Published on March 12, 2008
© Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 1 March 2008
Summary • What is an OLED? • How does an OLED create light? • OLEDs types • OLEDs vs LCD • The OLEDs global market • OLED TV market • TV prototypes • Other OLEDs uses © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 2 March 2008
What is an OLED? Source: http://www.hometheatermag.com/gearworks/0704GWoled/ An OLED or Organic Light Emitting Diode is a light emitting device based on the principle of electroluminescence of organic crystals. An OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 3 March 2008
OLEDs Device operation principles By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 4 March 2008
How do OLEDs create light? © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 5 March 2008
OLEDs structure The two-layer structure Magnesium-silver (10:1) Lithium-Aluminium Polyfluorene Polyaniline Indium-tin-oxide (90%+10%) 550 nm By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 6 March 2008
OLEDs structure The multi-layer structure The multi-layer structure of OLED consists of several layers of organic materials sequentially deposited on glass substrate, each layer having a specific purpose that serves to enhance device quality and performance. The schematic representation of an ideal/standard OLED device is shown below. Source: http://sanjaykram.blogspot.com/2007/10/organic-semiconductors-small-molecules.html © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 7 March 2008
History of OLEDs development • In 1979 Chin Tang discovered electroluminescence in the research department of Kodak. During his work with solar cells he observed a blue glow of organic material. • The technology of current OLEDs was developed by Eastman Kodak starting in 1987 (Tang and Van Slyke) • The first OLEDs were organic light diodes from small molecules (SM- OLED). • In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered. • Cambridge Display Technology developed OLEDs on the basis of polymers (P-OLED or PLED). © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 8 March 2008
Two technological options SM-OLEDs and P-OLEDs Small Molecules = SM-OLEDs Polymer OLEDS = P-OLEDs • Technology developed by Kodak since • Technology developed in 1990 by 1987 Cambridge University in the UK • Small molecules have to be deposited • Spin off into a private company: onto the glass by vacuum deposition Cambridge Display Technology (CDT) expensive • P-OLEDs allow the solution of organic • Heating necessary not all the material in liquid Production process compounds can stand heating (glass is not can be spin coating or Ink Jet printing an option) inexpensive and easy to industrialize • Moisture and oxygen sensitivity of the • Flexible supports (plastic) possible compounds more options than glass only • Most suitable for small screens • Still lag behind SM-OLEDs in picture • Used in some cell phones made by quality Motorola and in car stereos made by • The technology has been licensed to a Pioneer Electronics. variety of companies including Philips, Seiko, Epson and OSRAM. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 9 March 2008
© Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 10 March 2008
Passive Matrix – PM-OLEDS • Strips of of cathode and strips of anode arranged in a perpendicular way • The intersection forms the pixel where light is emitted • External circuitry illuminates any chosen pixel in the array by driving the appropriate row line and column line • A video image is created by sequentially scanning through all rows and columns, briefly switching on the pixels needed to display a particular image • The brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of current applied Source: http://www.scienceofspectroscopy.info/edit/index.php?title=OLED_(Fr) © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 11 March 2008
Active Matrix - AM-OLEDs • Each pixel is addressed by at least two TFT (thin-film transistor) transistors, which provide brightness and on-off control by addressing the pixel in a row/column format • The transistor circuits retain the state (on/off) and level (intensity) information programmed by the display electronics. • Therefore, the light output of every pixel is controlled continuously, rather than being quot;pulsedquot; with high currents just once per refresh cycle. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 12 March 2008
