OM 2005 11

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Published on November 16, 2007

Author: Maitane

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Slide1:  Operations Management Supply-Chain Management Chapter 11 Outline:  Outline THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE SUPPLY-CHAIN Global Supply-Chain Issues SUPPLY-CHAIN ECONOMICS: Make-or-Buy Decisions, Outsourcing, SUPPLY-CHAIN STRATEGIES: Many or Few Suppliers, Vertical Integration, Japan and Keiretsu Networks, Virtual Companies Managing the Supply Chain: Issues In an Integrated Supply Chain, Opportunities in an Integrated Supply Chain. INTERNET PURCHASING VENDOR SELECTION: Vendor Evaluation and Development, Negotiations MATERIALS MANAGEMENT BENCHMARKING SUPPLY-CHAIN MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives:  Identify or Define: Supply-chain management Purchasing Outsourcing E-procurement Materials management Keiretsu Virtual companies Describe or Explain: Supply-Chain Strategies Purchasing strategies Approaches to negotiations Learning Objectives Volkswagen:  Volkswagen Brazilian plant employs 1000 workers 200 work for VW 800 work for other contractors: Rockwell International, Cummins Engines, Deluge Automotiva, MWM, Remon and VDO, etc. VW responsible for overall quality, marketing, research and design VW looks to innovative supply-chain to improve quality and drive down costs Unusual elements: VW is buying not only materials, but also the labor and related services Suppliers are integrated tightly into VW’s own network, right down to assembly work in the plant Definition of Supply Chain Management:  Definition of Supply Chain Management Supply Chain The steps and the firms that perform these steps in the transformation of raw inputs into finished products bought by customers. Inbound Logistics The delivery of goods and services that are purchased from suppliers and/or their distributors. Outbound Logistics The delivery of goods and services that are sold to a firm’s customers and/or distributors. Managerial Issues:  Managerial Issues Concentration of resources on the firm’s core competencies such as supply chain management. Increasing proportion of purchased goods and services as inputs into products. Increased pressure to reduce inventories. Applying advances in information technology to strategically manage supplier relationships and the supply chain itself. The Supply-Chain:  Consumer Retailer Manufacturing Material Flow VISA ® Credit Flow Supplier Supplier Wholesaler Retailer Cash Flow Order Flow Schedules The Supply-Chain The Evolution of Supply Chain Management:  The Evolution of Supply Chain Management Supply-Chain Management:  Planning, organizing, directing, & controlling flows of materials Begins with raw materials (Inbound logistics), Continues through internal operations (Transformation), Ends with distribution of finished goods (Outbound logistics) Involves everyone in supply-chain (including your supplier’s supplier) Objective: Create/Maximize value & lower waste Supply-Chain Management The Extended Supply Chain:  The Extended Supply Chain Material Costs in Supply-Chain:  Material Costs in Supply-Chain Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy:  Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy Supplier’s goal Primary Selection Criteria Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy - continued:  Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy - continued Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy - continued:  Supply-Chain Support for Overall Strategy - continued Global Supply-Chain Issues:  Global Supply-Chain Issues Supply chains in a global environment must be: Flexible enough to react to sudden changes in parts availability, distribution, or shipping channels, import duties, and currency rates Able to use the latest computer and transmission technologies to schedule and manage the shipment of parts in and finished products out Staffed with local specialists to handle duties, trade, freight, customs and political issues Importance of Purchasing:  Major cost center Affects quality of final product Aids strategy of low cost, response, and differentiation Objectives of purchasing function: Help identify the products and services that can be best obtained externally; and develop, evaluate, and determine the best supplier, price, and delivery for those products and services. Importance of Purchasing Supply-Chain Costs as a % of Sales:  Supply-Chain Costs as a % of Sales All industry Automobile Food Lumber Paper Petroleum Transportation 52% 67% 60% 61% 55% 79% 62% Industry Percent of Sales Dollars of Additional Sales Needed to Equal 1$ Saved Through Purchasing:  Dollars of Additional Sales Needed to Equal 1$ Saved Through Purchasing The Purchasing Focus:  The Purchasing Focus Traditional Purchasing Process:  Traditional Purchasing Process Purchasing Techniques:  Purchasing Techniques Drop shipping and special packaging - supplier will ship to end consumer rather than to seller Blanket orders - a long-term purchase commitment to