Published on February 28, 2014
OECD WORK ON Environment 2013-14
OECD WORK ON environment 12 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 13 Preface: New Approaches to Economic Challenges 14 Peer Reviews, Indicators and Outlooks 16 Climate Change 10 Biodiversity 13 Water 16 Eco-innovation 18 Environmental Policy Tools and Evaluation 21 Resource Productivity and Waste 23 Sectoral Policies: Transport, Agriculture 25 Safety of Chemicals, Pesticides, Biotechnology & Nanomaterials 28 Environment in the Global Economy 31 Green Growth 34 The Committee Structures 35 EPOC Organigramme 36 Environment Directorate (ENV) 39 Selected Databases
*M e mbe r countr ie s 2 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development T Australia Japan Austria Korea Belgium Luxembourg Canada Mexico Chile Netherlands Czech Republic New Zealand Denmark Norway Estonia Poland Finland Portugal France Slovak Republic Germany Slovenia Greece Spain Hungary Sweden Iceland Switzerland Ireland Turkey Israel he OECD, which traces its roots to the Marshall Plan, groups 34 member countries* committed to democratic government and the market economy. It provides a forum where governments can compare and exchange policy experiences, identify good practices and promote decisions and recommendations. Dialogue, consensus, and peer review and pressure are at the very heart of OECD. United Kingdom Italy Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia became new members of the OECD in 2010. The OECD membership talks continue with the Russian Federation. In addition, efforts are made to enhance engagement with key partners such as Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa in environment programmes. The OECD is working for a stronger, cleaner and fairer world economy. The principal aim of the Organisation is to promote policies for sustainable economic growth and employment, a rising standard of living, and trade liberalisation. By “sustainable economic growth” the OECD means growth that balances economic, social and environmental considerations. The OECD is one of the world’s largest and most reliable sources of comparable statistical, economic and social data. It monitors trends, collects data, analyses and forecasts economic development, and investigates evolving patterns in a broad range of public policy areas such as agriculture, development co-operation, education, employment, taxation and trade, science, technology, industry and innovation in addition to environment. The OECD family of organisations also includes the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and the International Transport Forum (ITF). United States © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Preface: New Approaches to Economic Challenges “ With a rapidly growing population of more than 7 billion and a hesitant recovery from the global crisis, the world faces complex economic, environmental and social challenges. To address them, we must work to boost economic growth, create jobs, tackle rising inequality and protect the environment.” Angel Gurría OECD Secretary-General And we know that we can only accomplish these goals over the long term if we tackle them simultaneously. This means that we also need to re-think the world economy and come up with new approaches that will deliver “greener” and more innovative, inclusive sources of growth. To do so, the OECD has launched a new initiative called “New Approaches to Economic Challenges”, with the objective of revisiting our economic models and theories, and enriching our analytical frameworks, identifying a renewed strategic policy agenda for inclusive growth and well-being that also takes into account sustainability and the respect for the environment. To rise to the challenges ahead of us, we encourage all governments, all countries, to support national and international efforts to promote green growth. The OECD stands ready to accompany policy makers in this challenging but necessary endeavour. © OECD 2013 3
4 Peer Reviews, Indicators and Outlooks Providing analysis of key environmental challenges, now and in the future Environmental Performance Reviews (EPRs) The OECD’s Environmental Performance Review (EPR) Programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving domestic and international environmental policy commitments. Reviews are conducted to promote peer learning, to enhance countries’ accountability to one another and to the public, and to improve governments’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Targeted recommendations are designed to reinforce national environmental policy initiatives. During 2013-14, reviews of Mexico, Italy, Austria, South Africa, Colombia, Iceland, Sweden, Poland and Spain will be published. Countries report on measures they have taken to implement recommendations contained in EPRs. Environmental Data and Indicators The OECD provides environmental data and indicators for policy development and assessment nationally and internationally. The work on the environmental performance reviews draws on this knowledge base. The methodology is a reference in countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), Latin America, and the Asia Pacific and Mediterranean regions. The widely used OECD ‘Pressure-State-Response’ framework helps decision-makers and the public to see how environmental, economic and social indicators are interconnected. The OECD regularly publishes Key Environmental Indicators and is developing new ones, e.g. for Green Growth and Material Flows. Key Publications Key publications • Environment at a Glance (2013) • OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: • Material Resources, Productivity and the Environment (2013) • Mexico, Italy, Austria, South Africa (2013) • Towards Green Growth: Monitoring Progress (2013) • Colombia, Iceland, Sweden, Poland, Spain (2014) www.oecd.org/env/indicators www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews © OECD 2013
OECD work on did you know ...that by 2020 most OECD countries will have undergone an environmental performance review three times, with key partner countries such as China, Russia, Colombia and South Africa also the subject of review? Cost of climate change mitigation action: Global emissions and cost of mitigation Index 2010=100 450 400 The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 was the primary input to the OECD meeting of Environment Ministers in April 2012. Based on economic-environmental modelling, the Outlook looks towards 2050 to analyse the consequences of policy inaction in four priority areas: climate change, biodiversity, water, and health impacts of pollution and chemicals. It provides analyses of economic and environmental trends to 2050, and simulations of policy actions to address the key challenges. A follow-up project starting in 2013 will focus on how the costs of inaction and natural resource scarcity might affect future economic growth. Key Publications • OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: Consequences of Inaction (2012) • OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008) www.oecd.org/environment/outlooks www.oecd.org/environment/modelling © OECD 2013 GDP -5.5% Baseline scenario 450 ppm core scenario 350 Environmental Outlooks Environment 300 250 200 150 GHG emissions -69.5% 100 50 0 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Source: Environmental Outlook to 2050: ENV-Linkages model did you know …that almost four billion people will live in water-stressed river basins by 2050 if better policies are not introduced? 5
