Oil Basics & More

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Information about Oil Basics & More
Education

Published on September 14, 2008

Author: akullaf

Source: slideshare.net

Drawing & Painting with Style and Confidence Presented by Anne Kullaf Anne Kullaf © 2008 Oil Basics & More

Course premise… This course is designed to provide a basic primer for students new to painting with oils. It will cover the technical aspects of working with the materials as well as general concepts of color, composition and design.

This course is designed to provide a basic primer for students new to painting with oils. It will cover the technical aspects of working with the materials as well as general concepts of color, composition and design.

Course Overview… During the 4 weeks that this course runs we will explore the following topics: Methods & Materials: Overview of materials and proper surface preparation Fat over lean Alla prima vs. layering Color: Working with complementary colors Working with a limited palette Composition: Creating balance with shape, value and color

During the 4 weeks that this course runs we will explore the following topics:

Methods & Materials:

Overview of materials and proper surface preparation

Fat over lean

Alla prima vs. layering

Color:

Working with complementary colors

Working with a limited palette

Composition:

Creating balance with shape, value and color

Methods and Materials Oils Rich color can be achieved with layering Wonderfully expressive effects possible with brush work Archival qualities proven over time Taxi in the Rain, oil on canvas Anne Kullaf © 2007

Oils

Rich color can be achieved with layering

Wonderfully expressive effects possible with brush work

Archival qualities proven over time

Methods and Materials Surface preparation You may work in oil on a variety of surfaces: stretched canvas or linen, canvas panels, cradled masonite, masonite panels, wood, etc. If you buy your canvas primed, you may paint directly onto it, however if you prefer a smoother surface you can give it a couple coats of gesso

Surface preparation

You may work in oil on a variety of surfaces: stretched canvas or linen, canvas panels, cradled masonite, masonite panels, wood, etc.

If you buy your canvas primed, you may paint directly onto it, however if you prefer a smoother surface you can give it a couple coats of gesso

Methods and Materials Supplies Paints – start out with a limited palette if you are new to oils: cobalt blue or ultramarine; alizarin crimson, yellow ochre, cadmium yellow, burnt umber and titanium white Medium – medium is what you use to make the paint more fluid. You can buy pre-mixed mediums such as the synthetic based Liquin, or oil-based mediums such as Winsor Newton Artist’s Painting Medium, or you can simply mix your own medium from linseed oil and turpenoid Thinner – odorless mineral spirits (Turpenoid) are used to thin the paint in the early stages of a painting done in layers, they can also be used to clean brushes

Supplies

Paints – start out with a limited palette if you are new to oils: cobalt blue or ultramarine; alizarin crimson, yellow ochre, cadmium yellow, burnt umber and titanium white

Medium – medium is what you use to make the paint more fluid. You can buy pre-mixed mediums such as the synthetic based Liquin, or oil-based mediums such as Winsor Newton Artist’s Painting Medium, or you can simply mix your own medium from linseed oil and turpenoid

Thinner – odorless mineral spirits (Turpenoid) are used to thin the paint in the early stages of a painting done in layers, they can also be used to clean brushes

Methods and Materials Supplies (cont’d) Palette – you may use either a traditional wooden palette or a disposal palette with a case and cover. Either is fine, but the white ones can be distracting (glare) if you are working outdoors Brushes – I prefer soft brushes in a flat or wedge shape, however you should work with whatever shape or stiffness works best for you. I often complete an entire painting using just one brush—my favorite is a ¾” flat brush with soft synthetic bristles Painting rags – old flannel sheets cut into small 6” x 6” squares are great for this purpose, you can use them to wipe off your brush when changing colors, or to wipe out areas during your under painting phase (almost like drawing with them)

Supplies (cont’d)

Palette – you may use either a traditional wooden palette or a disposal palette with a case and cover. Either is fine, but the white ones can be distracting (glare) if you are working outdoors

Brushes – I prefer soft brushes in a flat or wedge shape, however you should work with whatever shape or stiffness works best for you. I often complete an entire painting using just one brush—my favorite is a ¾” flat brush with soft synthetic bristles

Painting rags – old flannel sheets cut into small 6” x 6” squares are great for this purpose, you can use them to wipe off your brush when changing colors, or to wipe out areas during your under painting phase (almost like drawing with them)

Methods and Materials Alla Prima Wet-into-wet Done in one pass as opposed to layering Excellent technique for plein air Loose brushwork, very expressive Best for smaller works (11x14 and under)

Alla Prima

Wet-into-wet

Done in one pass as opposed to layering

Excellent technique for plein air

Loose brushwork, very expressive

Best for smaller works (11x14 and under)

Methods and Materials Working in layers Fat over lean – medium becomes thicker (more oil content) in progressive layers Rich color effects, transluscency Can be used to achieve highly realistic details Recommended for larger works

