OP7_ES2002 Introduction to Argumentation

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Information about OP7_ES2002 Introduction to Argumentation
Business-Finance

Published on December 8, 2008

Author: aSGuest5689

Source: authorstream.com

ES2002 Business Communication : ES2002 Business Communication Introduction to Argumentation Slide 2: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 2 In business writing, writers often have to convince their readers to adopt a certain course of action or make a particular decision. In convincing the readers to adopt the writers’ point of view, it is necessary for writers to rely on argumentation. Slide 3: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 3 Parts of an argument Perspectives on argumentation Types of logical fallacies Guidelines for persuasive argumentation Outline Slide 4: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 4 Evidence Reasoning Claim An Argument Model Expressed opinion/ conclusion the writer wants accepted. Connects the evidence and the claim. Provides support for the claim. Slide 5: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 5 There has been an increasing use of company telephones for private calls by staff. During a recent check, a large increase in the number of local calls was noted. The past few months have also seen an increase in the company telephone bill every month. In addition, there have been numerous complaints from customers who could not get through to our staff as the phone lines are always busy. As the company has not experienced business growth or introduced any changes in business communication, the increase in phone usage cannot be the result of more calls being made for company-related matters. An example Slide 6: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 6 There’s a large increase in the number of local calls. There’s an increase in company telephone bill every month in the last few months. Customers have complained that lines are always busy. The company has not experienced any business growth or introduced any changes in business communication. Since the company has not experienced any business growth or introduced any changes in business communication, the increase in phone usage must be due to more private calls. There has been an increasing use of company telephones for private calls by staff. Evidence Reasoning Claim Slide 7: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 7 The results of the survey show that ‘Long Distance Runner’ made a greater impact on the respondents largely due to its catchy song/jingle. Its appeal was also wider than that of ‘Tennis Pro’ because it was presented as a drink that would nourish the whole family.  It can be concluded therefore, that the ‘Long Distance Runner’ appears to be the more persuasive of the two commercials and is the one that is most likely to lead to increased sales. Another example (conclusion to a market research report) Slide 8: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 8 Long Distance Runner made a greater impact on respondents due to its song and jingle. Its appeal was wider than that of Tennis Pro because it was presented as a drink that would nourish the whole family. Commercials with greater impact and wider appeal have always tended to be more persuasive, leading to increased sales. Long Distance Runner is a more persuasive commercial than Tennis Pro and is the one most likely to lead to increased sales. Evidence (in terms of summary of key findings) Reasoning Claim (in the form of a conclusion logically derived from evidence and reasoning) Perspectives on argumentation : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 9 Perspectives on argumentation Logical Dialectical Rhetorical Emphasises the use of valid evidence and sound reasoning Focuses primarily on reaching the best conclusion Views arguments as appeals to an audience Types of Logical Fallacies : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 10 Types of Logical Fallacies Hasty generalisation Non sequitur Begging the question False analogy Either – or fallacy Hasty generalisation : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 11 Hasty generalisation Insufficient or incomplete information “all”, “always”, “everybody” etc. Example It amazes me that most people think males are superior to females. Logical fallacies Hasty generalisation Non sequitur : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 12 Non sequitur “It does not follow.” 2 parts – opening statement and ‘logical’ conclusion Example I’m old enough to fight for the country; therefore I am old enough to drink. Logical fallacies Non sequitur Begging the question : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 13 Begging the question Similar to non sequitur As though an arguable proposition was agreed upon Example Since Nokia XXX is the best handphone on the market, the company should accept trade-in of old models. Logical fallacies Begging the question False analogy : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 14 False analogy Oversimplifies complex ideas with analogies Example Stages of childhood = Roses and their thorns. Logical fallacies False analogy Either – or fallacy : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 15 Either – or fallacy Only 2 alternatives count Example The choice is between the clean, inexpensive nuclear energy and the dirty, expensive fossil fuels. Logical fallacies Either – or fallacy Slide 16: ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 16 What is most important: The ability to identify “loopholes in reasoning” – INFORMED SKEPTICISM Guidelines for Persuasive Argumentation : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 17 Guidelines for Persuasive Argumentation Don’t argue matter of taste Don’t preach to the converted Project a credible image Anticipate objections early Support your claims with evidence Provide a clear conclusion Avoid logical fallacies Review your writing with a critical eye – practise informed skepticism Something to think about : ES2002 Business Communication: Introduction to Argumentation 18 Something to think about Do people from different cultures argue differently? Do they have differing argumentation styles?

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