6 Climate Change Responding to complexity with analysis of least-cost policies Economics of Climate Change Mitigation The OECD is assessing the economic costs and benefits of climate policies. Our analysis focuses on least-cost policy mixes to reduce emissions, the benefits of linking carbon markets, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, ensuring sufficient financing, and how to address concerns about carbon leakage and competitiveness impacts of climate policies. The Environmental Outlook to 2050 makes projections of climate change, as well as environmental and economic impacts of climate policies. Equity considerations have gained prominence in the face of current economic and financial challenges. New work will examine the distributional consequences of carbon taxes by household types, sectors or regions. including sectoral approaches for mitigation and “market readiness”. The OECD helps countries identify and implement effective and efficient policy mixes to meet their climate commitments through analyses of the broad policy mix (economic instruments, regulations, incentives for technological innovation) as well as advice on how to best implement policy reforms. Key Publications • OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction (2012) • Energy and Climate Policy: Bending the Technological Trajectory The OECD, together with the IEA, provides the Secretariat to support the Climate Change Expert Group, a forum where climate negotiators can discuss key issues on the negotiating agenda. There is a large body of work on the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of mitigation actions and support; finance and matching of finance to action; lowemission development strategies; and market mechanisms (2012) • Cities and Climate Change (2010) www.oecd.org/env/cc did you know …that removing fossil fuel consumption subsidies could cut world GHG emissions by at least 10% in 2050? © OECD 2013
OECD work on Adaptation to Climate Change The OECD is examining policy frameworks to spur adaptation responses. New work on national adaptation planning efforts presents an overview of progress across OECD countries and provides case studies of the design and implementation of national programmes. Notable lessons learned include the need to improve decision makers’ ability to understand and use climate data, and the importance of establishing robust national co‑ordination mechanisms. Regional adaptation cost curves Adaptation costs (percentage GDP) 2.5 India Environment action. OECD research examining trends in innovation to develop more climate-resilient crops indicates rapidly increasing interest in this area in recent decades. The OECD also helps countries and development cooperation agencies to manage adaptation as part of development activities. New work will compare monitoring and evaluation approaches to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of climate adaptation interventions. Another study will examine how countries can integrate climate adaptation strategies into long-term growth planning and structural reform. Also, a sector-specific project provides guidance on efficient adaptation for water systems. Sub-Saharan Africa 2.0 Western Europe 1.5 Low-middle income countries 1.0 Middle income countries United States 0.5 Key Publications • Designing and Implementing National Adaptation Planning: Lessons from OECD Countries (2012) • Private Sector Engagement in Adaptation to Climate Change: Japan 0 0.2 0.4 Approaches to Managing Climate Risks (2011) China 0 www.oecd.org/env/cc/adaptationtoclimatechange.htm 0.6 Financing action on climate change Source: Based on the AD-RICE model Recent analysis also examines the roles of and the private sector in driving adaptation. A focused on the private sector’s engagement in including factors which act as incentives or © OECD 2013 innovation 2011 report adaptation, barriers to Public and private financing for climate action needs to be scaled up significantly in the coming years. The Cancún Agreements called on developed countries to provide new and additional resources for developing countries: USD 30 billion over 2010-2012, and a longer-term goal of 7
8 USD 100 billion per year by 2020 from public and private sources. A 2012 OECD report estimates aggregate NorthSouth flows for mitigation and adaptation in the range of USD 70 to 120 billion annually during 2009-2010. This was mainly from private sources. To better track finance flows, new work focuses on designing and implementing strengthened MRV systems to raise accountability and transparency, and improved country systems to use climate finance effectively. Urgent action is needed to scale-up and shift public and private investments towards low-carbon and climateresilient (LCR) infrastructure. Choices made today on the types and location of critical infrastructure will lock in future emission levels and the resilience of our economies to a changing climate. Domestic and international private investment in green infrastructure is still seriously constrained by market failures and investment barriers. The OECD has developed a Green Investment Policy Framework to help governments to improve enabling conditions to scale-up private investment in LCR infrastructure. New work focuses on country and sector case studies on specific policies and instruments used to leverage limited public funds and mobilise private investment in LCR infrastructure. The OECD has also launched work on the role of institutional investors in green investment, to draw policy guidance from cases where such green investments succeeded or failed to deliver risk‑adjusted returns. Less than 1% of OECD pension fund assets are allocated directly to infrastructure projects, and an even smaller slice of this goes to green infrastructure. A new project will focus on creating a level playing field for international investment in green energy. In addition, empirical analysis will examine how governments can costeffectively leverage private finance for green growth. This analysis will focus on the role of policies in generating flows of private finance towards green investments. Green Investment Policy Framework 1. Strategic goal setting and policy alignment 5. Promote green business and consumer behaviour 2. Enabling policies and incentives for LCR investment 4. Harness resources and build capacity for an LCR economy 3. Financial policies and instruments Source: OECD © OECD 2013
OECD work on Key Publications • Green Finance and Investment: The Case of Climate Change (2013) • Tracking Climate Finance: What and How? (2012) • Towards a Green Investment Policy Framework: The Case of LowCarbon, Climate-Resilient Infrastructure (2012) • Mobilising Investment in Low-Carbon, Climate-Resilient Infrastructure (2012) • The Role of Institutional Investors in Financing Clean Energy (2012) www.oecd.org/env/cc/financing © OECD 2012 Environment 9
10 Biodiversity Promoting conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems did you know …that biodiversity is projected to decline by a further 10% by 2050 without more ambitious policies to protect it? MSA, (%) 100 Infr+encr+frag Climate change 90 Nitrogen 80 Former land-use 70 Forestry Pasture 60 Bioenergy 2010 2030 2050 0-50 2010 2030 2050 Given recent and projected trends in biodiversity loss and degradation, there is an urgent need for: greater and more ambitious use of policies including economic instruments, more cost-effective use of existing finance for biodiversity, and mainstreaming of biodiversity in other sectoral policymaking. Sources of loss in MSA to 2050 2010 2030 2050 Biodiversity loss is one of the four priority areas featured in the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050. OECD work is focused on the economic aspects of biodiversity – enhancing understanding of how biodiversity and ecosystems can be valued, and how these values can be captured through policy instruments and incentives to support biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. The work aims to promote biodiversity policies that are environmentally effective, economically efficient and distributionally equitable. OECD work on biodiversity supports the work of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010 2030 2050 Economics of Biodiversity OECD BRIICS RoW World Food crop Remaining MSA Source: OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050; output from IMAGE Scaling Up Biodiversity Instruments Current OECD work focuses on financing mechanisms for biodiversity, including how to better engage the private sector. This work looks at lessons learned from existing biodiversity instruments, such as payments for ecosystem © OECD 2013
