105 - CARROLL, J., & ROSSON, M. (2007). Participatory design in community informatics. Design Studies, 28(3), 243–261. doi:10.1016/j.destud. 2007.02.007 - EHN, P., & KYNG, M. (1991). Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future. In Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems (pp. 169–196). New York: CRC Press. - KATZ, A (2011). Authors and Owners. In:Van Abel, B (et al), Open Design Now Amsterdam, BIS Publishers. - PEARSON, H. E. (2000). OPEN SOURCE LICENCES. Computer Law & Security Review, 16(3), 151–156. doi:10.1016/S0267-3649(00)88906-2 - PRESS, M (2011). Working the Crowd: Crowdsourcing as a Strategy for Co-Design. In: COOPER, R, JUNGINGER, S & LOCKWOOD, T (eds) The Handbook of Design Management. New York, Berg, 512-531 - VON HIPPEL, E. (2005). Democratizing Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management (Vol. 23, p. 204). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Retrieved from http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2006.00192_2.x
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