Which uses for PM-OLEDs & AM-OLEDs? PM-OLEDs AM-OLEDs • Suitable for 2-3’’ screens • Suitable for large displays (cellphones, PDA, MP3) (computer monitors, TVs) • Consume more, due to the • Consume less, because TFT power needed for external array requires less power circuitry than external circuitry • Easy to produce • Faster refresh rates suitable for video • More expensive • Brighter and sharper images © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 13 March 2008
OLEDs Acronyms…. TOLED SM- SM-OLED POLED PhOLED RCOLED SOLED PLED FOLED PM-OLED AM -OLED WOLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 14 March 2008
OLEDs for dummies… AM OLED Active Matrix OLED device FOLED Flexible OLED OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode/Device/Display PhOLED Phosphorescent OLED PLED Polymer Light Emitting Diode PM OLED Passive Matrix OLED device P-OLED Polymer OLED (Cambridge Display Technology) RCOLED Resonant Cavity OLED (provides a purer color in the forward direction along the viewing axis of the OLED) SM-OLED Small Molecule OLED (Kodak) SOLED Stacked OLED TOLED Transparent OLED WOLED White OLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 15 March 2008
OLEDs vs. LCD • Self-emitting light, in contrast to the required backlight for LCD • High brightness and contrast (1.000.000 : 1, against max. 10.000 : 1) • Lightweight and thin (less than 2 mm) • The support can be plastic (instead of glass) • Capable of wide viewing angles（~170°) • Low operating voltage and power consumption • Quick response (~ μ second level, instead of 8 msec.) No “trailer” effect • Wide range of operating temperatures (-40 to 85 ) • A simplified manufacturing process compared to LCD © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 16 March 2008
OLEDs vs. LCDs A simplified manufacturing process OLEDs LCDs © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 17 March 2008
OLED vs. LCD Thinner, lighter, faster, brighter © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 18 March 2008
OLEDs are already on the market! Philips- Norelco Sensotec Kodak's EasyShare LS633 zoom digital camera sports an AM550L 2.2quot; OLED active-matrix display. Kodak boasts that the Cell phones with AM This razor has a Polymer- display is so good that you OLEDs based OLED display don't need a PC to own showing battery life and one! Photo: Kodak shave-sensitivity settings. When switched off, it acts as a mirror! © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 19 March 2008
OLEDs market shows strong growth By courtesy of Homer Antoniadis © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 20 March 2008
OLED Market 2004-2005 Revenues 2005 USD 600 mio Source: DisplayBank • 2004: 37 mio units Korea = 16 million units Taiwan = 11 million units Japan = 7 million units Others = 3 million units • 2005: 61 mio units global mkt. growth of 65% Korea = 22 million units Taiwan = 27 million units Japan = 8 million units Others = 4 million units • Leading makers from Korea, Taiwan and Japan control over 90% of the market • China has reached in 2005 half the production of Japan © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 21 March 2008
OLED TV Market 2006 - 2013 • Sales of the first 11’’ OLED display by Sony began in December 2007 in Japan. • The set is sold in the US since January 2008 for USD 2500 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 22 March 2008
Problems OLEDs have to overcome • Lifetime shorter than other technologies • Moisture and Oxygen cause major damages • Manufacturing processes still expensive This requires innovations in materials : chemistry will decide about the future and the success of the OLED technology. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 23 March 2008
LG at CES 2007 The 2.2-inch A220A screens boast QVGA resolution (240 x 320) and 262,000 colors AM-OLED A220A screens © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 24 March 2008
Samsung at CES 2007 & 2008 Samsung's prototype 40-inch OLED TV at CES 2007 • Resolution : 1280 x 800 • Brightness : 600 cd/m² • Contrast ratio : 5000 : 1 Samsung's 14-inch prototype at CES 2008 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 25 March 2008
Samsung at CES 2008 TV sets that are a mere 3cm thick, or less 31’’ OLED • Resolution: 1080p • Contrast : 1.000.000 : 1 • Life expectancy : 35.000 hrs. • Planned for 2009/2010 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 26 March 2008
Sony at CES 2008 XEL-1 - 11’’ OLED 27’’ OLED © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 27 March 2008
Sony at CES 2008 11’’ XEL-1 27’’ • Resolution : 960 x 540 • Resolution 1920 x 1080 • Contrast : 1.000.000 : 1 • Contrast: 1.000.000 : 1 • Thickness : 3 mm. • Thickness : 10 mm. • Expected life-time: 30.000 hrs. • Brightness: (peaks) 600 cd/m² • Selling price: USD 2500 • On the market by 2009 © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 28 March 2008
