online catalog

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Information about online catalog

Published on February 5, 2008

Author: Rainero


線上目錄檔案結構 Online Catalog:  線上目錄檔案結構 Online Catalog What’s Online Catalog?:  What’s Online Catalog? Online catalogs Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) Web-based OPAC = (WebPAC) 線上目錄 館藏查詢系統 國立交通大學圖書館館藏查詢系統 ( Issue… How to create/maintain the contents of OPAC The ability to search for bibliographic records Simple author or title search Complex Boolean, phrase, proximity, range and probabilistic search Goal:  Goal The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the file structures of bibliographic/holding (書目/館藏) data that facilitate the search of online catalog 在圖書館自動化系統中應該具備的資料有哪些? 系統分析 = The Evolution of Online Cataliog 做為後續編目模組與館藏查詢系統的基礎 Bridge file structure and RDBMS Online Catalog File Structure:  Online Catalog File Structure Evolution:  Evolution Simple file Index file Postings file = How to handle data with the same author, title… Variable-length bibliographic records = capture the nature of library data Normalization = Many copies of a book… Authority control = quality control and assist search… Simple File:  Simple File A single file of bibliographic records (書目記錄) Figure 5.2 RRN, Author, Title, Publisher, Date RRN: Relative Record Number Fixed-Length records Think!! How to add, delete, search… Is the search process efficient? How to improve… Index File (索引檔):  Index File (索引檔) For efficient searching and access to records Figure 5.3 Index files are included: Author index and Title index An index entry consists of a KEY and RRN In real case, KEY is very complicated (concatenation of may author-related fields…) The index file keeps KEYs in alphabetical order Internal structure of an index file may be organized into a B-Tree or B+ - Tree How to perform add, delete, and search With and without index file Postings File (I):  Postings File (I) No two bibliographic records in Figure 5.3 have the same author author or title For records having the same key… Hold all RRNs or Ids in an index entry How many space is enough Another file containing all the Ids Postings file is often employed Postings File (II):  Postings File (II) Figure 5.4 addresses the problem by a postings file An index entry has a KEY and a postings file RRN A separate postings file An postings entry holds the RRNs for records having the same KEY, and one pointer to Next Posting RRN In a real case, a capacity of 25-100 would be more realistic How to perform add, delete, and search Postings file is a useful tool in information retrieval and library automation MARC (I):  MARC (I) In general, bibliographic data does not contain a fixed number of fields and each field is not a fixed length Multiple occurrences of a single field Multiple subject headings Lack certain in one record that present in another record Uniform title Field length may vary wildly Fixed-length record (or RDBMS) is not suitable… The library community developed a standard, MARC, to encode and transmit bibliographic data MARC (II):  MARC (II) Identify the contents of records by tagging them in accordance with standards See Table 5.1 and Figure 5.5 245 Title statement 100 Personal name 650 Subject added entry MARC interchange format (ISO2709) Figure 5.6 #: delimiter to separate fields $: separate sub-fields (e.g. 260) @: the end of a record Variable-Length Bibliographic Record File (I):  Variable-Length Bibliographic Record File (I) Figure 5.7 (just for example of variable-length records) The file is viewed as a string of characters Each position has a unique number assigned to it \n: end of the record \t: separate field This scheme relies on the program being able to identify the sequence of fields should be author, title, publisher, and date. Variable-Length Bibliographic Record File (II):  Variable-Length Bibliographic Record File (II) Figure 5.8 and Figure 5.9 Each bibliographic record is given a unique symbolic identifier the bibliographic record identification number (bibID) How to perform add, delete, and search Record length is the issue… Holding File (I):  Holding File (I) Normalization A concept originated from Relational Database Eliminate the repetition of the same piece of data in multiple tables The concept of normalization can be applied in Library Automation for a book with multiple physical copies A library’s collection contains 5 physical copies (複本) of a book Need 5 bibliographic records from Figure 5.1 to 5.9 The only difference is likely to be call and copy number Holding File (II):  Holding File (II) Separate bibliographic information into a bibliographic file (書目檔) and a holding file (館藏檔) Bibliographic file: hold information constant between copies Holding file: contain information that differs See Figure 5.10 Bibliographic File: RRN, BibID, Holdings File RRN, Author, Title Holding