OECD work on services (PES), biodiversity offsets, and certification schemes, to provide insights for how such instruments can be scaled up. Cost-effective Use of Existing Biodiversity Finance A key challenge in efficiently allocating biodiversity finance is the need to ensure appropriate design and implementation of biodiversity instruments so as to best achieve their intended goals. This includes the need to develop appropriate metrics and indicators for biodiversity instruments, and ensure robust monitoring and reporting frameworks. Metrics and indicators, for example, are critical to assess trends, establish business-as-usual baselines, quantify benefits, target biodiversity expenditures and enable the assessment of policy interventions over time. OECD is at the forefront of examining good-practice in the design of policy instruments and how they can be improved so as to achieve greater biodiversity benefits at lower cost. Mainstreaming Biodiversity into Sectoral and Development Policies The drivers of biodiversity loss and degradation often stem from policies in other sectors and areas such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry and climate change. Linkages between biodiversity and other cross-sectoral policies are complex and greater efforts are needed to mainstream biodiversity into decision-making processes across the economy. OECD work is examining how to maximise synergies and © OECD 2013 Environment address trade-offs between biodiversity and other sectoral policies. Particular attention is paid to biodiversity and water. Coherent policies are needed at local, national and international level to help reverse global trends in biodiversity loss. The OECD also tracks aid in support of biodiversity. Since 1998 the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has monitored aid targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions. In 2009-10, DAC members allocated an average about USD 5.7 billion per year for biodiversity-related aid. Biodiversity-related ODA figure USD billion 7 6 5 Biodiversity: principal objective Biodiversity: upper bound estimate (principal + significant objective) 4 3 2 1 0 2005-2006 2007-2008 Source: Development Co-operation Report, OECD (2012) 2009-2010 11
12 Key Publications • Green Growth and Biodiversity (2013) • Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity (2013) • Paying for Biodiversity: Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (2010) • Promoting Biodiversity Co-Benefits in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) (2009) www.oecd.org/env/biodiversity © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Water Achieving water security OECD Horizontal Programme on Water Green growth requires more effective management of water resources. But sustainable water management is complex, often involving many ministries and different levels of government, and affecting all sectors in the economy. Many OECD countries face the challenge of rehabilitating and upgrading ageing water and wastewater infrastructure to meet increasingly stringent water quality standards. The Millennium Development Goals commit governments to halving the populations without access to water and sanitation by 2015. This will require a significant increase in financing and reform in governance of the water sector. The OECD Horizontal Programme on Water addresses the key economic and governance issues related to water management. It is undertaken by the Environment Policy Committee, in partnership with the Agriculture, Investment, Development Assistance and Public Governance Committees. Key findings were presented in Managing Water for All: An OECD Perspective on Pricing and Financing (2009). More recent developments are captured in the publication Meeting the Water Reform Challenge released at the 6th World Water Forum in Marseille in March 2012. © OECD 2013 Other 2012 publications have focused on the outlook for water to 2050, financing for water resources management, water quality in agriculture, and water governance in Latin American countries. A major project on the economics and governance of water security will come to fruition in 2013. This work paves the way towards innovative approaches to deal with water-related risks. It informs work on the adaptation of ecosystems to climate change and explores the potential contribution of economic instruments and financing mechanisms to better manage water under increasing climate variability. Further work on water, agriculture and adaptation to climate change is being undertaken by the Trade and Agriculture Directorate. Work in 2013-14 will also focus on the economics and governance of urban water management. This project will provide practical guidance on sustainable financing for urban water, urban water governance challenges, and urban-rural water linkages. It will build on analytical work and case studies on selected cities. 13
14 In addition, new work will examine mechanisms for water resource allocation in order to ensure that water helps to maximise social welfare without compromising the resource base. This issue is gaining prominence in many countries as water is already over-allocated in a number of basins, and the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 projects the situation will become more severe. Global water demand Km 3 6 000 Electricity 5 000 Manufacturing 4 000 3 000 Livestock 2 000 Domestic 1 000 A new area of engagement is water policy reviews for specific countries. The OECD supports ambitious water policy reforms in selected countries, on demand, by combining robust analytical capacities and the experience of international practitioners, in the framework of national policy dialogues on water. The OECD work under the EAP Task Force in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (see the section Environment and Development in EECCA) paved the way and the effort has expanded to OECD countries. A pioneering project was completed in Mexico 2012, which has helped to inform the water policy reform agenda of the incoming Presidential Team. A water policy review of the Netherlands will be undertaken in 2013-14, and Brazil has signalled an interest for a similar country-specific review. OECD BRIICS RoW 2050 2000 2050 2000 2050 2000 2050 Irrigation 2000 0 Work will also be undertaken on the human impacts of nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and explore efficient ways to remedy them. World Source: OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050; output from IMAGE did you know …that global water demand is projected to increase by 55% to 2050, increasing competition for water and leaving little scope for increasing water for irrigation? © OECD 2013
OECD work on Key Publications • Water Security: Managing Risks, Improving Resilience (2013) • Water and Climate Change Adaptation: Policies to Navigate Unchartered Waters (2013) • Managing Water for Green Growth (2013) • Making Water Reform Happen in Mexico (2013) • Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction, Paris (Water chapter) (2012) • A Framework for Financing Water Resources Management (2012) • Meeting the Water Reform Challenge (2012) • Water Quality and Agriculture: Meeting the Policy Challenge (2012) • Water Governance in Latin American and the Caribbean: A Multi‑level Approach (2012) www.oecd.org/water © OECD 2013 Environment 15