a supplier for items that are to be delivered against short-term releases to ship Invoiceless purchasing (Electronic ordering and funds transfer Electronic data interchange (EDI)) - “paperless” ordering and 100% material acceptance, payment by “wire”. Direct link between a manufacturer’s database and that of the vendor. Stockless purchasing Standardization - reducing the number of variations in materials and components Outsourcing Make/Buy Considerations:  Make/Buy Considerations Maintain core competencies and protect personnel from layoff Lower production cost Unsuitable suppliers Assure adequate supply Utilize surplus labor and make a marginal contribution Obtain desired quantity Remove supplier collusion Obtain a unique item that would entail a prohibitive commitment from the supplier Protect proprietary design or quality Increase or maintain size of company Frees management to deal with its primary business Lower acquisition cost Preserve supplier commitment Obtain technical or management ability Inadequate capacity Reduce inventory costs Ensure flexibility and alternate source of supply Inadequate managerial or technical resources Reciprocity Item is protected by patent or trade secret Reasons for Making Reasons for Buying Supply-Chain Strategies:  Plans to help achieve company mission Affect long-term competitive position Strategic options Many suppliers Few suppliers Keiretsu network Vertical integration Virtual company Negotiate with many suppliers; play one supplier against another Develop long-term “partnering” arrangements with a few suppliers who will work with you to satisfy the end customer Vertically integrate; buy the actual supplier Keiretsu - have your suppliers become part of a company coalition Create a virtual company that uses suppliers on an as-needed basis. Plan © 1995 Corel Corp. Supply-Chain Strategies Factors Impacting the Supply Chain:  Factors Impacting the Supply Chain Many Suppliers Strategy:  Many Suppliers Strategy Many sources per item Adversarial relationship Short-term Little openness Negotiated High prices Infrequent, large lots Delivery to receiving dock 1 or few sources per item Partnership (JIT) Long-term, stable On-site audits & visits Exclusive contracts Low prices (large orders) Frequent, small lots Delivery to point of use Few Suppliers Strategy The Trend Toward Reducing the Number of Suppliers:  The Trend Toward Reducing the Number of Suppliers Exhibit 13.3 Daimler Chrysler’s Supplier Cost Reduction Effort:  Daimler Chrysler’s Supplier Cost Reduction Effort Tactics for Close Supplier Relationships:  Tactics for Close Supplier Relationships Tactic Reduce total number of suppliers Certify suppliers Ask for JIT delivery from key suppliers Involve key suppliers in new product design Develop software linkages to suppliers Results Average 20% reduction in 5 years Almost 40% of all companies surveyed were themselves currently certified About 60% ask for this About 54% do this Almost 80% claim to do this About 50% claim this Vertical Integration Strategy:  Raw Material (Suppliers) Backward Integration Current Transformation Forward Integration Finished Goods (Customers) Ability to produce goods previously purchased Setup operations Buy supplier Make-buy issue Major financial commitment Hard to do all things well Vertical Integration Strategy Forms of Vertical Integration:  Forms of Vertical Integration Iron Ore Steel Automobiles Distribution System Dealers Silicon Integrated Circuits Circuit Boards Computers Watches Calculators Farming Flour Milling Raw Material (Suppliers) Backward Integration Current Transformation Forward Integration Finished Goods (Customers) Baked Goods Vertical Integration Can be Forward or Backward:  Vertical Integration Can be Forward or Backward Keiretsu Network Strategy:  Japanese word for ‘affiliated chain’ System of mutual alliances and cross-ownership Company stock is held by allied firms Lowers need for short-term profits Links manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, & lenders ‘Partnerships’ extend across entire supply chain Keiretsu Network Strategy Virtual Companies:  Virtual Companies Companies that rely on a variety of supplier relationships to provide services on demand. Also known as hollow corporations, or network corporations Strategies: Network of independent companies Linked by technology PC’s, faxes, Internet etc. Each contributes core competencies Typically provide services Payroll, editing, designing May be long or short-term Usually, only until opportunity is met Managing the Supply-Chain:  Managing the Supply-Chain Options: Postponement Channel assembly Drop shipping Blanket orders Invoiceless purchasing Electronic ordering and funds transfer Stockless purchasing Standardization Internet purchasing (e-procurement) Establishing lines of credit for suppliers Reducing bank “float” Coordinating production and shipping schedules with suppliers and distributors Sharing market research Making optimal use of warehouse space Supplier-Managed Inventories Inventories in a firm’s facility that are the