Published on December 22, 2008
This series of slides, with links to comments in the top left of each, provide a bit of the history and evolution of the General Enterprise Management (GEM) approach RR1 GEM Premise 1. Connection: A Fishing Net = Knots and Strings • FACT: Every Thing is Directly Connected to Every Other Thing http://www.one-world-is.com/beam Other – David Bohm’s Implicate Order (2) Thing Thing – Bell’s Interconnection Theorem (2) – Aspect’s Non-Locality Laboratory Proof – Zero Point Field/Energy Mathematical Proofs (2) (3) (4) – Consciousness and Reality (2) Other Other Thing Thing • The Readiness of People to Accept the Science of Connection Varies from Person to Person – Connection is the Basis for Our Physical Universe – Connection is the Basis for Cause and Effect phenomena – Connection is the basis for the “systems” and “object” engineering views • Everyone mentally does architecture and ontology as their connection method. Everyone Think of the world builds a personal world view by: sensing/perceiving their world, identifying/distinguishing distinctive things in it; naming things, describing things, relating things, and tracking past and as being a collection projected changes in things. This world view is also called an “ontology”, and also called an “architecture”. of different knots, • Sharing world views/ontologies/architectures to establish interpersonal, organizational and global group communication, coordination, and collaboration requires a structured means of each connected to storing and transferring signals, data, information, knowledge, awareness, decisions, and actions. other knots by • Prior to electronic communication our means to transfer world views was limited to our physical senses. With electronic communication we are now able to transfer world views at a multiple strings, like distance. We can now effectively communicate, coordinate, and collaborate while at different locations. layers of interwoven • Prior to electronic data processing (e.g., IT) our means to share world views was limited to the single receiving person or group currently anywhere on a communication circuit with us (e.g., fishing nets. across the room or on the other end of the telegraph, radio, or telephone). With electronic data processing we are now able to transfer world views to multiple persons and groups at different times. We can now effectively communicate, coordinate, and collaborate with all persons and groups on the network at different locations and times. Knots are • As a result of the global Internet and our ontology and architecture modeling processes and technology, we can now provide the means for all persons and groups anywhere to know nouns/things, and everything they need to know, when they need to know it, from those with the greatest expertise or situational information, knowledge, and awareness. strings are • Everyone can now be connected, knowledgeable, and aware of the whole world around them, verbs/relations. from their own local vantage point and decisions, including both the world within their control and that beyond their control. Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 1 RR1 This diagram took form from 1957, starting with a dream about a fishnet. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR2 An Object Model (For A Connection View) Categorize “Kind-Of” Hierarchy Object N Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Associate Parent Value Value Value Plan/History Object A Association Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Value Value Value Past Parentage Change Inheritance “Part-Of” Hierarchy Container Base Component /Predecessor Input Object N Output /Successor Object X Association Present Change Association Object Y Descendant Future Inheritance Change Change Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Value Value Value Child Object B Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 2 RR2 Here's a 1984 variant that evolved from the fishnet concept, which eventually took form as a generalized object model. