Published on February 24, 2014
@ Cambridge Judge Business School Andy Priestner CJBS Information & Library Services Manager John Norman Director of Information Technologies and Applied Research in Educational Technologies, University Library Stelios Kavadias CJBS Director of Research
What is Open Access? ‘Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions’ - Peter Suber (Director of the Harvard ‘Open Access’ Project) ‘Open access to research publications involves making them freely available online rather than charging readers to read and use them. Open Access to research data makes data more widely available for re-use by others to support research, innovation and wider public use.’ ‘The University of Cambridge encourages open access whilst asserting that you should continue to choose where to publish.’ - UoC Open Access website: https://www.openaccess.cam.ac.uk/about
History of Open Access 1990s The open access movement begins as access to the World Wide Web becomes widely available and online publishing becomes the norm. Forerunners of open access include ‘open source’ and ‘open courseware’. 1993 The first open access journals become available. 2001 The Creative Commons licensing initiative is founded. 2002 The Open Access movement is defined in key statements at Budapest, Bethesda, and Berlin. 2003 Directory of Open Access Journals is founded and Open Access policies start to be adopted. 2013 From 01 April 2013, Research Councils UK open access policy comes into force (of which more later).
Why Open Access?
Toll, Green, Gold Toll Access – The author submits their publication and the publisher makes it available for a fee through a database or website. Green Open Access (or self-archiving) – Around the time of publication, the author deposits a pre-print, or the actual published article, in an institutional repository for gratis use by anyone. Gold Open Access – The author or author’s institution pay a fee to the publisher when their paper is accepted for publication. The publisher thereafter makes the material available free at the point of access (through a Gold OA journal). But... this is the meeting of two incredibly complex worlds – academia and publishing – so, inevitably, there are variants, exceptions, and sub-categories.
Toll Access vs Open Access Submit Get Accepted Toll Access Publisher creates a ‘version of record’ Libraries pay to allow access to articles in Toll Access Journals Author ‘self-archives’ in institutional repository Articles in repositories are freely available to the public Author or instit’n pays an article processing charge Articles in OA Journals are freely available to the public Green OA Open Access Green OA Gold OA [Thanks to Trin Thananusak for the use of this slide]
Research Councils UK ‘OA policy’ (from 01/04/13) This policy was a response to the Finch Report published in 2012. •Applies to publication of peer-reviewed research articles and conference proceedings that acknowledge funding from the UK’s Research Councils. • Supports both Gold and Green OA, with a preference for the former as that means immediate open access with the maximum opportunity for re-use. • Funding for Open Access is made available through a block grant awarded to Universities (to pay article processing charges). •With Gold OA where the block grant is used to pay APCs, papers must be made immediately available using a Creative Commons ‘CC BY’ ‘re-use’ licence (more on that shortly). • ‘The journey to full Open Access is a process and not a single event’ – realistic expectation that compliance will grow over a 5-year transition period. • Recognition that impact of the policy on different disciplines is going to be varied e.g. different embargo periods (e.g. 1 – 2 years in social sciences)
The Publishers’ Association ‘decision tree’ Is your research publicly funded? Yes No Is a Gold Open Access option available from your publisher? Yes Are article processing funds available? Yes Immediate Gold Open Access No Green Open Access, usually after 6-12 months embargo period No Green Open Access after 12-24 months embargo period N.B. As with everything to do with Open Access ‘the devil is in the detail’ and embargoes are more complex than this ‘tree’ suggests.
Creative Commons – licenses for ‘re-use’ ‘Creative Commons develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximises digital creativity, sharing, and innovation.’ CC is all about licensing re-use of your work – allowing subsequent modification of work you have created, with credit. RCUK specify that Gold Open Access papers must be made available immediately using a CC BY licence - which allows re-use, text-mining, re-mixing and republication. This has been criticised in some quarters.
DSpace@Cambridge is the University of Cambridge’s institutional repository, preserving and providing access to content created by members of the University. It is delivered and managed by the University Library: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/ Open access research publications by University members are added to DSpace@Cambridge in line with research funder requirements.
Open Access webpages (https://www.openaccess.cam.ac.uk/)
CJBS Case Study: Green Open Access Paul Tracey wanted to submit to the Academy of Management Review a piece of work funded by his ESRC Fellowship. 1. AMR required all versions of the work to be removed from public access web sites during the review process. 2. All outputs from the grant had to be submitted to the ESRC’s Research Outputs System (ROS), a public-access repository. N.B. At this stage his paper has not yet been accepted by AMR.
CJBS Case Study: Green Open Access 3. Paul checked www.openaccess.cam.ac.uk by entering Academy of Management Review in the search box and selected ESRC as the funder.
CJBS Case Study: Green Open Access …and received advice as follows:
CJBS Case Study: Green Open Access 4. Katie Jones emailed email@example.com, who advised Paul to submit to ROS a summary only of the work at this stage, and to submit the article itself once it was published online by the journal. 5. Katie emailed the journal to ask permission for all Research Council-funded articles to be available in final publisher pdf format on the ROS.
CJBS Case Study: Gold Open Access Andrea Mina had an article accepted by Research Policy. He checked www.openaccess.cam.ac.uk, selected the journal title, and the funder (also ESRC), and received the information below. He subsequently applied for funds via the OA website to cover article processing charges.
E-theses Why a good thing? But might not be possible: • • • • • • • Makes your findings available to all, often indexed and searchable by Google Raise your profile in the research community Persistent URL with Dspace@Cambridge Useful for CVs and professional profiles • Patents arising from research Thesis contains sensitive data Requirements of project sponsor may not allow electronic availability Thesis contains significant quantity of 3rd party copyright material It is recommended that you discuss your options with your supervisor and make plans early
Issues, Criticisms and Questions Publishers continued embargoing of Green Open Access sustains their revenue (a bad thing). Conversely the belief that Gold Open Access which involves article processing charges is just another way for publishers to source revenue (another bad thing). There was no Open Access component in the 2014 REF, but the subsequent REF will undoubtedly have OA requirements (potentially a bad thing, or at least more work). Predatory Open Access publishers seeking faculty from Cambridge to be on the board of their Gold Open Access journals – seeking article processing charges, while providing very little peer review or editorial support. See http://scholarlyoa.com/ (definitely a bad thing!) Embargo policies are confusing and need to be reviewed and decisions taken in consultation. Current licence requirements could limit choice of where to publish and more restrictive licences such as CC BY NC (not for commercial purposes) and CC BY ND (no alteration or building upon work) should be deemed acceptable. Also unrealistic to expect authors to debate licensing with publishers. Complications arising from publication in overseas journals with different requirements to the UK. How restrictive an realistic are percentage targets for OA compliance across disciplines?
Support and advice Cambridge Open Access website: https://www.openaccess.cam.ac.uk/ Cambridge DSpace website: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/ Katie Jones, Research Manager: firstname.lastname@example.org Andy Priestner and I&LS Team: email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org DSpace team @ UL: email@example.com Recommended book: Open Access by Peter Suber, MIT Press. Available OA here: http://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/content/9780262517638_Open _Access_PDF_Version.pdf
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