16 Eco-innovation Fostering innovative solutions for a green economy Encouraging Eco-Innovation Investment in eco-friendly technologies can represent a new source of growth and “win-win” opportunities for both the environment and economic recovery. The OECD is examining policies to promote eco-innovation and finding ways to measure progress. A recent publication examines the effects of national environmental policies on innovation and transfer in a wide range of environmental technologies. A forthcoming one explores how national and local initiatives to promote ecoinnovation can mutually support one another. A recent publication has examined how the policy framework affects the rate and direction of innovation in climate mitigation and adaptation technologies. Ongoing work is focusing on the factors which encourage the development of ‘breakthrough’ technologies, which will be needed to ensure that we shift our economies on to a ‘green’ trajectory. Related work is assessing international technology and knowledge diffusion. While the largest flows are amongst OECD countries, there are non-OECD countries that have become significant partners – particularly in climate technologies (see Figure). This is encouraging because international diffusion of environmental technologies and knowledge is vital to addressing global environmental problems such as climate change. Top 10 Co-inventor Country Pairs (Levels, 2000-2008) Wind power Solar PV All tech. fields 1 Denmark-UK Japan-USA UK-USA 2 Germany-USA Germany-USA Germany-USA 3 Canada-USA UK-USA Canada-USA 4 Germany-Netherl. Switzerl.-Germany Switzerl.-Germany 5 Netherlands-USA Austria-Germany Japan-USA 6 Germany-Denmark Canada-USA France-USA 7 India-USA China-USA Netherlands-USA 8 Belgium-S.Africa Germany-France Germany-France 9 Russia-USA Germany-Netherl. Switzerland-France Denmark-Spain UK-Italy Switzerland-USA 10 Source: Energy and Climate Policy (2012) © OECD 2013
OECD work on However, in order to ensure that the cleaner technologies are deployed widely, large volumes of funds need to be mobilized to finance such investment. Therefore, a new stream of work has been initiated on the analysis of how the public policy framework can help leverage private finance for green growth in a cost-effective manner. Key Publications • International Cooperation for Climate Change Innovation (2013) • Eco-innovation and Green Growth. Coordinating International, National and Local Initiatives (2013) • Better Policies to Support Eco-innovation (2011) • Energy and Climate Change Policy and Innovation (2011) • The Invention and Transfer of Environmental Technologies (2011) www.oecd.org/environment/innovation © OECD 2013 Environment 17
18 Environmental Policy Tools and Evaluation Ensuring policies are economically efficient and environmentally effective The OECD undertakes fact-based analysis of policy instruments and mixes of instruments to help governments design and implement environmentally effective and economically efficient policies. The OECD’s focus on policy instruments such as taxes, tradable permits and voluntary approaches makes an important contribution to integrating environmental protection and economic growth. A new project on effective carbon prices aims to better understand the implicit price associated with many of the regulations and other policy instruments used to reduce GHG emissions. Policy Evaluation Following the 2008 publication of Cost of Inaction on Key Environmental Challenges, new analytical work has been undertaken to help policy makers evaluate environmentrelated health risks that affect children, focusing on the valuation of environmental health risks to children. Another project has analysed estimates of the value of preventing fatalities more generally, and spells out implications for policy assessments. OECD work on environmental compliance assurance has reviewed how governments promote, monitor and enforce compliance with environmental laws and regulations. Further work focuses on performance indicators and mechanisms to promote national coherence in environmental enforcement. Tax rates per litre of unleaded petrol and diesel in OECD member countries (1.1.2002 and 1.1.2012) Euro per litre 1.0 0.8 0.6 Petrol 1.1.12 Petrol 1.1.02 Diesel 1.1.12 Diesel 1.1.02 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 US US M A C A E CA – A N – F X N Fed – ed – + Fe Fe S d d ta + te Pr o CH v NZL AU L POS L IS ES L ES T HU P LUN AUX KO T JP R SV N SVN CZK BEE DN L PRK T IR CHL FR E A IS SWR E FI DEN GBU GRR C IT NO A R NL T UD R Economic Instruments and Policy Mixes Source: OECD/EEA database on environmental policy instruments © OECD 2013
OECD work on Key Publications • Effective Carbon Prices (2013) • Mortality Risk Valuation in Environment, Health and Transport Policies (2012) • Green Transformation of Small Businesses: Achieving and Going Beyond Environmental Requirements (2012) • Valuation of Environment-Related Health Risks for Children (2010) • Taxation, Innovation and the Environment (2010) • Cost of Inaction on Key Environmental Challenges (2008) Environment of environmental taxes and financial incentives. However, the last round of the survey found that households’ exposure to such policies can enhance public support for them: households charged by weight or volume of waste generated express greater support for such systems than those not facing unit-based waste charges (see figure). A publication presenting an overview of responses from the second survey is to be published in 2013, and a third survey is planned for early 2014. www.oecd.org/environment/tools-evaluation www.oecd.org/env/taxes www.oecd.org/env/policies/vsl Percent of respondents supporting unit-based waste charging policies by exposure to such policies Households and the Environment © OECD 2013 Don’t have unit-based charging Have unit-based charging 0.42 80 0.35 0.52 0.12 0.09 0.06 60 40 20 N CA E SW D NL N JP KO R 0 E The survey analyses the relationship between public policy, household attitudes and norms, and decisions with significant environmental consequences. For example, public opinion can impose significant constraints on the use % 100 CH OECD work provides new insights to better understand households’ environmental behaviour and how policies affect their decisions in the real world. A periodic survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) of more than 10 000 respondents across a number of countries provides empirical evidence to improve the design of environmental policies in residential energy use, water consumption, transport, organic food, and waste generation and recycling. Source: Greening Household Behaviour: Responses from the Second Survey, OECD (2013) 19
