Online Assignment-Sathyananthini

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Information about Online Assignment-Sathyananthini
Science

Published on September 26, 2014

Author: sathyacs

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INTRODUCTION Reference material provides a kind of benchmark for a measurement. It is therefore used in, for example, method development and validation, calibration and quality assurance. The term "reference material" is a generic term, i.e. it comprises materials which are investigated and documented at different levels .Certified reference materials (defined as "reference material, characterized by a metrological valid procedure for one or more specified properties, accompanied by a certificate that provides the value of the specified property, its associated uncertainty, and a statement of metrological traceability").Non-certified reference materials (not accompanied by a certificate, sometimes called "reference materials" in the sense of materials qualified only to a limited extent compared to "certified reference materials").

REFERENCE MATERIALS  Reference books are used to supplement knowledge gained in the classroom and to acquire new knowledge.  Reference books provide a means for self-improvement.   These include dictionaries, yearbooks, government reports, journals, encyclopedia of science, etc.  They are authentic and reliable sources of information.  Authors of the reference books will be persons who have made original contributions and experience in the field.  The students must be given special training in the use of reference books.  The teacher should ensure that the suggested reference materials are easily comprehensive, readily available and appropriate for the age levels of the pupils.

Reference material is a material sufficiently, homogenous and stable with respect to one or more specified properties which has been established to be fit it its indented use in measurement process. The metrological point of view, a kind of hierarchy can be established on the uncertainty of the certified values and in relation to their position in the trace ability chain.  PRIMARY REFERENCE MATERIAL: A material having the metrological qualities and whose value is determined by the means of primary method.  SECONDARY REFERENCE MATERIAL: Reference material whose chemical composition is assigned by comparison with a primary reference material of the same chemical composition, or with several such primary reference materials.

USES OF REFERENCE MATERIALS  Reference materials play an important role within a broader quality assurance programme.  They serve as an important tool for implementation of numerous aspects of quality measurements.  It is mainly for the validation of methods, calibration, estimation of measurement uncertainty, training and internal quality control, as well as external proficiency testing or inter-laboratory testing  Reference materials are used to support measurements concerned with chemical composition, biological, clinical, physical, engineering properties and with various fields such as taste and odour.  They may be characterized for their "identity" (e.g. chemical structure, fibre type, microbiological species), or "property values" (e.g. the quantity of specified chemical entity,hardness.

ADVANTAGES OF REFERENCE BOOKS  It supplements the classroom learning  It facilitates pupil’s self study habits and spirit of self effort.  It helps the pupils to workout assignments.  It stimulates scientific thinking and inculcates elements of scientific attitude.  It leads students to new vistas of knowledge.

MAGAZINES Magazines are publications, containing various articles of relevance to the community. Usually there will be a theme for every issue of the magazines. Informative write-ups on advancements in science and technology are given in such magazines. These magazines also provide space for science fictions, stories, etc. The language used in these magazines is attractive and intelligible to the readers, and the articles are supported by suitable diagrams and illustrations. Some important science magazines are: 1. Eureca,Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Kochi 2. Sastra Keralam, Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Kochi  Magazines are publications, usually periodical publications that are printed or published electronically. (The online versions are called online magazines.)  They are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content they are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three.  At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. Advantages:  More targeted: specific magazine titles appeal to specific target groups more so than a newspaper advert.  Long Life: magazines have a longer “life” than newspapers; they sit about in doctor’s waiting rooms, magazine racks and with collectors.

 Pass-on readership – people may pass magazines on to their friends and family which will increase exposure of your advert.  Status – some magazine titles are well respected in their field, so an advertisement in these will increase your product/service’s prestige by association. Disadvantages  Deadlines months in advance – magazines often require the ads to be submitted weeks or months in advance.  It also means that testing adverts can be a lengthy process!  Cost of testing – color artwork can be more expensive, so small tests are often uneconomical.  Regional testing – can’t often be done as magazines area often national.  Graveyard – your ad runs the risk of being shoveled into the graveyard of ads in the back of the magazine unless you pay for premium positioning.

NEWSLETTER  A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication that is generally about one main topic of interest to its subscribers.  Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters.  Newsletters are published by clubs, churches, societies, associations, and businesses—especially companies—to provide information of interest to members, customers, or employees.  A newsletter may be considered "grey literature".  Newsletters delivered electronically via email (e-Newsletters) have gained rapid acceptance for the same reasons email in general has gained popularity over printed correspondence.  Some newsletters are created as money-making ventures and sold directly to subscribers.  Sending newsletters to customers and prospects is a common marketing strategy, which can have benefits and drawbacks.  Public organizations emit newsletters in order to improve or maintain their reputation in the society.  General attributes of newsletters include news and upcoming events of the related organization, as well as contact information. ADVANTAGES Newsletters help you to promote your business. Basically a newsletter motivates customers to buy from you.