OLEDs make light! Makoto Tojiki’s “Archimedes Dream” OLED illuminated surfaces © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 29 March 2008
OLEDs make light! © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 30 March 2008
Uses & advantages of lighting OLEDs USES • Replace conventional light bulbs OLEDs do not get hot They are flexible so they enable original designs OLEDs can change colours and brightness at the press of a button • Light emitting wall papers • Lighting windows • Lighting ceilings ADVANTAGES • Energy consumption reduction by 50% • OLEDs do not contain mercury • OLEDs can be disposed of like glass © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 31 March 2008
Customize your keyboard! GAMES • Since each key has an OLED display it is not game dependant. Below is an image of the Optimus keyboard setup to run Quake. © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 32 March 2008
Optimus OLED keyboard will change keyboards forever… LANGUAGES AND ALPHABETS Roman QWERTY Russian © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 33 March 2008
Customize your shortcuts • Keyboard icons can look anything you want • Keyboard is OS independent (open-source keyboard) • Optimus keyboard is still expensive (379 € the 1 active button in configuration; 1259€ with 113 active buttons) © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 34 March 2008
You said OLED keyboard? OLED keyboard: easier for control towers than for gamers??? © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 35 March 2008
The future Fully flexible displays Eye catching packaging with changing information content Customizable touchpads for Korean mobile market Concept watch Paper-thin lighting that can be 36 applied to whole wall surfaces.
The future © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 37 March 2008
Bibliography • ANTONIADIS, Homer, Overview of OLED Display Technology, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/cpmt/presentations/cpmt0401a.pdf • BYLUND, Anders, Steve Abramson is OLEDing the way, in The Motley Fool, http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2007/09/26/steve- abramson-is-oleding-the-way.aspx, September 26, 2006 • FELTON, Michael J., Thinner, lighter, better, brighter, in Today’s Chemist at work, http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/tcaw/10/i11/html/11felton.html, November 2001 • FREUDENRICH, Craig, How OLEDs Work, in Howstuffworks, http://computer.howstuffworks.com/oled.htm • HECKER, Dr. Klaus, Brochure on Organic Electronics, OE-A, Organic Electronics Association, VDMA Verlag, 2006 • ISRAELSON, Joshua, Powering OLEDs: the care and feeding of organic displays, http://www.edn.com/article/CA480492.html?text=OLEDs, November 2004 • SMITH, Peter, OLED Displays: Better Than Plasma Or LCD, http://www.siliconchip.com.au/cms/A_30650/printArticle.html • TOON, John, Biasing Spin Statistics: Research Explains How to Boost the Efficiency of Polymer Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Georgia Institute of Technology, http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/oleds.htm, April 2, 2004 • Kodak’s OLEDs Tutorial, http://www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-path=1473&pq-locale=en_US&_requestid=4214 • Site Cambridge Display Technology: http://www.cdtltd.co.uk/ • Site OLED-Display : http://www.oled-display.net/ • Site OLEDomains : http://oledomains.blogspot.com/ • Site OLED-Info : http://www.oled-info.com/ • Site EDN Asia, Ruling the Roost : http://www.ednasia.com/article-17749-rulingtheroost-Asia.html, 2005 • Site IDTechEx : OLED Lighting Has a Bright Future, http://www.idtechex.com/products/en/articles/00000551.asp • Site Practical Home Theater Guide: The Contrast Ratio Game, http://www.practical-home-theater-guide.com/contrast-ratio.html • Site The Science of Spectroscopy : OLED, http://scienceofspectroscopy.info/edit/index.php?title=OLED • Site Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/ • European project OLLA, High Brightness OLEDs, site: http://www.hitech-projects.com/euprojects/olla/ © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 38 March 2008
Little reminder of screen resolutions VGA = Video Graphics Array (original IBM VGA display technology, which became a de facto industry standard in the late 1980s QVGA = Quarter Video Graphics Array © Stella Morabito - ECP - MSTM 2008 - 39 March 2008
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