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR3 A Dynamic Object (For An Information System To Manage Any Thing, And Every Thing) Basic Object Attributes Basic Association Attributes Attribute Value Attribute Value Attribute Value Parent Attribute Value Attribute Value Attribute Value Object A Past Parentage Change Inheritance Container Base Component /Predecessor Input Object N Output /Successor Association Object X Association Present Change Object Y Descendant Future Object Detail Attributes Inheritance Association Detail Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Change Attribute Attribute Attribute Value Value Value Value Value Value Object Interface Metadata Attributes Association Interface Metadata Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Child Attribute Attribute Attribute Value Value Value Value Value Value Object Security/Privacy Metadata Attributes Object B Association Security/Privacy Metadata Attributes Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Value Value Value Value Value Value Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 3 RR3 Here's another 1988 variant on the generalized object model, representing the idea that it could serve as the foundation for any MIS. This idea has been called dynamic data structures since the mid 90's. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR4 The Spiral of Knowledge pirit Humanities S Re my lig Society no ion xo y Phi log Ta loso io sis phy Soc sis the Hy ae the po Unknown e Recorded and n po ipl me Hy Research ry Known Applied Knowledge Psychology nc eo Wo heno d tics Pri Th pte World thema ng Universe Ma Ph ce rki P Ac ys iol s og sic Bio y ry y Ph ist logy Chem Legend: Learning and Insight Scien Evolving Mind ce Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 4 RR4 Here's a virtually unchanged model of my 1965 wheel of knowledge that I used to plan my educational and career focus. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR5 An Enterprise Is An Object (In Its Dynamic Environment) ENVIRONMENT Opportunity and Competition ENTERPRISE (Organization) (Organism) (Organ) (Object) Strength and Weakness METABOLIC ACTION ON RESOURCES (TRIGGER, INPUT, CONTROL, OUTPUT, MECHANISM) Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 5 RR5 This is my 1982 concept for managing the enterprise as a single entity, as part of my Master's program (i.e., Masters of Science in Systems Management from Univ. of Southern Cal.) Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR6 32. GEM Basic Questions WHERE IS ___? WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ___? WHO HAS THE AUTHORITY TO ___? WHO HAS THE RESOURCES FOR ___? WHEN IS ___? LOCATION HOW MANY ___? CATALOG / HOW OFTEN ARE ___? INVENTORY HOW MUCH IS ___? REQUIREMENT ORGANIZATION LIFE CYCLE 1 CATALOG / CATALOG / INVENTORY INVENTORY 7 2 WHAT GOES INTO CONTEXT ___? ENGINE RESOURCE WORK UNIT WHAT RESULTS 6 3 CATALOG / (OFFICE / BILLET) FROM ___? INVENTORY CATALOG / 4 INVENTORY 5 WHO DOES ___? WHO SUPPLIES ___? PROCESS FUNCTION WHO PRODUCES ___? CATALOG / CATALOG / INVENTORY INVENTORY HOW DO WE ___? WHAT IS DONE FOR ___? WHY IS ___? Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 6 RR6 My 1982 model of the General Enterprise Management subject categories and how they'd be related through the quot;context enginequot;. Each wedge would now be called a taxonomy or thesaurus. The context engine would now be called a 2nd order logic strong ontology. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR7 7. GEM Context/Intelligence Functions To Manage Enterprise Context (1.2), Context Functions (for Subjects and Relationships): •Create Manage Enterprise Subjects and Their Relationships •Update Subject Subject •Move Subject I F B •Copy Subject A •Modify Properties •Merge A Is A Kind-Of A Will Become •Deactivate (Never Delete) A Follows or or Type-Of B or May Become I •Read Is Successor- •Characterize of F •Relations Subject A •Properties Subject Methods •Methods J •Qualifiers A is an •Security Alias for J GEM Subject Categories (Tree) A Is Part-Of Subject •Locations (e.g., Physical, Virtual, Conceptual) Subject or quot;Aquot; and A Contains or Subject •Organizations (e.g., Private, Commercial, Government) D Contained its Basic Consists-Of E E •Organization Units (e.g., Offices, Teams, Projects) Within D Relations •Functions (e.g., Executive, Production, Support) A is a •Processes (e.g., Manual, Automated, Mechanical, Electrical) Reference