20 In addition to traditional policy instruments, new types of policies inspired by behavioural economics have been shown to cost-effectively decrease households’ environmental impacts. For example, regularly providing information to households about how their energy and water consumption compares to that of their neighbours has been shown to reduce consumption at very low cost. In 2012 OECD issued a working paper, Behavioural Economics and Environmental Incentives, which outlines ways in which behavioural economics can be used to enhance the design of environmental policy. New work is being done with country governments to conduct field trials of these types of policies in areas such as energy conservation, ecolabelling, and provision of ecosystem services. Key Publications • Greening Household Behaviour: Responses from the Second Survey (2013) • Greening Household Behaviour: The Role of Public Policy (2011) www.oecd.org/env/consumption-innovation/households.htm www.oecd.org/env/consumption-innovation/behaviour.htm © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Resource Productivity and Waste Reducing, reusing and recycling materials and resources Sustainable Materials Management and Waste The OECD is developing policies that incentivise and encourage waste prevention, minimisation and recycling. Current work focuses on promoting Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) in order to limit waste generation in the first place. Using materials and resources more efficiently requires more integrated approaches towards the environmental impacts associated with their extraction, transportation and use, as well as waste disposal. OECD has started to develop practical guidance for policy makers on how to implement SMM policies, based on materialand products‑specific case studies and with a focus on specific policy instruments. A report on material resources, productivity and the environment is also being prepared for 2013. Material Flows Accounting OECD has made advances in the knowledge base on material flows as well as in methodologies for developing common measurement systems and indicators. Municipal Waste Generation: kg per capita, 2008‑2010 Factbook 1 000 800 600 400 200 …that the global recycling industry handles over 500 million tons of waste and employs more than 1.5 million workers, with an annual turnover of USD 200 billion? 0 CH CZN SV E POK CHL M L E KO X CA R JP N Z AN TU F SV R RUN ESS GR T HU C PRN BET L F EU IN 2 SW 7 FR E A IT A OEISL CD GB DER ESU AUP IS T NL R LUD CHX US E A IR DN L NO K R did you know Source: OECD Key Environmental Indicators, (2009) © OECD 2013 21
22 Key Publications • Material Resources, Productivity and the Environment (2013) • Sustainable Materials Management: Making Better Use of Resources (2012) • State of Resources and Resource Productivity (2011) • Guidance Manual for the Control of Transboundary Movement of Recoverable Wastes (2009) • Measuring Material Flows and Resource Productivity (2008) www.oecd.org/env/waste © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Sectoral Policies: Transport, Agriculture Integrating environmental concerns into sector policies Transport Transport underpins economic and social development, allowing more efficient allocation of resources and increased mobility for people. Yet, there are challenges related to the environmental impacts of transport and globalisation can aggravate these challenges. A 2010 report Globalisation, Transport and the Environment examines major transport trends and the environmental challenges they cause as well as policy instruments that can limit negative impacts. Analyses of CO2-related tax rate differentiation of motor vehicles are also available, and a study on the environmental impacts of ports was released in 2011. Transport is the second largest contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. To avoid lock-in into carbonintensive and climate-vulnerable transport infrastructure, there is a need to shift investment towards sustainable transport infrastructure. The OECD is applying the Green Investment Policy Framework to the transport sector (see also section on Financing Action on Climate Change). © OECD 2013 Key Publications • Mobilising Private investment in Sustainable Transport Infrastructure: The Case of Land-Based Passenger Transport (2013) • The Environmental Impact of International Shipping: The Role of Ports (2011) • Globalisation, Transport and the Environment (2010) Agriculture The Environment Directorate contributes to joint work with the Trade and Agriculture Directorate to strengthen policies to reduce the negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, to reinforce the positive impacts, and to develop and collect agri-environmental indicators. Current and planned work is focused on the interactions between water, climate change and agriculture, groundwater management in agriculture, the management of droughts and floods in agriculture, and the linkages between urban and rural water usage (see the section on Water). did you know …that ships are responsible for 2-4% of global man-made CO2 emissions and 15% of other air pollutants? 23
24 Tax per tonne CO2 emitted over a vehicle’s life, one-off and recurrent motor vehicle taxes 01.01.2012, selected levels of emissions per km driven Euro per tonne CO 2 emitted over the vehicle lifetime 1 000 100 gram CO 2 per km 800 600 One-off Recurrent Euro per tonne CO 2 emitted over the vehicle lifetime 1 000 150 gram CO 2 per km 800 600 400 Recurrent 400 200 One-off 200 0 0 -200 -200 600 One-off Recurrent L BE L BE Euro per tonne CO 2 emitted over the vehicle lifetime 1 000 200 gram CO 2 per km 800 (W A B E a llo U T L ni a (o ) th er CA ) N DN K FR F A ( c F IN om R pa A ny DE ) U IR L IS R LU X NL D NO R PR T SV N ES P SW E GB R US A ZA F -400 -600 (W A B E a llo U T L ni a (o ) th er CA ) N DN K FI FR N A F (c R A om p. DE ) U IR L IS R LU X NL D NO R PR T SV N ES P SW E GB R US A ZA F -400 -600 Euro per tonne CO 2 emitted over the vehicle lifetime 1 000 250 gram CO 2 per km 800 600 400 Recurrent 400 200 One-off 200 0 0 -200 -200 L BE L BE (W A B E a llo U T L ni a (o ) th er CA ) N DN K FR F A ( c F IN om R pa A ny DE ) U IR L IS R LU X NL D NO R PR T SV N ES P SW E GB R US A ZA F -400 -600 (W A B E a llo U T L ni a (o ) th er CA ) N DN K FI FR N A F (c R A om p. DE ) U IR L IS R LU X NL D NO R PR T SV N ES P SW E GB R US A ZA F -400 -600 Source: OECD/EEA database on instruments used for environmental policy © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Safety of Chemicals, Pesticides, Biotechnology & Nanomaterials Protecting human health and the environment Chemical Safety The chemicals industry is one of the world’s major economic sectors. The products of the chemical industry are worth about EUR 3.8 trillion annually. The OECD Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Programme aims to foster international co-operation to ensure the safety of chemicals and chemical products like pesticides, biocides, manufactured nanomaterials, and the products of modern biotechnology. It also aims to avoid barriers to trade at the same time. did you know …that by working together through the OECD, governments and industry save over EUR 150 million annually? Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) The OECD Council Acts on the Mutual Acceptance of Data for the assessment of chemicals (MAD) are international agreements, which set the policies and provide the © OECD 2013 instruments that governments and industry need to test the safety of chemicals and chemical products. OECD countries must accept safety test data which has been developed in other countries using the OECD Test Guidelines and following the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice. Non-tariff barriers to trade are minimised by harmonised policies and instruments, and duplicative testing is avoided, saving governments and industry time and money. Increasingly non-OECD economies are joining the MAD system, with Argentina, Brazil, India, South Africa and Singapore as full adherents; Malaysia and Thailand provisional adherents; and others expected to join soon. Sharing the Regulatory Burden for Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals All OECD countries regulate chemicals, pesticides and products of modern biotechnology. By using the same methodologies for determining the safety of these products, it is possible for countries and industry to share the burden of testing and even evaluation in some cases. Countries work together in the OECD to share the work load required 25