Working in layers

Fat over lean – medium becomes thicker (more oil content) in progressive layers

Rich color effects, transluscency

Can be used to achieve highly realistic details

Recommended for larger works

Methods and Materials Working in layers Always begin with an under painting (monochrome value study, medium = Turpenoid) Map in color transparently (muted colors, medium = Turpenoid) Begin adding medium and dark values with more opacity (medium = Liquin or a linseed oil/Turpenoid mix such as Artists’ Painting Medium by Winsor Newton or one you mix yourself) Final layer(s) include highlights and fine details (medium = Liquin or Artists’ Painting medium or pure pigment with no medium) Under painting (value study) Color map Dark & medium values In color, more opacity Highlights and fine details

Working in layers

Always begin with an under painting (monochrome value study, medium = Turpenoid)

Map in color transparently (muted colors, medium = Turpenoid)

Begin adding medium and dark values with more opacity (medium = Liquin or a linseed oil/Turpenoid mix such as Artists’ Painting Medium by Winsor Newton or one you mix yourself)

Final layer(s) include highlights and fine details (medium = Liquin or Artists’ Painting medium or pure pigment with no medium)

Color

Color Basics Colors that complement one another should be used to create shadows and darks, in other words, colors that appear opposite one another on the color wheel Example: if you need show a shaded area on a lemon (yellow, primary color) use violet (secondary color) Mix your secondary colors whenever possible instead of using them directly from the tube

Colors that complement one another should be used to create shadows and darks, in other words, colors that appear opposite one another on the color wheel

Example: if you need show a shaded area on a lemon (yellow, primary color) use violet (secondary color)

Mix your secondary colors whenever possible instead of using them directly from the tube

The Limited Palette Try working with a limited palette of 3 primaries, one dark neutral and one white. One of my favorites is: Cobalt blue - Burnt umber Alizarin crimson - Titanium white Yellow ochre You may experiment with other colors you like, just remember to keep it to 3 primaries and one dark neutral plus white. If necessary, you can always add in a brighter primary for the areas in highlight—for example, I often will use a cadmium yellow in addition to the colors above when working on sunlit landscapes just to get that extra “glow” in my greens.

Try working with a limited palette of 3 primaries, one dark neutral and one white. One of my favorites is:

Cobalt blue - Burnt umber

Alizarin crimson - Titanium white

Yellow ochre

You may experiment with other colors you like, just remember to keep it to 3 primaries and one dark neutral plus white.

If necessary, you can always add in a brighter primary for the areas in highlight—for example, I often will use a cadmium yellow in addition to the colors above when working on sunlit landscapes just to get that extra “glow” in my greens.

The Limited Palette 2 Paintings, 1 Palette: Cobalt Blue Alizarin Crimsom Yellow Ochre Cadmium Yellow Burnt Umber Titanium White Notice the difference in mood of the 2 paintings above. Both were painted using the colors listed at left, this illustrates the wide range of effects capable with a limited palette.

2 Paintings,

1 Palette:

Cobalt Blue

Alizarin Crimsom

Yellow Ochre

Cadmium Yellow

Burnt Umber

Titanium White

Notice the difference in mood of the 2 paintings above.

Both were painted using the colors listed at left, this illustrates the wide range of effects capable with a limited palette.

Composition

Composition Basics Composition refers to the way you arrange the elements/objects contained in your painting in order to create and maintain: Balance Harmony Viewer interest

Composition refers to the way you arrange the elements/objects contained in your painting in order to create and maintain:

Balance

Harmony

Viewer interest

Focal Point vs. Overall Movement There are many approaches to composition, all are a matter of personal preference and what you want to say with your painting For example, you may wish to have an overall sense of movement rather than a strong focal point—either one can work but each will convey a different mood and feeling in your finished work

There are many approaches to composition, all are a matter of personal preference and what you want to say with your painting

For example, you may wish to have an overall sense of movement rather than a strong focal point—either one can work but each will convey a different mood and feeling in your finished work

Look for things that repeat to keep your composition cohesive and to engage your viewer: Shapes Colors Directional movement Motion Look for examples of the items listed above in the painting at right Composition Basics

Look for things that repeat to keep your composition cohesive and to engage your viewer:

Shapes

Colors

Directional movement

Motion

Look for examples of

the items listed above

in the painting at right

Tying it all together…

Tying it all together… Painting with oils provides rich clear color You can work on many different surfaces, canvas pads are a great surface to practice on You can work either in layers or alla prima Focus on shapes and values – sketch in charcoal first! Experiment with larger brushes for looser, more painterly brushwork Use complementary colors for shading Try working with a limited palette Experiment with new subject matter Paint from life whenever you can, either outdoors or in your studio If you work from photos, try not to “copy” the photo, instead use it just for inspiration and reference

Painting with oils provides rich clear color

You can work on many different surfaces, canvas pads are a great surface to practice on

You can work either in layers or alla prima

Focus on shapes and values – sketch in charcoal first!

Experiment with larger brushes for looser, more painterly brushwork

Use complementary colors for shading

Try working with a limited palette

Experiment with new subject matter

Paint from life whenever you can, either outdoors or in your studio

If you work from photos, try not to “copy” the photo, instead use it just for inspiration and reference

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