Open access in the humanities2

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Published on February 28, 2014

Author: OpenBookPublishers

Source: slideshare.net

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Overview of Open Access initiatives, opportunites and business models in the Humanities by Rupert Gatti, an academic economist and co-founder of Open Book Publishers.

Open Access in the Humanities Rupert Gatti 19 Feb 2014

What is Open Access? • Free to read online • Free to share a digital edition • Free to reuse (subject only to author attribution) Ref: http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read 19 Feb 2014

Green & Gold OA Green OA A final copy of the published work is available under an OA licence from a repository. • There is no requirement for an embargo period. Gold OA The published edition of the work is available under an OA licence. • There is no requirement for an apc. 19 Feb 2014

Humanities vs Sciences • Monographs and book chapters remain important outputs • Research accessible by broader community • National/language specific research • Engagement with reader • Integrity of the text • Greater inclusion of third party material within published work – copyright issues • Less grant & project funded research • Many more independent scholars • Less experience with OA dissemination • Less collaborative research 19 Feb 2014

AHRC (UK) Data Books Chapters Journal Other (%) (%) Articles (%) (%) English 39 27 31 3 French 37 23 39 1 Philosophy 14 20 65 1 Sociology 22 10 64 3 Law 18 15 65 1 Politics 29 9 62 0 Economics 1 2 89 7 Chemistry 0 0 100 0 Discipline Proportions of output types in a sample of RAE 2008 submissions Source: Nigel Vincent “The monograph challenge” in N. Vincent & C. Wickham (eds) Debating Open Access, British Academy 2013. (p. 106) <https://www.britac.ac.uk/openaccess/debatingopenaccess.cfm>

OA Mandates http://roarmap.eprints.org/ Typically have allowed longer embargoes (12-24 months) for Humanities disciplines Avoid books 19 Feb 2014

Journals • Many thousands of Gold OA journals exist in the humanities. • The vast majority make NO charge on authors to publish. • Within HSS, apc's are important for the 'legacy' and the 'predatory' publishers. 19 Feb 2014

Some Data http://www.doaj.org/ • 9,763 Journals listed from 141 countries 6,527 (2/3) make no author charges About 45% are in HSS 19 Feb 2014

Humanities data  Literature: 672 journals 55 languages (498 in English) 67 countries (Brazil 84, USA 81, UK 29) 625 (93%) have no charges, 37 with charges • History: 238 journals 28 languages (141 in English) 35 countries (Brazil 37, USA 28, UK 8) 223 (94%) have no charges, 9 with charges Published by Universities (50%), Research Institutes (20%) and Societies (15%) 19 Feb 2014

No mega journals / repositories • No equivalents of – – – – PloS (apc), arXive (institutional), PubMed Central (public funding), PeerJ (membership) • Open Library of the Humanities <https://www.openlibhums.org/> – library subscription 19 Feb 2014

Business Models • apc model small in Humanities • Academics input • University/Institutional support – the entire internet developed that way • Open infrastructure – vitally important – Open Journal Systems (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/) – Open Edition – revues.org (www.openedition.org) – Directory of Open Access Journals 19 Feb 2014

The publishing cycle Step 1: The text Step 2: The published work Step 3: The reader Step 4: (Re)use To be successful as a system Open Access initiatives need to free up all aspects of this cycle – presently dominated by protective practices. 19 Feb 2014

Books • The existing publishing model is broken – high prices (£50) & low sales (300) – financial model: relies on DENYING access to knowledge – at a time when HSS is fighting for recognition and funding we have a system where almost all our research is inaccessible to anyone beyond an elite few. • This has nothing to do with Open Access, this is where the publishing industry, and academia, has led itself. • Open Access is potentially a saviour – not a threat – for HSS 19 Feb 2014

Opportunities • • • • • • Broader readership Reader interaction Multi-media publications Relating research and primary sources Reuse of publications Innovation in research & dissemination 19 Feb 2014

http://www.doabooks.org/ http://books.openedition.org/ 1662 books 55 publishers Languages: English (909) German (319) Italian (93) French (16) Spanish (2) Portuguese (0) 1161 books 33 publishers Languages: French (959) English (118) Spanish (72) Italian (11) Portuguese (0) Published 2013-14: 185 books Published 2013-14: 46 books 19 Feb 2014

Broader Readership OBP Online Readers 18 Jan – 18 Feb 2014 OBP Reader 7,349 Google Books 7,512 Total Online Readers 14,861 Av per title in month 391 19 Feb 2014

133 countries UK 25% USA 20% Algeria 6%

Reader Interaction Having full text available online enables readers to comment on and add to the work. • Ingo Gildenhard - Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53–86 (OBP) Uploaded to The Classics Library (http://inverrem2_1.theclassicslibrary.com/) • Kathleen Fitzpatrick - Planned Obsolescense (NYU) http://mcpress.media-commons.org/plannedobsolescence/ • Kristen Nawrotzki and Jack Dougherty - Writing History in the Digital Age (UMichiganPress) http://writinghistory.trincoll.edu/ All three use free WordPress plugins 19 Feb 2014

Multimedia Publications Born Digital research output – incorporating, text, video, audio and web applications. • Digital resources can be linked to and integrated with the ‘publication’ • Allows new ways of presenting research findings • Reader can order/structure content as required 19 Feb 2014

http://scalar.usc.edu/ http://scalar.usc.edu

Alternative Funding Models Institutional Support Athabasca University Press, ANU Press Research Centre & Society Partnerships WOLP, IES, CREATe Research Funding Subsidy Wellcome Trust, Max Planck Society Library Expenditure OpenEditions, Open Library of the Humanities, Knowledge Unlatched, Unglue.it Direct Publication Charges legacy publishers: Palgrave Macmillan, SpringerOpen .... 19 Feb 2014

Next steps: Enabling a diverse OA publishing ecology The publishing cycle: Step 1: The text Print on Demand, typesetting software (not OA), competitive market for services Step 2: The published work This is dominated by publisher provision Need: Libraries take an active role to facilitating this process Step 3: The reader Need: Universal standards/protocols to facilitate creation of broadly applicable tools to prevent publisher hijack Step 4: (Re)use Need: Publisher independent methods for assessing, archiving etc new media formats Libraries/funders need to recognise the important role they can take in providing platforms and developing standards to create an architecture which allows competitive publishing initiatives to operate. Incentives are all wrong if this left to publishers to provide and (so) control. 19 Feb 2014

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