 A general newsletter contains articles and an appropriate vision and mission of the business. This information helps customers to understand your business.  Newsletters are an effective communication tool.  Creative newsletters can be appreciated by the clients and hence increase the communication between businesses and clients.  As mentioned above, a newsletter is a cost effective tool, but it can be used as a source of income by putting advertisements in it. DISADVANTAGES  To receive a newsletter client must provide their email address, which in some cases people reluctant to do so fearing that their email address could be passed to other organizations, resulting hundreds of junk emails.  In some cases a newsletter may not be received by the recipient. Reasons for this could be the spam filters used by many

ENCYCLOPEDIA  An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (alsospelled encyclopædia,)is a type of reference work or compendium holding a comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge.  Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name.  Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries.  Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information to cover the thing or concept for which the article name stands.  Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, and its method of production.  Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field (the English-language Encyclopedia Britannica are well-known examples).  General encyclopedias often contain guides on how to do a variety of things, as well as embedded dictionaries.

 There are also encyclopedias that cover a wide variety of topics but from a particular cultural, ethnic, or national perspective.  Works of encyclopedic scope aim to convey the important accumulated knowledge for their subject domain, such as an encyclopedia of medicine, philosophy etc.  Works vary in the breadth of material and the depth of discussion, depending on target audient.  Some systematic method of organization is essential to making an encyclopedia usable as a work of reference.  There have historically been two main methods of organizing printed  Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, and its method of production. ADVANTAGES  Encyclopedia easy to use and learn.  Wikis are instantaneous so there is no need to wait for a publisher to create a new edition or update information  People located in different parts of the world can work on the same document  The wiki software keeps track of every edit made and it's a simple process to revert back to a previous version of an article.  Widens access to the power of web publishing to non-technical users  The wiki has no predetermined structure - consequently it is a flexible tool which can be used for a wide range of applications.

 There are a wide range of open source software wiki's to choose from so licensing costs shouldn't be a barrier to installing an institutional wiki DISADVANTAGES  Anyone can edit so this may be too open for some applications, for example confidential documentation. However it is possible to regulate user access.  Open to SPAM and Vandalism if not managed properly.  There are easy ways to restore a page however, and on Wiki Educator you must be logged in to edit pages so this reduces vandalism by automated spam bots.  Requires Internet connectivity to collaborate, but technologies to produce print versions of articles are improving  The flexibility of a wiki's structure can mean that information becomes disorganized. As a wiki grows, the community plans and administers the structure collaboratively.

JOURNALS  Journals are periodical publications that consist of various authentic articles regarding the concerned subject.  These articles may be theoretical or reports of research studies.  They throw light on innovations and novel particles in the subject.  The value of journals lies on the reputation of its publishers.  The authenticity of the article is characterized by exact references of citations and sustaining data.  Usually an abstract of the article is provided at the beginning of the write-up.  The periodicity of journals varies and they are published either fortnightly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly, half-yearly or annually.  Today in the e-world most of the journals are available through web sites and portals.  Also there are some journals published exclusively in electronic media, known as ‘e-journals’.

Some important journals in science are: 1) School Science, NCERT, New Delhi 2) Science Reporter, CSIR, New Delhi 3) Junior Scientist, Association for the Promotion of Science education, Chennai 4) Science for Schools, National Science Development Board, manila.  A journal is a book or computer file in which monetary transactions are entered the first time they are processed.  This journal lists transactions in chronological sequence by date prior to a transfer of the same transactions to a ledger in the process of bookkeeping  Narrations or equivalent to a ship's log, as a record of the daily run, such as observations, weather changes, or other events of daily importance ADVANTAGES:  Portable and easy to read.  Inexpensive, flexible and have added valve with a large amount of supporting data.  There is no possibility of any transaction being omitted from the books of account. Since the transactions are kept recorded in journal, chronologically

with narration, it can be easily ascertained when and why a transaction has taken place.  For each and every transaction which of the two concerned accounts will be debited and which account credited, are clearly written in journal.  there is no possibility of committing any mistake in writing the ledger. Since all the debits of transaction are recorded in journal, it is not necessary to repeat them in ledger.  As a result ledger is kept tidy and brief.  Journal shows the complete story of a transaction in one entry.  Any mistake in ledger can be easily detected with the help of journal. DISADVANTAGES  The journal relays opinions and feelings.  it is likely that the content covers only one person's perspective as oppose to giving a big picture of the topic covered, perishable citation as website change their URLs.

CONCLUSION Familiarize themselves with the different reference materials available in the library. Develop the basic information-seeking skills can perform effective and efficient access and retrieval of informations. This information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Reference works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end. The writing style used in these works is informative keeping them in the library assures that they will always be available for use on demand. Other reference-only books are books that are too valuable to permit borrowers to take them out. Reference-only items may be shelved in a reference collection located separately from circulating items. Some libraries consist entirely or to a large extent of books which may not be borrowed; these include national libraries and many special libraries.

REFERENCE  JESSY MATHEW, (2008), Teaching of Natural Science; Theory, Perspectives & Practice; St. Mary’s Training College, Karikode, Kottayam.  GLARY BLAKE and ROBERT W. BLY,(1993); The Elements of Technical Writing, pg. 113. Macmillan publishers, New York:  R C SHARMA, (1996); Modern Science Teaching; Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi.  The University of Chicago Library. "Types of Electronic Resources". Retrieved 3 May 2012

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1. INTRODUCTIONReference material provides a kind of benchmarkfor a measurement. It is therefore used in, for example,method development and validation ...
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