26 for registering pesticides and biocides and for notifying, registering or evaluating industrial chemicals. Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials OECD countries are addressing the human health and environmental safety implications of nanomaterials. In order to ensure that this is done in a harmonised way, the OECD is drawing on its wealth of experience with developing methods for testing and assessing the safety of other chemical products. Amongst other things, the OECD is evaluating whether existing test methods for assessing the safety of chemicals are suitable for nanomaterials. Co-operative testing of selected nanomaterials: OECD and non-OECD governments are working with industry, pooling expertise and funding to test the human health and environmental safety effects of 13 nanomaterials which are currently in commerce. New and More Efficient Tools for Getting Hazard Information Much information on the hazards associated with specific chemicals is developed through tests in the laboratory. However, other promising approaches such as computer simulations called (quantitative) structure-activity relationships, known as (Q)SARs, have the potential to provide information on the hazards of chemicals. Such approaches can reduce the time and cost of testing, as well as the need for animal testing. Through OECD, member countries are looking at how such approaches can be used more routinely in a regulatory context. Work is also underway at the OECD to investigate how (Q)SAR approaches can be combined with results from toxicogenomics (the study of the response of a genome to hazardous chemicals) and from high-throughput screening in vitro assays (that can be applied rapidly to thousands of chemicals) in an integrated way to predict the effects of chemicals in animals and humans. Safety of Bio-Tech Products The majority of OECD countries and many others have a system of regulatory oversight in place to assess the safety of products of modern biotechnology. The most common products of this type are genetically engineered crop plants used in agriculture. The OECD works to ensure that the information used in safety assessment, and the methods used to collect that information, are shared amongst countries. Recent focus has been on major agricultural commodities such as soy bean, maize and cotton. Today, there is a greater focus on crops important in the tropics such as cassava and papaya. © OECD 2013
OECD work on Key Publications • OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (series) • Safety Assessment of Foods and Feeds Derived from Transgenic Crops (2013) • Cutting Costs in Chemicals Management: How OECD Helps Governments and Industry (2010) • Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms: Volumes 1-4 (2010, 2006) • Good Laboratory Practice: OECD Principles and Guidance for Compliance Monitoring (2005) www.oecd.org/ehs © OECD 2013 Environment 27
28 Environment in the Global Economy Making globalisation and environment compatible and mutually supportive Environment and Development Economic growth and development are intricately linked to the sound management of environmental resources. It is the poorest who rely most on environmental resources and are most affected by their degradation. A joint High Level Meeting of the Environment Policy Committee (EPOC) and the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in 2009 reinforced the need for continued work at the nexus of environment and development, with particular focus on climate change and on capacity development for environmental management. The 2009 Policy Guidance on Integrating Adaptation into Development Co-operation helps development co-operation agencies and developing countries to integrate adaptation within development activities and to “climate-proof” development. OECD analysis also examines the role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in ensuring that adaptation interventions are effective, efficient and equitable. A 2011 assessment of development co-operation agencies’ M&E frameworks identifies the characteristics of M&E for adaptation and shares lessons learned on adaptation indicators. Ongoing work will explore the methodological challenges for adaptation M&E and provide a comparative study of different approaches in developed and developing countries. Weak environmental governance and capacity constraints affects sustainable management of natural resources in developing countries and undermines the achievement of key development and green growth objectives. The OECD report Greening Development: Enhancing Capacity for Environmental Management and Governance offers guidance on how to enhance the capacities of key stakeholders in both developing countries and in development co-operation agencies to integrate the environment into national planning and budgetary processes. Trade and Environment The Environment Directorate works with the Trade and Agriculture Directorate to better understand trade patterns and their environmental consequences. A report on illegal © OECD 2013
OECD work on trade in environmentally sensitive goods was released in 2012. This report addressed data and policy issues that need to be resolved in order to reduce illegal trade in wildlife, fisheries, waste, dangerous chemicals and timber. Work on cross-border trade in electricity services and the penetration of electricity produced from renewable energy sources will be published in early 2013. The regular updating of environmental provisions in regional Trade Agreements will continue. Environment Annual Official Flows and Share of Activities Potentially Affected by Climate Change Official flows in million USD per year 1 800 1 600 Flows affected 1 400 Uncertainty 1 200 Flows unaffected 1 000 30 20 800 10 600 A major new area of work in 2013-14 will focus on the economic, environmental and trade aspects of environmental labelling and information schemes. The project aims to provide guidance to governments on how to address the challenges arising from the proliferation of such schemes and their consequences. 0 400 200 0 Bangladesh Egypt Tanzania Uruguay Nepal Fiji Fiji Source: Bridge Over Troubled Waters: Linking Climate Change and Development, OECD (2005) Co-operation with Key Emerging Economies did you know …that a growing number of countries are engaging in Regional Trade Agreements, which increasingly include environmental provisions to ensure a level playing field and improve environmental co-operation between trade partners? © OECD 2013 Key Partners (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa) are invited to co-operate in all areas of OECD work on environment, in particular on green growth, climate change, water, biodiversity, environmental information, environmental indicators and policy instruments. Environmental Performance Reviews (EPR) of South Africa and Colombia will be published in 2013. A broader group of partner countries is invited to Global Forums on Environment (GFENV) on various environmental issues, providing a regular framework to substantiate the dialogue with non-OECD countries. Global Forums in 2013-14 will 29