responsibility of the supplier to maintain and to replenish as necessary. Consignment Inventories Inventories that are physically present in a firm’s facility but that are still owned by the supplier. EDI (electronic data exchange) Quick Response (QR) Programs Just-in-time replenishment system using bar-code scanning and EDI. Efficient Customer Response (ECR) Strategy for bringing distributors, suppliers, and grocers together using bar-code scanning and EDI. Successful Supply-Chain Management Requires::  Successful Supply-Chain Management Requires: A mutual agreement on goals Trust Compatible organizational cultures Requirements for Successful Supply Chain:  Requirements for Successful Supply Chain Issues in an Integrated Supply-Chain:  Issues in an Integrated Supply-Chain Local optimization Incentives Large lots Opportunities in an Integrated Supply-Chain Generation of accurate “pull” data Reduction of lot size Single stage control of replenishment Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI):  Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) Postponement – keeps product generic as long as possible Channel Assembly – sends to distributor individual components and modules rather than finished goods Drop Shipping and Special Packaging – supplier will ship to end consumer rather than to seller Blanket Orders – a long-term purchase commitment to a supplier for items that are to be delivered against short-term releases to ship Standardization – reducing the number of variations in materials and components Electronic Ordering and Funds Transfer – “paperless” ordering and 100% material acceptance, payment by “wire” Supplier-Managed Inventories - Inventories in a firm’s facility that are the responsibility of the supplier to maintain and to replenish as necessary. Consignment Inventories - Inventories that are physically present in a firm’s facility but that are still owned by the supplier. Quick Response (QR) Programs - Just-in-time replenishment system using bar-code scanning and EDI. Efficient Customer Response (ECR) - Strategy for bringing distributors, suppliers, and grocers together using bar-code scanning and EDI. Vendor Selection Steps:  Vendor evaluation Identifying & selecting potential vendors Vendor development Integrating buyer & supplier Example: Electronic data exchange Negotiations Results in contract Specifies period of agreement, price, delivery terms etc. Vendor Selection Steps Supplier Selection Criteria:  Company Financial stability Management Location Product Quality Price Service Delivery on time Condition on arrival Technical support Training Supplier Selection Criteria Vendor Selection Rating Form:  Vendor Selection Rating Form Negotiation Strategies:  Negotiation Strategies Three types: cost-based price model - supplier opens its books to purchaser; price based upon fixed cost plus escalation clause for materials and labor market-based price model - published price or index competitive bidding - potential suppliers bid for contract Logistics Management:  Logistics Management Integrates all materials functions Purchasing Inventory management Production control Inbound traffic Warehousing and stores Incoming quality control Objective: Efficient, low cost operations Goods Movement Options:  Goods Movement Options Trucking Railways Airfreight Waterways Pipelines Supply-Chain Performance Compared:  Supply-Chain Performance Compared The Role of Logistics in The Supply Chain:  The Role of Logistics in The Supply Chain Partnering Establishing a strategic alliance or partnership with a firm that specializes in transportation or logistics. Using a logistics partner to store finished goods at the logistics partner’s hub or distribution center. The Role of Logistics in The Supply Chain:  The Role of Logistics in The Supply Chain In-Transit Inventory Costs Combination of transportation and carrying costs associated with delivery of raw materials and components that are inbound to the plant. Total annual (inbound) costs = Transportation costs + In-transit inventory carrying costs + Purchase costs TC = DM + (X/365)iDC + DC D = Annual demand M = Transportation cost per unit X = Transportation time in days i = Annual cost of capital C = Unit cost per item The Trade-Off between Transportation Costs and the Cost of Capital with Respect to the Shipment of Products:  The Trade-Off between Transportation Costs and the Cost of Capital with Respect to the Shipment of Products Exhibit 13.4 Disintermediation or Vertical disintegration:  Disintermediation or Vertical disintegration Disintermediation The trend to reduce many of the steps in the supply chain by reducing the number of intermediaries in the chain. Cross-docking Direct-to-store shipments JIT II®: vendor and customer work closely together, eliminating many of the intermediate steps that now exist. Vendor representative located at facility Direct database linkage with vendor’s manufacturing facility. Major SCM Software Packages:  Major SCM Software Packages Exhibit 13.5

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