Open Access: *Enabling Broadband Connectivity in Kenya

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Information about Open Access: *Enabling Broadband Connectivity in Kenya

Published on July 6, 2011

Author: Njiraini

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is a presentation is based on dissertation submitted by Mwende Njiraini in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of Masters in Communications Management of the University of Strathclyde, 2006. The dissertation sought to establish various perspectives to open access including the principles and benefits, establish an appropriate regulatory framework that will foster the development of open access networks (OAN). Through an exploration of various open access network initiatives, the dissertation sought to establish the key success factors, challenges and testing the applicability of the open access concept in the Kenyan context.

Open Access: Enabling Broadband Connectivity in Kenya Mwende Njiraini Dissertation presentation Masters in Communications Management University of Strathclyde, 2006 Disclaimer: Views expressed here (except those quoted or referenced) are the author’s own

Project motivation Information society commitments for broadband connectivity Increased use of VoIP East African Submarine Cable Purpose of research: Highlight the key aspects of the open access concept in the telecommunications industry Analyse the application of open access through an examination of various case studies Test the applicability of the open access concept in the Kenyan context

Information society commitments for broadband connectivity

Increased use of VoIP

East African Submarine Cable

Purpose of research:

Highlight the key aspects of the open access concept in the telecommunications industry

Analyse the application of open access through an examination of various case studies

Test the applicability of the open access concept in the Kenyan context

Options for Delivering Broadband 1 st Option Facilities based competition 2 nd Option Service based competition – Local Loop unbundling

1 st Option

Facilities based competition

2 nd Option

Service based competition – Local Loop unbundling

3 rd Option: Open Access Multiple competitors use a common shared infrastructure/platform - under equivalent terms and conditions Customers can elect services from alternative providers

Multiple competitors use a common shared infrastructure/platform - under equivalent terms and conditions

Customers can elect services from alternative providers

Contextual Understanding United States Open access to information and content Access to cable networks by non-affiliated ISPs Access to municipality networks Europe Regulatory framework - open network provision Open access is a criteria for state aid to telecommunication infrastructure

United States

Open access to information and content

Access to cable networks by non-affiliated ISPs

Access to municipality networks

Europe

Regulatory framework - open network provision

Open access is a criteria for state aid to telecommunication infrastructure

OAN Characteristics Broadband capacity - operated and maintained by an operator who is not a service provider Serve a geographic location - local community town or city ‘ A public utility for the information society ’ – providing free choice of service providers and unfettered access to users Operated on an open access basis - owned and controlled independently of any service or content which runs over it.

Broadband capacity - operated and maintained by an operator who is not a service provider

Serve a geographic location - local community town or city

‘ A public utility for the information society ’ – providing free choice of service providers and unfettered access to users

Operated on an open access basis - owned and controlled independently of any service or content which runs over it.

OAN Drivers Perception of social and economic development of broadband infrastructure Private operators inability to deliver ubiquitous access to affordable services Introduction of IP networks

Perception of social and economic development of broadband infrastructure

Private operators inability to deliver ubiquitous access to affordable services

Introduction of IP networks

OAN Benefits Demand side Freedom to choose from numerous resources and services Freedom to create and avail relevant content as well as introduce new services without economic justification Supply side Facilitates new entrants access to existing infrastructure Reducing barriers to entry Improved efficiency to capital allocation Reduces monopoly risks - exploiting the advantages of vertical integration

Demand side

Freedom to choose from numerous resources and services

Freedom to create and avail relevant content as well as introduce new services without economic justification

Supply side

Facilitates new entrants access to existing infrastructure

Reducing barriers to entry

Improved efficiency to capital allocation

Reduces monopoly risks - exploiting the advantages of vertical integration

OAN Benefits Freedom of choice to customers ISP 1 Tele 1 TV 1 TV PC TV PC TV PC TV PC LAN OAN ISP 2 Tele 2 TV 2 Services from Local & Regional Authority Source: www.stokab.se

OAN Principles Any one can play Technological Neutrality Fair and non-discriminatory competition at all layers Transparency to ensure fair trading within and between layers Devolved rather than centralized solutions

Any one can play

Technological Neutrality

Fair and non-discriminatory competition at all layers

Transparency to ensure fair trading within and between layers

Devolved rather than centralized solutions

Typical Wired OAN ‘ Layer 0’ Duct ‘ Layer 1’ Dark Fibre ‘ Layer 2’ Band width ‘ Layer 3’ Services Customers Source: www.stokab.se Information providers Telecom operators Telecom operators Municipality/community

Fibre OAN www.stokab.se

Typical Wireless OAN Source:http://commerce.senate.gov/pdf/berryman-021406.pdf

OAN: Regulatory Framework Traditional vertical orientated regulatory structure interconnection distortions, universal service concerns, disincentive for the investment Converged, Technology neutral, layered regulation functionally similar services – regulated in the same way Licences categories: service service infrastructure transport infrastructure