30 focus on issues including climate change and economic instruments for materials management. • Ten Years of Municipal Water Sector Reform in EECCA: from Almaty to Astana (2011) • Greening Public Budgets in EECCA (2011) Environment and Development in EECCA The OECD Environment Directorate serves as the Secretariat of the Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme (EAP Task Force) that guides reforms of environmental policies in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and promotes their integration into economic and social policies – greening growth. This is done through robust policy analysis, diffusion and adaptation of good international practices, capacity development, policy dialogue at national and regional levels, and pilot application of innovative policy tools. OECD helps EECCA countries to make the best use of available finance and enhance dialogue with private sector and donors. A special focus is put on the economic and financing aspects of water policies. The EAP Task Force work is closely aligned with the European Union’s Water Initiative and its framework of co‑operation with countries of Eastern Partnership and Central Asia. It contributes to the “Environment for Europe” process. • Policy Guidance on Integrating Adaptation into Development Co‑operation (2009) • Environment and Regional Trade Agreements (2007) www.oecd.org/env/outreach/eap.htm Key Publications • Enhancing Capacity for Greening Development (2012) • Green Growth and Environmental Governance in EECCA (2012) © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Green Growth The OECD launched its Green Growth Strategy at the Ministerial Council Meeting in May 2011. It responded to a mandate given by 39 countries, when they signed the “OECD Green Growth Declaration” in 2009, comitting to “strengthen [their] efforts to pursue green growth strategies as part of [their] responses to the crisis and beyond, acknowledging that green and growth can go hand in hand”. The key message of the Green Growth Strategy is that the environment and the economy can no longer be considered in isolat ion, but t hat environmental considerations need to be an inherent part of future economic policymaking and development planning. Importantly, the Strategy argued that green growth cannot be a mere add-on to the mainstream reform agenda, but requires a reassessment of growth policies and priorities to ensure that their design and implementation better take into account environmental impacts. © OECD 2013 If implemented in structural reforms, green growth policies can unlock new growth opportunities by various channels. Well-designed green growth policies will ensure that market participants feel the social costs of using environmental assets, thus leading to a more efficient use of resources and natural assets. Better price signals for environmental externalities would also strengthen innovation and foster demand for new, environmentally more efficient goods and services, creating new markets and hence the potential for new job opportunities. Furthermore, stable green growth policies will enhance investor confidence through greater predictability in how governments deal with major environmental issues, and green fiscal reform can support fiscal consolidation and growth, as revenues from pricing externalities rise and harmful subsidies are phased out. Monitoring Progress Evaluating the effects of green growth policies needs to be based on sufficient knowledge of core environmental developments as well as the linkages between environmental outcomes and growth or well-being. 31
32 A set of 25 indicators structured along four areas is capturing the main features of green growth: environmental and resource productivity, the natural asset base, environmental quality of life, and economic opportunities and policy responses. A small set of headline indicators that summarise the central elements of green growth for public and policy makers’ communication is also proposed. The OECD work on green growth indicators is part of the OECD’s broader agenda on measuring progress and well-being. Countries like the Czech Republic, Korea, Mexico and the Netherlands, have already applied the OECD measurement framework to assess their state of green growth. In a joint project with UNIDO, work is also underway in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay and Peru to apply the indicators in order to identify key areas of national pressure and to improve the choice and design of policy instruments. Tailoring Green Growth Strategies to Individual Countries The OECD is supporting countries in their efforts to design and implement strategies for greener and more inclusive growth, through its core advice in country-specific and multilateral surveillance, including Economic Surveys, Environmental Performance Reviews, Investment Policy Reviews, Reviews of Innovation Policy, the Green Cities programme and Going for Growth. Through these, the OECD is providing guidance tailored to the needs of individual countries. The OECD is working with other international organisations and partner countries to examine how green growth can be applied in the specific context of developing countries. The forthcoming OECD report Green Growth and Developing Countries will provide a platform for partner countries to indicate their interest in collaborating with the OECD to shape a green growth agenda that is feasible and relevant for them and addresses the aspirations of their citizens. www.oecd.org/dac/greengrowth Another on-going project, Towards green growth in emerging and developing Asia, is identifying the main policy challenges faced by emerging and developing Asian countries to move to a green growth development path. It is reviewing issues of managing natural resource, tackling rapid urbanisation, as well as integrating green growth strategies into national development plans. A draft of the report will be discussed by national green growth experts at a workshop in the second half of 2013 and a revised version of it will be presented to relevant OECD Committees in the first half of 2014. © OECD 2013
OECD work on Green growth is also being integrated in OECD’s sector- and issue-specific work to cover key areas such as energy (jointly with the IEA), food and agriculture, innovation, green investment, green business models, green jobs, biodiversity, water, rural development, etc. Environment and implement sustainable development. The OECD is hosting the second annual conference on 4-5 April 2013. www.greengrowthknowledge.org Key Publications • Tools for Delivering Green Growth (PDF) (2011) The Green Growth and Sustainable Development Forum at the OECD (GG-SD Forum) The GG-SD Forum is a new initiative established by the OECD as a vehicle for facilitating dialogue among its Committee experts on cross-cutting green growth and sustainable development issues, to build on and complement the extensive work already underway in individual Committees and to maximise synergies across them. • Towards Green Growth: A Summary for Policy Makers (PDF) (2011) • Towards Green Growth: free version (2011) • Towards Green Growth – Monitoring Progress: OECD Indicators (2011) Green growth studies: The new Green Growth Studies series aims to provide in-depth reviews of the green growth issues faced by different sectors. The GG-SD Forum will operate as a series of annual conferences or workshops, focusing each year on a different issue of relevance to more than one OECD Committee. www.oecd.org/greengrowth/ggsdforum.htm The Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) The OECD has joined forces with the Global Green Growth Institute, UNEP and the World Bank to establish the GGKP. Launched in January 2012, the GGKP is an international knowledge-sharing platform that identifies and addresses major knowledge gaps in green growth/green economy theory and practice. It aims to provide practitioners and policymakers with better tools to foster economic growth © OECD 2013 Green growth papers: OECD Green Growth Papers complement the OECD Green Growth Studies series, and aim to stimulate discussion and analysis on specific topics and obtain feedback from interested audiences. www.oecd.org/greengrowth 33
