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Published on July 14, 2009

Author: svitlana.volkova

Source: slideshare.net

THE LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AFTER BECOMING A PARENT: GENDER DIFFERENTIATION Fulbright English Pre-academic Course 2008 OPIE

Institutional Affiliation - Ohio University Names of authors Pavlo Bohutskiy – Ukraine Gwendoline Nyambi– Cameroon Svitlana Volkova – Ukraine

Overview  Introduction  Background  Research Question  Methodology  Results  Conclusions  Acknowledgments  Questions

Background Cook et al, 1982: – Attitudes towards marriage on the increase  The idea that “marriage without children is not fully complete'' – Attitudes towards having children on the decrease • Preference given to other priorities in life: – career, money making, fun, self denial

Transition to the parenthood • The change of married couple to parenthood is considered a “critical role transition point” – Aldous, 1978 • Some authors present the transition to parenthood as a usual event that can easily be predicted and managed – Charting Parenthood, 2002 • It proves the fact that both personal and marital stress increase after becoming a parent

• Multicultural Health Communication Centre, June 2003: – Research also shows that parenthood could be a reason of feelings like: anger, stress, guilt, confusion, and anxiety Influence on life satisfaction?

Gender roles • Gender role attitudes shape parental attitudes differentially for men and women  Bernhartdt & Goldscheider, 2006 • Orientation towards transitions to fatherhood : – Coltrane, 1996 – Nielsen, 1999

Research Question • Do males and females report different levels of life satisfaction after becoming parents?

Main Goals  To define changes in life attitudes in female and Research male after becoming a parents  To evaluate changes in life preferences before Survey and after parenthood  To prove or deny the hypothesis of gender Analyses influence on peoples’ life satisfaction after parenthood

Methodology: Questionnaire • General information: – gender, age, country and number of children. 7 main priorities • Before parenthood: – rank of life priorities 0 – 100% – scale of time spent on those activities; – level of life satisfaction. • After parenthood: – rank of life priorities – scale of time spent on those activities; Not Satisfied – level of life satisfaction. Very Satisfied

Family Sport/Health Friends Self- Career Improvement Main Money categories Other Making of life attitude

Participants 38.5% Males Females 65.5% Gender Age Females Males Amount of Females Males Response Response children Response Response Percent Percent Percent Percent <25 31.3% 50.0% 1 75.0% 70.0% 26-30 43.8% 20.0% 2 12.5% 20.0% >30 25.0% 30.0% >2 12.5% 10.0%

Ranking of priopities with life BEFORE parenthood 6 5 4 The rank of priority 3 2 1 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 3.1 5 5.1 3.3 4.5 4.4 2.6 Female 4.56 5.63 4.88 3 3.88 4.44 1.63

Ranking of priorities in life AFTER parenthood 7 6 The rank of priority 5 4 3 2 1 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 3.6 4.7 5.4 4.2 4.8 3.4 1.9 Female 4.13 4.81 6.38 3.06 3.38 4.25 2

Distinctions in rank of priorities in life by gender 2 1.5 1.5 1 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.37 0.06 0 -0.19 -0.5 -0.3 -0.43 -0.5 -0.7 -1 -0.82 -1 -1.5 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 0.5 -0.3 0.3 0.9 0.3 -1 -0.7 Female -0.43 -0.82 1.5 0.06 -0.5 -0.19 0.37

Amount of time (%) spent on the following priority BEFORE parenthood: gender differences 35 30 25 Time, % 20 15 10 5 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 20 20.5 18.3 11.7 16.3 7.9 5.3 Female 19.38 29.56 22.06 5.56 10.19 8.69 4.56

Amount of time (%) spend on the following priority AFTER parenthood: gender differences 40 35 30 25 Time, % 20 15 10 5 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 23.7 12.5 34 7.7 9.8 8.1 4.2 Female 14.56 17.88 37.19 6.69 9.13 11.31 3.25

Distinctions in time spending by gender 20 15.13 15.7 15 10 5 3.7 2.62 1.13 0.2 0 -1.06 -1.1-1.31 -5 -4 -4.82 -6.5 -10 -8 -11.68 -15 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 3.7 -8 15.7 -4 -6.5 0.2 -1.1 Female -4.82 -11.68 15.13 1.13 -1.06 2.62 -1.31

Conclusions from figures: • there are no direct relation between the ranking of priorities and time spent for the specific activity • For male: • – the level of priority in per cent for such activities as sport/health, friends, career and self improvement are high then the per cent of time spent for these actions; • the level of priority in per cent for activities such as family and money making is less than the per cent of time spent.

Conclusions from figures: • For female: • – the level of priority in per cent for such activities as sport/health, friends and self improvement are high then the per cent of time spent for these actions; • the level of priority in per cent for activities such as family is less than the per cent of time spent. • The gap between priorities and time spent for male is 1.7 time more than for female

Level on satisfaction from life BEFORE/AFTER having children: gender differences 3.94 After 3.90 4.13 Before 3.20 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Female Male

Conclusions • Birth of a child makes females feel less satisfied in life in contrast to male who feel more satisfied. • Before becoming a parent females have opportunities to spent more time for such activities as: – as money making and career, what make them feel more independent and self-confident; – part of females has to combine motherhood and work, or part time work.

Changing in level on satisfaction from life before and after having children: gender and age differences 1.2 1 1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.15 -0.4 -0.4 -0.6 >25 25-30 <30 Male 0.6 0.5 1 Female -0.4 -0.15 0

Thank you for attention Questions?

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