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Information about OH

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Mee12

Source: authorstream.com

Flexible and Accurate Automation:  Flexible and Accurate Automation Making ”flexible automation” flexible:  Making ”flexible automation” flexible The industrial robot is a very flexible machine, but Tooling and fixtures are less flexible or very expensive Programming and Simulation of Robots and Tooling are time-consuming On-line sensing and control, as needed for flexibility and accuracy, hampered by control system limitations Algorithms, processes, and components are available, but improvements are highly desirable. Flexible and Accurate industrial systems and practices are missing! Affordable Flexible Tooling Task-oriented work-cell operations Sensor-based feedback control Flexible and Accurate Automation Introduction Expected results:  Expected results Technology Robots with unique absolute accuracy, during free-space high performance motions. Industry-compliant open controller, for new applications and research Force-controlled work-piece processing, programmable with safety for shop-floor operation On-line sensing with instant feedback, for task-specific motion control. Low-cost 3D vision for adaption to partly unknown work pieces Impact Flexible automation affordable Enable use of robots for new industrial applications End-user short-series application solutions, evaluated for high-value products SME foundry tasks Hence: A combination of accuracy & performance & flexibility as needed for productivity and future applications, enabling affordable flexibility and new capabilities, for use of robots in future industrial applications. Aim Assembly Tooling:  Assembly Tooling Industrial issues - Current status Fixtures for Vehicle Assembly are in general Dedicated Tooling Static Fixtures requires periodic calibration Fixtures are seldom re-used for the next generation Production equipment is paid by the number of manufactured products Flexible Fixtures exists, but today flexibility is very expensive! Accuracy in Industrial Robots:  Accuracy in Industrial Robots Absolute accuracy in Industrial Robots today are >1 mm (Volvo Cars) High-Accuracy Robots today can reach absolute accuracy of >0.2 mm (ABB) Accuracy in robots today are not enough for several key applications and is only guaranteed for non-contact scenarios! Industrial issues - Current status Stiffness in Industrial Robots:  Stiffness in Industrial Robots Robots are able to adopt for static forces that is in the direction of gravity and does not change Even small forces on robot Tool-Center-Point results in deflections If deflection occurs, it is not possible to know how! Robots today are not suited for applications such as drilling, grinding or deburring! Industrial issues - Current status Simulation of Robots and Systems:  Simulation of Robots and Systems Robot Programming today is often done in offline-simulation systems One unique robot program is made for each robot task Robot Programming is today still done as “teach-in” in a 3D-environment Instructions are explicit and low level rather than process-oriented Simulation and programming of robots today is time-consuming, thus expensive! Industrial issues - Current status !<sensor id="optidrive" ! type="force" ! interface="LTH S4C Extension"> !<force surfaceSearchDirection="1,0,0" ! forceDirection="1,0,0" ! buildForceFunc="upramp" ! buildForceTime="1000ms" ! buildForceFinalValue=“180N“ ! processForceFunc="constant 180N"> MoveL C003, spd003, z40, slip; !</force> !</sensor> Sensor Feedback Control for Improved Capability:  Sensor Feedback Control for Improved Capability Robots are stand-alone machines Feedback to robots from accessory systems today are up to 20 Hz, and buffering results in additional time delays (LiU, LU) Synchronisation methods with robots today are not possible for real-time integration (LiU, LU) Deficient performance/productivity of industry-compliant force feedback systems due to low update frequencies and/or latencies Robots capabilities hampered by closed systems and inefficient online interaction with the environment Industrial issues - Current status Robot Manipulated Tooling… 1(2):  Robot Manipulated Tooling… 1(2) Objectives Assembly Tooling (for Vehicles) Prototype Fixtures Demonstrator Fixtures Short-series production Measurement Control Fixtures …for High Part Precision Robot Manipulated Tooling… 2(2):  Robot Manipulated Tooling… 2(2) Aerospace Automotive Construction Eq. Busses Trucks Continue development of Affordable Reconfigurable Assembly Tooling Realize ART for SAAB Aerospace Broaden the research from Aerospace to General (Vehicle) Assembly …to reduce lead-time and cost Objectives New Low-cost Metrology Systems… 1(2):  New Low-cost Metrology Systems… 1(2) PosEye measures directions of reference markers, i.e. reflex tape. These markers has been made visual bye reflecting the infrared light that the PosEye unit emits. Through the markers, the PosEye system can calculate it's own absolute position and orientation in six degrees of freedom (6DOF) with high accuracy …to increase robot accuracy and capability Objectives New Low-cost Metrology Systems… 2(2):  New Low-cost Metrology Systems… 2(2) Bring fourth the technology for POSEYE to become industrially reliable Enable metrology-integrated robot control in real-time using POSEYE Apply this technology on a reference structure from SAAB Aerospace …to make it possible in industry Objectives Rapid Geometry Simulation and Programming… :  Rapid Geometry Simulation and Programming… Cost-effective simulation for short-series production Tools for rapid change handling Metrology-integrated robots does not follow simulated trajectories Process-oriented programming methods Simulation of complex mechanisms …to reduce lead-time and increase capability Objectives Sensor Integration for Programmable Compliant Motions…:  Sensor Integration for Programmable Compliant Motions… Through force sensing achieve a programmable force interaction in task-specific directions, in end-user contexts. Develop a research platform providing combined multi-sensor input and instant motion response, promoting improved flexibility and capability of industrially useful robots. Implement a plug-and-play mechanisms for sensor feedback control of