File: RRN, HoldID, NextHoldings RRN, Call Number (索書號), Copy Number (複本號), Barcode, Location (館藏地) Holding File (III):  Holding File (III) Advantage Save space Maintain consistency 能夠判斷是“同一本書” Disadvantage Time Complex maintenance How to perform add, delete, search Authority Control (權威控制):  Authority Control (權威控制) Introduction:  Introduction Authority Control: important for searching as well as for bibliographic file maintenance Name authority file: A list of author names to Verify a name in an existing bibliographic records matches the spelling of one in the authority file A source for assigning new names when new material is cataloged Subject authority file: the preferred form of a subject or subjects that are broader or narrower in scope than others 舉例說明:台大館藏服務 Selected MARC Authority Record Tags:  Selected MARC Authority Record Tags Table 5.2 100: Name authority term 150: Topical authority term 450: Un-authority term designated as inappropriate 550: broader, narrower, or related term Figure 5.11 & Figure 5.12: Name authority record Figure 5.13 & Figure 5.14: Subject authority record Un-authority term: Climbing Mountains, Mountain Climbing Authority term: Mountaineering 550 0 $w g $a Hiking / 550 0 $w g Outdoor Life Authority Control and Search:  Authority Control and Search If a search is conducted using an unauthorized 450 term The online catalog can refer the searcher to the authorized term If a searcher uses the term mountaineering and wants to broaden the search An authority system can suggest the term hiking Authority Control File Structure:  Authority Control File Structure Figure 5.15 Author, subject and title indexes point to the authority index file Authority index file RRN, Key, Key Type, Bibpost RRN, Authority ID How to search for the subject “Mountaineering” Online Catalog with Authority Index and Cross-References:  Online Catalog with Authority Index and Cross-References The shortcoming of Figure 5.15 Information intrinsic to the authority records themselves is not available for use in searching or maintenance activities How to perform search when a searcher uses the term “climbing mountains” Figure 5.16 Fields to implement the cross-reference of authority file Broader, narrower, related, preferred terms Point to the cross-reference posting file Point back to the authority index file Search and Maintenance Operation:  Search and Maintenance Operation A search for the subject key “Arabia” Subject index  Authority index (19)  Cross reference postings (15)  Authority index (5)  Bib postings (5)  BibID Index (B7)  Bibliographic (2500) A search for the subject key “Mountaineering” Subject index  Authority index (1)  Bib Postings (2)  BibID Index (B1 and B9)  Bibliographic (0 and 400) Broader: Subject index  Authority index (1)  Cross reference postings (2)  Authority index (14 and 15)  Bib postings file (…)  BibID Index (…)  Bibliographic (…) [In this example, no materials are cataloged under the subject Hiking and Outdoor life] Maintenance Summary and Review (I):  Summary and Review (I) File Structure for online catalog systems are introduced Figure 5.2: Simple bibliographic file Figure 5.3: Index files are used to expedite the search Figure 5.4: Postings files are used for one-to-many relationship (Index key searching) Figure 5.10: Holding files (the same book with many copies) Figure 5.15: Authority control Figure 5.16: Authority control with cross reference Summary and Review (II):  Summary and Review (II) Important files Bibliographic, holdings, and postings files Index files MARC for bibliographic and authority Basic steps for searching online catalog No authority control Index  (Bib) Posting  Bibliographic  Holding Authority control Index  Authority Index  [(Cross-Reference) Authority Posting ] (Bib) Posting  Bibliographic  Holding Summary and Review (III):  Summary and Review (III) Basic information recorded in bibliographic file RRN (or Unique Bibliographic ID) Author, Title Publishing information (Publisher, Place, Date) Subject Basic information recorded in holdings file RRN (or Unique Holding ID) Call number Copy number Barcode Location A linking between the bibliographic and holding files is also necessary Summary and Review (IV):  Summary and Review (IV) From file to RDBMS… How to handle lengthy and variable-length records Relationship among tables can be captured by foreign keys or another table Author/Title index files and “RDBMS Index” Author/Title index files are real tables in RDBMS RDBMS Index are created for Author/Title index files (tables) Postings file may be useful in some case What’s Bibliographic Record:  What’s Bibliographic Record 書目記錄記載一本書(或非書資料)的基本資料 題名及著者敘述項(題名、卷數、著者及著作方式等) 版本項(包括不同版本及其著者敘述) 資料特殊細節項(如連續出版品的卷期、編次等) 出版項(出版地、出版者、出版年及經銷、印製事項等) 稽核項(面、頁、冊等數量單位,插圖、聲音、色彩、高度、尺寸及附件等) 集叢項(如四部備要、萬有文庫等) 附註項 標準號碼及其他必要記載項 追尋項

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