for K •Resources (e.g., Persons, Intelligence, Funds, Skills, Subject A Qualifiers Subject Materiel,Facilities, Services, Space, Energy, Time) K GEM Relationship Types (Noun – Verb – Noun) •Class (Parent/Child, Class/Subclass, Class/Instance) A Was Previously •Containment (Master/Detail, Container/Component) or Was •Sequence (Predecessor/Successor, Cause/Effect) Possibly H A Categorizes or A Leads or Is •Change (Previous/Current, Current/Future Is the Basis of C Predecessor-Of G •Reference Subject A •Alias Security •Architecture/Structure (Multiple Relations Types, showing Subject Subject Subject Component-Interface-Component) H C G Context Meaning Properties = Object Attribute/Value Pairs, Inheritable from Class Type Methods = Behaviors performed by Object •Concepts (Keywords, Words) Qualifiers = Filters, Rules, Facts, and Roles Constraining Object •Semantic (noun – verb – noun, Subject-Verb-Predicate) Security = Combination of Properties, Methods, and Qualifiers defining the need for a person or process to •Ontology (Semantic-Verb-Semantic) see, show, or know some aspect of an object, or to do or avoid doing some action with or affecting an object. Also known as Role-Based Access Control - RBAC. •Knowledge (Ontology-Verb-Ontology) Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 7 RR7 This is the model that extends the basic object model to encompass more of the relationships I discovered in my 1982-85 Master's work and my quot;enterprise-levelquot; manager and analyst assignments since 1982. The relationships around the object model provide the GEM quot;knowledge-representation modelquot;, which I document as the M3 layer of the GEM four-layer metamodel architecture. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR8 Progression of Written Information, Adding Structure and Order Outline (List of Lists) Thing Words Lists Deer Nourishment (Object) Deer Bear List Concept Word Bear Deer (Object) (Object) Sky Water Sky Bear Water Deer Food Deer Man Bear Cave Water Cave Water Spear Shelter Man Cave Spear Weapon Spear Table Table Data Tree (List with Attributes) Food Implement Season Association Join (Self-Joined, Drill-Down Hierarchy, i.e., and Crew Table Outline with Row Attributes) (Entity/Relation for (Lookup) Parent/Child Relations) Data Tree Deer Arrow - 1 Spring, Root Summer, Fall, Class 1 Winter Bear Spear - 3 Spring, Subclass 1.1 Large Rocks Summer, Instance 1.1.1 - 2 Fall Instance 1.1.2 Class 2 Berries Cloth, cup, Summer, or basket - Fall Subclass 1.2 1 Instance 1.2.1 Instance 1.2.2 Data Snowflake (Ontology) Data Jewel (General Ontology) Data Star (Taxonomy) (Simple Data Warehouse, Multidimensional, (Compound Data Warehouse, Multidimensional, multicentric, (Simple Data Mart, Multidimensional, Drill- multi-level Drill-Out views of single type object, multifaceted, multilevel Drill-Anywhere views of all recorded Out, single level views of single object, i.e., i.e., single facet E/R application controlling a objects, i.e., All applications for controlling all objects built profiles and simple fact tables for a single class of objects. Applies First Order Logic) from single core of highly refined data. Applies Second Order type of object) Logic) Database and Database and Application Application Access Access Locations Performance Management Performance Situational Management Situational (Strategic and Context (Strategic and Service Level) Context Organizations Service Level) Management Resources Management Management Management System/Software System/Software Network Network Engineering Engineering Facts Management Management Management Management Processes Groups/Roles Network Messaging Network Accounts Messaging Management Accounts Management Management Management Security/Key Security/Key Functions Management Management Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 8 RR8 This is my model representing the progression of our technology and conceptual readiness to add structure to our recorded knowledge. The quot;thingquot; node corresponds the the quot;pragmaticsquot; label briefed by Dr. Orbst over the past week, the quot;conceptquot; node corresponds to the quot;semanticsquot;, and the quot;wordquot; node corresponds to the quot;syntaxquot; and quot;termquot; labels. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR9 A Model of Technology Society Spirit Humanities Integration Efforts Taxonomy (synthesis, synectics, synergy) Connection Religion (wholeness, unity) Technology Advances Sociology Philosophy Believe Feel across Science to Self form Social Psychology Tools Mathematics Sense Increasing Subjectivity (Direct) (Less Empirical) Physiology Physics Chemistry Biology Science Increasing Objectivity (Indirect Sense) (More Empirical) Perception of Separation (differentiation, analysis) Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 9 RR9 This is a model I put together around 1985 to extend the wheel of knowledge into a form that could be used to explain where technology fit and how it evolved. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR10 Team CommIT GEM Framework (Leveraging OMB FEA) Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 10 RR10 This is the GEM framework, first used in 1987, for organizing enterprise general subject taxonomies, a general ontology of subject relationships over time, and the value-lattice of the totality of enterprise subjects and their relations. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR11 Team CommIT Enterprise Management Spiral Life Cycle Process (SLCP) Model 2. Concurrent Functions Inventory Enterprise Reference Architecture (e.g., Functional Maturation via Policy, Process, etc. Documents) And Function Enterprise Modeling and Architecture Mission Management Operations Risk (i.e., Threat) (Concurrent for Hierarchy of Organizations, Functions, Programs, Projects, and Persons) Management and Vulnerability Mission (Strength and Opportunity Management) Using A (i.e., Weakness) Vision Common Goals Management Performance Objectives (e.g., Measures, Service Levels, Contracts) Management Targets/Indicators Repository Strategies (Requirements Management and Analysis) Baseline Service Operations (Functions/Programs/Projects) Strength, Activities /Services (Performance Metrics) Weakness, Products /Systems (Product/System Specifications) Costs/Benefits Opportunity, and Projects / Initiatives (New/Improved Functions/Programs/Projects) Threat (SWOT) Investment Cost (Infrastructure, Development, Procurement) Assessment Performance Impact Operations Cost Impacts Implemented Plans 1.1 Function Actual Performance Intelligence Value Chain Assessment Track Performance Account for Resources Inventories (Relationship Management for Manage Configurations Diverse Content, Customers, Suppliers, Partners, Measure Performance Authorities, Public, Internal Performance Review Data, Metadata, Analysis) Performance Adjustment for Mature Mission Management Vocabulary, Manage Full Enterprise Configuration Keywords, 1.4 Enterprise Virtual Applications (EA Repository-based Templates and Composite Applications) Concepts, Propositions / 1.3 Enterprise Mission-Based Security Controls (For Security Access and Asset Distribution) Assertions, Taxonomy, 1.2 Enterprise Common Context/Intelligence/Architecture Semantics, SUBJECT Location Organization Organization Function Process Resource Resource Life Cycle Thesauri, Context and Context and Unit Context (Mission) Context Context and Context and State Context and Context Content and Content and Content Content Content Content Ontology, Knowledge Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 11 RR11 This is a variant of my 1987 strategic management process flow-model that represents evolving operations supported by dynamic operational and analytical data. The #2 item represents the strategic management process, wich is a spiral life cycle that provides to the enterprise and all of its functions a concurrent and integrated superset of what is now known as a quot;balanced scoredardquot;, plus strategy/portfolio/program/project management, performance tracking/reporting/assessment and adjustment, value-chain relationship management, and stregth/weakness/opportunity/threat assessment. (Weakness = vulnerability, threat = risk). The GEM ontololgy in item 1.2 integrates the diverse functional (i.e., middle) ontologies from 1.1, which in turn provides the data needed to associate resources with user access authority in 1.3 and to virtualized knowledge-base functional applications in 1.4. All of this operates from a non-fragmented repository containing or linking to the totality of enterprise management information, providing a wholistic view of the dynamic enterprise in its dynamic environment. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR12 Enterprise Leadership and Management Functions - Progression from Current Disorder to New Order, With Cohesion Leadership Management Leadership Provides Cohesion (i.e., Control) By Managing The Configuration Of 1 3 2 Enterprise Architecture” Our Status Yesterday… How We’ll Get There Now Our Intended Status Tomorrow… 1. Enterprise Components (As-Is Disorder) (Migration, Control) (To-Be Order, Command) 1.1. Location Risk and Vulnerability Assessment, 1.2. Organization Performance Measurement, 1.3. Organization Unit Operating Environment And Adjustments Mission 1.4. Function 1.5. Process Evolving Operation Strategy 1.6. Resource To Close Gaps and Reduce Overlaps Vision Value-Lattice 2. Component Relations (Integrated Value Chains) (Adaptation Decisions) 2.1. Categorization 2.2. Containment 2.3. Sequence Strength, 2.4. Version Weakness, Opportunity, Goal 2.5. Equivalence and Threat Awareness Objective 2.6. Variation Criteria 2.7. Reference 3. Capability Requirements 3.1. Conceptual 3.2. Specified 3.3. Authorized 3.4. Funded Tightening “Acceptable Performance” 3.5. Implemented Operation Indicators from Lessons Learned 3.6. Operational (Intelligence Refinement) 3.7. Disposed Leadership Provides Measured and Adjusted Progression, Transforming Enterprise Into An Intended Future State (i.e., Command) Leadership and Management of the “Operational Part of Architecture” Both Depend On Organization of Data (i.e., “the Intelligence Part of Architecture”) About The Enterprise and Its Environment Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 12 RR12 This is my 1991 leadership and management model that realigns the strategic management spiral life cycle to illustrated the concepts of command, control, strategy, performance, etc. supported by the enterprise architecture. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR13 Nature’s Value-Chain THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT RECYCLER (BASIC RESOURCES/PRODUCTS) (NATURAL AND INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC MATERIAL (UNEXTRACTED OR PROCESSED) RECYCLING OF BY-PRODUCTS TO ORGANIC MATERIAL (UNHARVESTED OR PROCESSED) PRODUCE MATERIAL AND ENERGY, ENERGY (UNHARNASSED OR PROCESSED) AND RECORDING/SHARING OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE (INITITAL INSIGHTS/EXPERIENCE OR KNOWLEDGE) PROCESSED) CUSTOMER EXTRACTOR ALL CUSTOMERS ARE (CONSUMER= CUSTOMERS ONLY BY-PRODUCT INTERNAL CUSTOMERS, IF WANT TO PAY FOR SUPPLIER) YOU DEFINE THE ENTERPRISE THE ADDED VALUE BOUNDARY BROADLY THEY REQUIRE. IF ENOUGH. THE PRIMARY THEY DON'T SUPPLIER IS THE DYNAMICAL REQUIRE IT, IT HAS PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. NO VALUE TO THEM. REFINER SUPPLIER YOUR (VAA) ENTERPRISE VALUE ADDED VAA VAA ACTIVITY -VAA NOTE: INTERCHANGE OF INFORMATION, AND EXCHANGE OF MATERIAL, ENERGY, AND/OR CURRENCY Copyright Roy Roebuck, 1982-2006. Used with permission by the U.S. Federal Executive Branch under the GEM Service Provider License of CommIT Enterprises, Inc.
Slide 13 RR13 This is my 1992 model representing the value-chain aspects subsequently included in the GEM approach. Prior to this time I was focusing more on the quot;reduction of cycle timequot;, from an operational and management-engineering perspective. This was when I was subsuming TQM and BPR (e.g., IDEF0) concepts and processes into the GEM approach. Roy Roebuck, 1/20/2006
RR14 Enterprise Value Chain Natural Environment Extractor Recycler 6. 1. Refiner Supplier d. Customer Consumer 2. Pr (Output, a. ov (Input ) Ex an ct Your io is Outcome) pe d i on e. n Enterprise cta Sa Value-Added tio t is 5. (Internal, Insource, fa n Activity c. b. and Outsource Pr Public Re 6. od (Input, Control) Activity) qu uc ire Public tio m Perform, en ( Output, n 2.1 t Control) Measure, Products 3. and Improve Authority 2.4 (Control) Culture 4. 2.3 2.2 4. Partner Structure Process (Input, Partner
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