Published on March 8, 2014
Laura Sagert, CIDE firstname.lastname@example.org CC-BY 3.0
What are OER?
UNESCO, 2002 Paris Declaration, 2012 …teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.
What types of OER exist? Written Texts Media + other information Textbooks Pictures Videos Audio . . . Articles Blogs Course syllabi Lecture notes Tests . . . Grammar and vocabulary exercises Corpora (FLAX) . . . “… anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them” (UNESCO, 2002)
What is meant by FREE? gratis vs. libre FREE AS IN BEER = GRATIS Photo credit: Jacob Fenger (Fengergold) (2006). Free beer tap in Bolzano. Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/42934556@N00/245866252 /. CC-BY 2.0. FREE AS IN FREEDOM = LIBRE Photo credit: Oddsock (2006). Rainbow Freedom 1. Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/28648431@N00/255199017 CC-BY 2.0
Understanding “openness” in education Video credit: Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education Matters: Why is it important to share content? CC BY 3.0 http://youtu.be/dTNnxPcY49Q
Why does “open” matter? Shared content can be improved upon. It can reach people who would not normally have access to such information and can be changed so as to be of the most benefit possible to specific audiences. The costs of use are limitedin the sense that we don’t need to pay license rights for each student. **Video credit: Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education Matters: Why is it important to share content? CC BY 3.0 http://youtu.be/dTNnxPcY49Q
Legal use Respect To think about: What are we teaching our students?
A. Use the work of others B. Change the work of others C. Permit others to use ‘our’work Show full respect to the intent of the original author(s)
Use: The 4 R’s Framework • Use “as is” • Modify to suit the needs of specific learners • Combine with other content • Share / publish David Wiley (2009). Defining “Open”. http://opencontent.org/blog/archive s/1123re copies CC By 3.0 REUSE REDISTRIBUTE CREATE SHARE REMIX REVISE
What do we mean by copyright? Standard Copyright “Open” licenses (Berne Convention) Automatic (fomal registration of work not required) Life of creator + 50years or more; anonymous work, 50 years after publication Permission from copyright holder (s) is needed to reproduce a work , or segment of a work, in any form. Fair use? All rights reserved Deliberate Cessation of rights by the copyright holder(s) Partial Complete Not necessary obtain permission as long as specifications are respected. Some rights reserved
From Resource to OER: OPEN LICENCES a. Retain copyright but grant some permissions (partial cession of rights): copy, modify, publish, distribute, *sell b. Cede all rights Examples Creative Commons Licences, Open Government Licenses (UK, Canada), GNU General Public Licence (Copyleft), MIT License, Apache License Public Domain
How to grant permission or cede rights? One option: Creative Commons Licences Public domain CC0 Attribution CC BY Attribution, Share Alike CC BY-SA Attribution No Derivatives CC BY-ND Attribution, Non-Commerial Use CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-NC-ND Learn more or apply an open license to your work: creativecomments.org
• Time • Variety • Access • Learning community • Set an example
Teachers tend to be busy people; we don’t always have time to create resources, especially if we need to start from scratch. TIME Image credit: Urs Steiner (2011) stoney_steiner_multitasking http://www.flickr.com/photos/62790932 CC BY 2.0
VARIETY, BREADTH, AND RICHNESS Real knowlege is to know the breadth of one’s ignorance. —Confucious Different Resources New Ideas Photo credit: Karen H. 2010. Fruit. CC BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/47409110 Photo credit: Ella Novak (2010) Fruit in a Basket. CC BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/82547169.
ACCESS Online at any time Image credit: Mike Licht NotionsCapital.com (2010). Surfing the Web. CC BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/9106303@N05 Offline all the time? Photo credit: Daniel Lobo / Daquella manera (2004). Escuela rural. CC BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/daquellamanera/74820634
Communities of practice Comments: Peer review, constructive criticism Sharing: Learners and content creators; intended and unintended audiences. Image credits: Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education matters: Why is it important to share? CC BY 3.0 http://youtu.be/dTNnxPcY49Q
Setting an example? A “teacher’s friend”? How many of the copies that we make for our students are fair and legal? Photo credit: Dani Luire/ Dani P. L. (2006). Photocopy Monotony 02. CC BY 2.0. http://www.flickr.com/photos/82567897@N00/1439017
a. Ready-to-use content (Check the quality!) b. Bits and pieces to build upon in designing your own course materials c. Exercises for students (reflect, combine adapt: active learning) d. Evaluate your own work (benchmark)
Ready to use, or to adapt Alice Woodward. Gerbil in Chair. Wikimedia.
Pieces to build on, and to help you reflect on your own work The instructional design process and the OER life cycle Source: http://col-oer.weebly.com/module-6---the-oer-life-cycle.html . Last checked 4/03/2104
Portals and gateways Institutional repositories Web-search
Portals & Gateways
Institutional Repositories: Universities, Ministries, Foundations. . .
Learners Creators Institutions Other actors / organizations Leanr more; suggested links: JISC Open Educational Resources Info Kit: Stakeholders and benefits Commonwealth of Learning: Publications
Challenges of sharing OER Fear: The “risks” of peer comments. Selection: What to share? How to do so? How to be sure we have the right to share out work? (Do we “own” our work?) Format: Ease of access vs. ease of modification Accesibility: Where can we share content other can find? Site, blog, repositories? Motivation: Why bother?
Shared knowledge Fair use Image credit: Giulia Forsythe,(2012). hy Open Education?: BCcampus #OERforum @opencontent. CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/gforsyt he/8100966908/
Links: Exploring OER Learning more about OER Repositories & search engines COL Open Educational Reosurces OER (one-day workshop materials) JISC Open Educational Resources infoKit Commonwealth of Learning (COL): Publications UNESCO: OER Commonwealth Connects Connexions Merlot II OER Commons CC Search-Creative Commons OER Dynamic Search Engine University Learning = OCW+OER = Free
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