Ontology and the Lexiocn.week4

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Published on March 12, 2014

Author: shukaihsieh

Source: slideshare.net

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Ontology and the Lexicon Week 4: Ontological and Lexical Resources Shu-Kai Hsieh Lab of Ontologies, Language Processing and e-Humanities GIL, National Taiwan University March 12, 2014 Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab ..1 Lexical Resources WordNet FrameNet ..2 Lexicalized Ontologies ..3 Lab Wiki Chinese Wordnet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab ..1 Lexical Resources WordNet FrameNet ..2 Lexicalized Ontologies ..3 Lab Wiki Chinese Wordnet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Barsalou[1] • We shall assume that concepts are people’s psychological representations of categories (e.g., apple, chair); whereas meanings are people’s understandings of words and other linguistic expressions (e.g., ”apple”, ”large chair”). • We shall argue that concepts and meanings differ substantially. Although they are related in important ways, the relationship is one of complementarity, not equivalence. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab WordNet WordNet • A freely available lexical Database developed by Princeton University. • A semantic network which consists of synsets and relations. • 155,287 word forms are grouped into 117,659 synsets (WordNet 3.0) • synsets are glossed, and interconnected with different semantic relations. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet ..1 Lexical Resources WordNet FrameNet ..2 Lexicalized Ontologies ..3 Lab Wiki Chinese Wordnet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet Frames: chunks of knowledge ..1 The notion of frame came up in the 1970s in AI and Cognitive Science. Similar notions include schema, script and scenario. ..2 Words are defined through the semantic roles they play and the frames (types of event, relation, or entity) they evoke. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet source: http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/icsi/news/2014/02/charles-fillmore-dies-at-84 Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet FrameNet • Word evokes the frame. • Instead of words, FN works with lexical units (LUs), each of these being a pairing of a word with a sense. Example (of FN work) Let’s work through the Revenge frame following Fillmore (pp26-): (https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/sites/default/files/FNintroCJF.ppt); The glossary also helps (https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/glossary) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet FrameNet Relations The frames that we create, and thus the Frame Elements (FE) and Lexical Units (LU) associated with them, are intended to be situated in semantic space by means of frame-to-frame relations and semantic types. The relations we use include Inheritance, Subframe, Causative of, Inchoative of, and Using. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet FrameNet Relations source: FrameNet (II) book Inheritance An IS-A relation. The child frame is a subtype of the parent frame, and each FE in the parent is bound to a corresponding FE in the child. An example is the Revenge frame which inherits from the Rewards and punishments frame. Subframe The child frame is a subevent of a complex event represented by the parent, e.g. the Criminal process frame has subframes of Arrest, Arraignment, Trial, and Sentencing. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet FrameNet Relations source: FrameNet (II) book Using The child frame presupposes the parent frame as background, e.g the Speed frame ”uses” (or presupposes) the Motion frame; however, not all parent FEs need to be bound to child FEs. Perspective on The child frame provides a particular perspective on an un-perspectivized parent frame. A pair of examples consists of the Hiring and Get_a_job frames, which perspectivize the Employment_start frame from the Employer’s and the Employee’s point of view, respectively. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet FrameNet Ontology Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet Lexical Resources: Comparison and Alignment • FN: 800 frames, 10,000 LUs, examplified in more than 135,000 sentences. • WN: 117659 synsets, 206941 word-sense pairs, .... Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet Lexical Resources: Comparison and Alignment • WN: a syset comprises only synonyms of the same part of speech; FN: a frame may include different parts of speech, and words with contradictory definitions (such as antonyms related to the same idea). • Statistical measure that shows where WordNet and FrameNet agree well on the meanings of words and phrases, and where they do not [2]. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab FrameNet Lexical Resources: Comparison and Alignment Out of the 67 annotated sentences that included the word curious, 48 both evoked the typicality frame (FN1) and used curious in the WordNet sense of ”beyond or deviating from the usual or expected” (WN1). Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab ..1 Lexical Resources WordNet FrameNet ..2 Lexicalized Ontologies ..3 Lab Wiki Chinese Wordnet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Classification of Ontologies • Formal vs informal ontologies • Lexicalized vs non-lexicalized ontologies Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab WN as a lexicalized ontology • All of the WordNet noun synsets are organized into hierarchies, with 25 top-level synsets headed by the unique beginner synset entity. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab • E.g., Hypernymy/Hyponymy and Meronymy/Holonymy are transitive and asymmetrical. So as Hyponymy generates a hierarchical semantic structure, a hyponym inherits all the features of the more generic concept and adds at least one feature that distinguishes it from its superordinate. The hierarchy is about 16 levels. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Multilingual Wordnets • (EuroWordnet) The development of a multilingual database with WordNets for several European languages, with 10,000 up to 50,000 synsets. (Dutch, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Czech, Estonian). • Inter-Lingual-Index, which are mainly based on EWN synsets, serves as unstructured fund of concepts that provide an efficient mapping across the languages; • Various types of equivalence relations are distinguished to link synsets with index records. • Some cross-linguistic issues identified: different lexicalization, differencs in synonymy and homonymy, etc. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Multilingual Wordnets • (BalkaNet) (Romanian, Bulgarian, Turkish, Slovenian, Greek, Serbian), with 10,000 synsets. • (AsianWordnet) (Hindi, Indonesian, Lao, Mongolian, Japanese, Burmese, Nepali, Sinhala, Thai, Vietnamese) 1 • (The Global WordNet Association, more than 50 languages) 2 1 http://www.asianwordnet.org 2 http://www.globalwordnet.org Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Figure : Multilingual WordNet Architecture: EWN’s model Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab The ideal Global Wordnet Model (Vossen)? • Construct separate wordnets for each language. • Contributors from each language encode the same core set of concepts plus culture/language-specific ones. • Synsets (concepts) are mapped cross linguistically via an ontology, instead of just the English Wordnet. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab NLTK rocks Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Wiki ..1 Lexical Resources WordNet FrameNet ..2 Lexicalized Ontologies ..3 Lab Wiki Chinese Wordnet Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Wiki Wiki: its role • A good review of current state-of-arts can be found in [3]. • Resolving the Knowledge acquisition bottleneck: The creation of very large knowledge bases has been made possible by the availability of collaboratively-curated online resources such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary. • structured, semi-structured, unstructured resources. • what are the advantages and disadvantages, respectively? Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Wiki Wiki as semi-structured content for Ontologies • Transforming Wikipedia into machine-readable knowledge • Acquiring related terms: thesaurus extraction • Relation extraction • Leitmotif: generating semantics by exploiting the shallow structure found in Wikipedia. • Building and enriching ontologies from Wikipedia: YAGO, WikiNet and BabelNet. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Wiki Multilingual case of collaboratively-generated semi-structured resources Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Wiki • WikiTaxonomy (Ponzetto and Strube, 2007; Ponzetto and Strube, 2011)(100k is-a relations) • WikiNet: (Nas- tase et al., 2010; Nastase and Strube, 2013) is a project which heuristically exploits different aspects of Wikipedia to obtain a multilingual concept network by deriving not only is-a relations, but also other types of relations. • MENTA (de Melo and Weikum, 2010), creates one of the largest multilingual lexical knowledge bases by interconnecting more than 13M articles in 271 languages. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Chinese Wordnet(s) Existing CWNs: • Sinica BOW (Huang et al, 2004) • CWN.1 (Academia Sinica, 2004-2010) »> CWN.2 (NTU-Taiwan 2011-) • COW (NTU-Singapore) • Southeast University WordNet (SEW), 2008 Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Chinese Wordnet(s) Evaluation matters! Example • quantity w/o quality • linguistic depth (co-predication, variants, etc) • coarse or fine-grained evalution methodology (e.g., via annotators agreement or OntoClean methodology) (Hsieh, 2013) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Chinese Wordnet.2 Launched and develped by AS (Chu-Ren Huang) and maintained by LOPE lab (Shu-Kai Hsieh) at NTU. • Successor of bilingual translation wordnet (Sinica BOW) developed by Academia Sinica.3. • condense in synsets, sparse in LSR. • with some specific designs (e.g., meaning facets, paranymy, etc). • other variants 4 3 bow.sinica.edu.tw 4 googleCWN: lope.linguistics.ntu.edu.tw/gcwn Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Chinese Wordnet 2 Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet A wikified collaboration platform Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Homework • 找一個角度,比較 WN 與 FN 的異同￿ • (修過 python 的同學,請多利用 nltk 來數量上的說明與論 據) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Lawrence W Barsalou, Wenchi Yeh, Barbara J Luka, Karen L Olseth, Kelly S Mix, and Ling-Ling Wu. Concepts and meaning. 1993. Gerard De Melo, Collin F Baker, Nancy Ide, Rebecca J Passonneau, and Christiane Fellbaum. Empirical comparisons of masc word sense annotations. In LREC, pages 3036–3043, 2012. Eduard Hovy, Roberto Navigli, and Simone Paolo Ponzetto. Collaboratively built semi-structured content and artificial intelligence: The story so far. Artificial Intelligence, 194:2–27, 2013. Sebastian Löbner. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lexical Resources Lexicalized Ontologies . . . . . . . . . Lab Chinese Wordnet Understanding semantics. Routledge, 2013. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

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