Traditional vertical orientated regulatory structure

interconnection distortions,

universal service concerns,

disincentive for the investment

Converged, Technology neutral, layered regulation

functionally similar services – regulated in the same way

Licences categories:

service

service infrastructure

transport infrastructure

Case studies Nepal Wireless Networking Project: Technology: open access architecture, open source software, licence-exempt wireless technologies Community driven Stokab Competition-neutral Public utility provided on commercial terms Politically driven: ‘an information society for all’ Knysna Municipality network Public private partnership with UniNet – wireless ISP Licence exempt wireless technologies Politically driven: Anchor tenant Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency (UTOPIA) Collaboration of 18 municipalities FTTH open publicly-owned network

Nepal Wireless Networking Project:

Technology: open access architecture, open source software, licence-exempt wireless technologies

Community driven

Stokab

Competition-neutral

Public utility provided on commercial terms

Politically driven: ‘an information society for all’

Knysna Municipality network

Public private partnership with UniNet – wireless ISP

Licence exempt wireless technologies

Politically driven: Anchor tenant

Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency (UTOPIA)

Collaboration of 18 municipalities

FTTH open publicly-owned network

Case studies Two broad categories of OAN Community/cooperative networks end-user-equipment-centric networking models emergence of cheap wireless technologies Municipal networks economic development and improving the quality of life of citizens operators were unwillingness to invest Operating models Non profit model Cooperative model Public-private partnership model Municipal model Government loan-grant model Source FTC, 2006

Two broad categories of OAN

Community/cooperative networks

end-user-equipment-centric networking models

emergence of cheap wireless technologies

Municipal networks

economic development and improving the quality of life of citizens

operators were unwillingness to invest

Operating models

Non profit model

Cooperative model

Public-private partnership model

Municipal model

Government loan-grant model

Source FTC, 2006

Kenyan Market Infrastructure improvements pursued through sector reform Delivery of broadband minimal Evolution of the market structure Network Facilities Provider Applications Service Provider Contents Services Provider

Infrastructure improvements

pursued through sector reform

Delivery of broadband minimal

Evolution of the market structure

Network Facilities Provider

Applications Service Provider

Contents Services Provider

Testing Applicability of OAN in Kenya Access infrastructure – circuit switched, new IP networks Regulatory environment – licence exempt frequency, structural separation and layered licensing Operating environment – Incumbent and licensed operators Choice of technology – Wired and wireless depending on demography and topology Appropriate operating model – PPP and cooperative

Access infrastructure – circuit switched, new IP networks

Regulatory environment – licence exempt frequency, structural separation and layered licensing

Operating environment – Incumbent and licensed operators

Choice of technology – Wired and wireless depending on demography and topology

Appropriate operating model – PPP and cooperative

Run from Port Sudan to Durban:8,840km Capacity: 16 or 32 wavelength at 10Gb/s, total capacity of 320 or 640 Gb/s Originally structured to operate as a consortia East African Submarine System (EASSy)

Run from Port Sudan to Durban:8,840km

Capacity: 16 or 32 wavelength at 10Gb/s, total capacity of 320 or 640 Gb/s

Originally structured to operate as a consortia

Open Access on EASSY Special purpose vehicle: Single entity public private partnership ownership structure equal ownership and participation opportunities by new entrants Direct access to additional operators without paying high entry charges Challenges: harmonisation of regulatory frameworks Participants have an objective of profit-making rather than providing a public service

Special purpose vehicle: Single entity public private partnership ownership structure

equal ownership and participation opportunities by new entrants

Direct access to additional operators without paying high entry charges

Challenges:

harmonisation of regulatory frameworks

Participants have an objective of profit-making rather than providing a public service

Lessons Absence of specific policy and regulatory frameworks. Community driven with non-profit motive Infrastructure provided as public utility

Absence of specific policy and regulatory frameworks.

Community driven with non-profit motive

Infrastructure provided as public utility

Analysis and Recommendations OAN run counter to sector reform objectives From Competition to Single network provision From private sector provision to government provision Recommendations Government incentives Demand analysis Regulatory intervention Access to public infrastructure Content development National broadband policy Spectrum policy

OAN run counter to sector reform objectives

From Competition to Single network provision

From private sector provision to government provision

Recommendations

Government incentives

Demand analysis

Regulatory intervention

Access to public infrastructure

Content development

National broadband policy

Spectrum policy

Conclusion Conventional strategies not sufficient to deliver broadband infrastructure OAN deployed by government and communities due to market failure OAN allow competitive entry at different layers encouraging innovative, low-cost service delivery to users Kenya has an ‘open access friendly’ regulatory environment

Conventional strategies not sufficient to deliver broadband infrastructure

OAN deployed by government and communities due to market failure

OAN allow competitive entry at different layers encouraging innovative, low-cost service delivery to users

Kenya has an ‘open access friendly’ regulatory environment

Personal Reflection Selection and structuring of the project in the initial stages critical Emerging topics may not have the sufficient literature Keeping a positive attitude is critical Do not panic ‘ Rome was built in one day’ Ambitions should be informed

Selection and structuring of the project in the initial stages critical

Emerging topics may not have the sufficient literature

Keeping a positive attitude is critical

Do not panic

‘ Rome was built in one day’

Ambitions should be informed

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