OntologySummit2007Bu ffalo

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Published on September 27, 2007

Author: Abigail

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Ontology Summit 2007 A Realist View on Ontology NIST (Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA) April 23-24, 2007:  Ontology Summit 2007 A Realist View on Ontology NIST (Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA) April 23-24, 2007 Werner CEUSTERS, MD Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Department of Psychiatry, University at Buffalo, NY, USA http://www.org.buffalo.edu/RTU A realist view of the world:  A realist view of the world The world consists of entities that are Either particulars or universals; Either occurrents or continuants; Either dependent or independent; and, relationships between these entities are of the form <particular , universal> e.g. is-instance-of, <particular , particular> e.g. is-part-of <universal , universal> e.g. isa (is-subtype-of) Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA Three levels of reality:  Three levels of reality The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA Reality exist before any observation:  Reality exist before any observation Reality exist before any observation:  Reality exist before any observation Three levels of reality:  Three levels of reality The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world; Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA The ontology author acknowledges the existence of some Portion Of Reality (POR):  The ontology author acknowledges the existence of some Portion Of Reality (POR) R B Slide8:  R B Some portions of reality escape his attention. Three levels of reality:  Three levels of reality The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world; To make these representations publicly accessible in some enduring fashion, they create representational artifacts that are fixed in some medium. Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA He represents only what he considers relevant:  R He represents only what he considers relevant O B #1 RU1B1 RU1O1 Both RU1B1 and RU1O1 are representational units referring to #1; RU1O1 is NOT a representation of RU1B1; RU1O1 is created through concretization of RU1B1 in some medium. Thus ... :  Thus ... These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations; But beware !:  But beware ! These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations; They are representations of the corresponding parts of reality They are like the images taken by means of a high quality camera; They are not (or should not be) like the paintings of Salvador Dali:  They are not (or should not be) like the paintings of Salvador Dali Non-canonical (although nice looking) anatomy Kinds of representational artifacts:  Kinds of representational artifacts ‘TAXONOMY’ a tree-form graph-theoretic representational artifact with nodes representing universals or classes and edges representing is_a or subset relations. ‘ONTOLOGY’ a representational artifact, comprising a taxonomy as proper part, whose representational units are intended to designate some combination of universals, defined classes, and certain relations between them. ‘REALISM-BASED ONTOLOGY’ is built out of terms which are intended to refer exclusively to universals, and corresponds to that part of the content of a scientific theory that is captured by its constituent general terms and their interrelations. ‘TERMINOLOGY’ is a representational artifact consisting of representational units which are the general terms of some natural language used to refer to entities in some specific domain. ‘INVENTORY’ is a representa­tional artifact built out of singular referring terms such as proper names or alphanumeric identifiers. Some characteristics of representational units:  Some characteristics of representational units each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding; Some characteristics of representational units:  Some characteristics of representational units each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding; several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives; Some characteristics of representational units:  Some characteristics of representational units each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding; several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives; what is to be represented by the units in a representation depends on the purposes which the representation is designed to serve. Some characteristics of an optimal ontology:  Some characteristics of an optimal ontology Each representational unit in such an ontology would designate (1) a single portion of reality (POR), which is (2) relevant to the purposes of the ontology and such that (3) the authors of the ontology intended to use this unit to designate this POR, and (4) there would be no PORs objectively relevant to these purposes that are not referred to in the ontology.

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