ABB Robots, providing latencies below 4ms. Objectives …to enable task-specific motion control Robot-manipulated Reconfigurable Tooling :  Robot-manipulated Reconfigurable Tooling Ongoing Research at Linköping University Spain UK Orbital Drilling:  Orbital Drilling An enabling technology for robotic drilling TwinSpin CNC TwinSpin Portable Available equipment:  Octapod Available equipment Demo Rig Tripod Hexapod Carriage Cradle 2 Cradle 1 Cradle dummy Metrology-integrated Robot Control:  Metrology-integrated Robot Control Accurate sensing ”Black-box integration” T-Cam T-Probe Multi-functional Reflector:  probe Dynamic Modules control robots Metrology-integrated Robot Control to… quickly calibrate robot monitor processes Multi-functional Reflector Slide20:  Open Control Software Architectures Exteroceptive Robots Force Control Robot Vision Sensor Fusion Adaptive and Iterative Learning Control Task-level Programming Embedded real-time software research center: Shared robot laboratory. Ongoing Research at Lund University www.robot.lth.se www.lucas.lth.se Slide21:  Force control...... Application specific motion control Slide22:  Graphically defined force controller Application specific motion control Signals from ABB memory Signals to ABB memory Software Architecture:  Software Architecture Multi-layered feedback: Bad actions prevented. Config. on-line; plugins fast; high performance slow; reasoning/planning Extra sensing: Task/Motion/Trajectory Built-in motor control with fixed sensing Application specific motion control Using the S4C+ controller:  Using the S4C+ controller RAPID ARAC Motor control Trajectory generation Arm control Arm Tool RAP/RPC Application …… Work Task description ABB controller +Robot Cell controller Force Feedback Application specific motion control Extending the S4C+ controller:  Extending the S4C+ controller RAPID ARAC Motor control Computing+ coordination Force control JR3 Trajectory generation Arm control Arm Work- station Tool RAP/RPC External control Bus adapters Application …… Work Task description ABB controller +Robot Cell controller PCI VME Embedded real-time shared-memory control S4-Extension Application specific motion control LTH/ABB interaction:  LTH/ABB interaction Master PC Power PC board (Linux) Force Control Loop IO-Board Force Sensor Board JR3 sensor Extended S4C+ Control cabinet Program Server Interpolator 24 ms Servo Main Computer M R Servo PCI bus F/T sen- sor PCI bus PMC bus PCI/PCI bridge J-ref/4ms Synch. Signal betw. Robtargets (GO) Force ref. Tool data Ethernet UDP/IP 4 ms Handshaking and robtargets for buffer, within force scope(Ethernet RAP) Rapid program with runtime code for force move (Ethernet RAP) ExtRapid Program Optidrive sensor JR3 sensor Robot TCP Application specific motion control Integrated sensing and control:  ABB S4C+ Backplane PCI Bus 0 PCI Bus 1 CPU PCI#0.1 PCI#0.2 PCI#0.3 PCI#1.1 PCI#1.2 PCI#1.3 PCI#1.4 * * Hint/HB2-bridge PCI/PowerPC bridge Integrated sensing and control ABB Computers LTH Ext. Units inside an extended ABB controller Slide28:  Main computer console Force sensor signal ABB network interface Force computer console Real-time sensor network interface Units inside an extended ABB controller Slide29:  Grinding experiments at Kranendonk (LTH+KUL) Theory in practice Scientific challenges:  Scientific challenges Invoke feedback to task-level programming. Modelling for accuracy, considering varying time delays…. Invoke feedback to flexible manufacturing systems. Sensor fusion, feedback and programming, confronted with end-users. Realistic simulation of sensing Sequencing of configurations Task descriptions for fixtures Improved force and stiffness control Software system integration Cell-control abstractions End-users New Applications Integration Sensor Fusion Sensors Comp x Comp y Comp z Industrial robotics requires more research! Flexible and Accurate Automation Workpackages A:  Workpackages A Flexible and Accurate Automation Workpackages B:  Workpackages B Flexible and Accurate Automation Workpackages C:  Workpackages C Local SME (foundry & welding) commitments pending. Flexible ABB robots, benefits for end-users. High performance open system, provided for the research community. Standardisation (sensors, tools, fixtures,..) New robot system products Flexible and Accurate Automation Key Competences:  Key Competences Production know-how, including end-user aspects. Several years experience from robotics industry. Can improve the core of the ABB controller * Software technology for embedded control. World class within modelling, identification and control. Superior experimental facilities and abilities. *) No other group outside ABB has the permission or competence to accomplish the proposed sensor interface for advanced real-time robot motion control. Flexible and Accurate Automation Conclusions:  Conclusions New interdisciplinary research team formed, combining competences from production, software, and control. Track-record including end-user installations and new products. Scientific challenges based on end-user needs. Industrial commitment for both systems and applications. Strategic value for future productive robots. An opportunity to promote flexible and accurate automation. Flexible and Accurate Automation Metrology-integrated Robot Control:  Metrology-integrated Robot Control Ongoing Research at Linköping University Topology WebWare ActiveX controls and OPC server for PC operating communication with ABB robots emScon Tracker Programming Interface for complete integration of Leica Trackers Adjust Reconfig Rebuild Dock Static calib Sub tasks GripLoad Base pos. TCP pos. … IRB4400 Servo Controller Base pos. Unit spec … LTD800 #1. - Base pos - Top pos - … #2. - - Tooling Modules #1. - Cutter - Feed rate - … #2. - - Drilling Machines Drill Error handl embedded system control Scientific Issues & Key Properties of Hybrid & Embedded Software Systems:  Scientific Issues & Key Properties of Hybrid & Embedded Software Systems Computational systems but not first-and-foremost a computer Integral with physical processes sensors, actuators Reactive at the speed of the environment Heterogeneous hardware/software, mixed architectures Networked adaptive software, shared data, resource discovery Ubiquitous and pervasive computing devices

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