34 The Committee Structures The Environment Policy Committee (EPOC) implements the OECD’s Environment Programme. Established in 1971, EPOC celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2011. EPOC, consisting of delegates from capitals, meets 1-2 times per year and holds meetings at the Ministerial level approximately every four years. The last Ministerial meeting took place in March 2012. EPOC oversees work on: country reviews, indicators and outlooks, climate change, natural resource management, policy tools and evaluation, environment and development, and resource efficiency and waste, supported by EPOC’s Working Parties. EPOC also co-operates with other OECD Committees, including through Joint Working Parties on Trade and Environment and on Agriculture and Environment, as well as Joint Meetings of Experts on Tax and Environment and Joint Task Teams on environment and development issues. The Chemicals Committee, like EPOC, reports directly to the OECD Council. EPOC’s Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology and the Chemicals Committee together form the Joint Meeting which oversees the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Programme. EPOC is a major partner in two horizontal programmes at the OECD, one on Green Growth and the other on Water. The OECD Environment Directorate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) jointly serve as the Secretariat for the Climate Change Expert Group which undertakes studies of issues related to the negotiation and implementation of international agreements on climate change. The OECD Environment Directorate also functions as the Secretariat for the Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme in Central and Eastern Europe (EAP Task Force). The Task Force provides a forum for dialogue and co-operation for countries in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). The Environment Programme is carried out in co-operation with international and regional organisations, e.g. the World Bank, UNEP, WTO, UNECE and Secretariats for UNFCCC, CBD and the Basel Convention. Key research institutes are also important partners, as is civil society represented through business, labour and NGOs. EPOC is actively engaging with key emerging economies through Global Forums on Environment. © OECD 2013
OECD work on OECD Council Environment Policy Committee Working Party on Biodiversity, Water and Ecosystems Working Party on Climate, Investment and Development Environment EPOC Organigramme Working Party on Environmental Information Working Party on Environmental Performance Working Party on Integrating Environmental and Economic Policies Working Party on Resource Productivity and Waste • Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials • Working Group on Good Laboratory Practice • Working Group on Pesticides • Working Group on Chemical Accidents Joint Meeting Chemicals Committee Other OECD substantive committees Secretariat Role Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology • Working Group on National Co‑ordinators of Test Guidelines Programme • Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment • Joint Working Party on Agriculture and Environment • Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts • Ad Hoc Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) • Task Force for the Implementation of the Environmental Action Programme in Central and Eastern Europe (EAP) © OECD 2012 35
36 Environment Directorate (ENV) The Environment Directorate is a multicultural team, encompassing some 100 international civil servants: economists, policy analysts, statisticians and administrative staff. We are an extension to national governments’ analytical capacity, providing policy-relevant analysis and recommendations based on reliable environmental data, outlooks and cross-country experiences. We help countries to design environmental policies that are both economically efficient and effective at achieving their environmental objectives. We also provide a forum for governments and representatives from business and civil society for constructive dialogue on how best to develop and implement environmental policies across OECD and other countries. The ENV management team members are: Director’s Office Simon Upton Helen Mountford Director Deputy Director firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Tel.: +33 1 45 24 14 56 Tel.: +33 1 45 24 79 13 Central Management and Committee Branch Kumi Kitamori Amy Plantin Consellor Head of Unit and Executive Secretary to EPOC firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Tel.: +33 1 45 24 92 02 Tel.: +33 1 45 24 93 08 © OECD 2013
OECD work on C limate Change, Biodiversity and Water Division Environment and Economy Integration Division Anthony Cox Shardul Agrawala Head of Division Head of Division firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Tel.: +33 1 45 24 95 64 Tel.: +33 1 45 24 16 65 Environment, Health and Safety Division E nvironmental Performance and Information Division Bob Diderich Brendan Gillespie Head of Division Head of Division Bob.firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Tel.: +33 1 45 24 14 85 Tel.: +33 1 45 24 93 02 Accession Unit Green Growth Strategy Eija Kiiskinen Nathalie Girouard Head of Unit Co-ordinator firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Tel.: +33 1 45 24 18 40 © OECD 2013 Environment Tel.: +33 1 45 24 84 82 37
38 Recent Flasghip Publications Environmental A Framework for Energy and Climate Sustainable Materials Environmental Outlook to 2050: Financing Water Policy: Bending Management - Making Performance Reviews The Consequences Resources Management the Technological Better Use of Resources of Inaction Trajectories Forthcoming Flasghip Publications • OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Mexico, Italy, Austria, • Material Resources, Productivity and the Environment (2013) South Africa (2013); Colombia, Iceland, Sweden, Poland, Spain • Water Security: Managing Risks, Improving Resilience (2013) (2014) • Water and Climate Change Adaptation: Policies to Navigate • Effective Carbon Prices (2013) Unchartered Waters (2013) • Environment at a Glance (2013) • Managing Water for Green Growth (2013) • Greening Household Behaviour: Responses from the Second • Green Finance and Investment: The Case of Climate Change Survey (2013) (2013) Environment Working Papers: This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected studies on environmental issues prepared for use within the OECD. www.oecd.org/env/workingpapers © OECD 2013
OECD work on Environment Selected Databases OECD/EEA Instruments Database Information on environmentally-related taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits systems, deposit-refund systems, environmentally motivated subsidies and voluntary approaches. www.oecd.org/env/policies/database Value of Statistical Life (VSL) Data used in a meta-analysis of value of statistical life estimates from stated preferences surveys in environment, health and traffic risk contexts. www.oecd.org/env/policies/vsl Transboundary Movement of Wastes destined for Recovery Operations Country-specific requirements for the application of the “OECD Decision on Transboundary Movements of Waste Destined for Recovery Operations”. www.oecd.org/env/waste/database eChemPortal A Global Portal for information on properties of chemical substances. www.oecd.org/ehs/eChemPortal Research on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials Information on research projects that address safety issues of manufactured nanomaterials. www.oecd.org/env/nanosafety/database Biotech Products Database Information and unique identifiers on products derived from using modern biotechnology which have been approved for commercial application. www.oecd.org/biotrack/productdatabase Get free ENV reports and statistics Visit www.oecd.org/environment for a selection of free reports and data. © OECD 2013 39
More information on the OECD’s work on environment The Environment Directorate produces 20-30 titles a year in English and French, with summaries of selected titles translated into other languages (available for free on the OECD on-line bookshop). W rite to us: O rder our publications: OECD Environment Directorate 2, rue André Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16 France firstname.lastname@example.org Browse titles on your screen before you buy: www.oecdbookshop.org Be the first to know about the latest OECD publications on environment with our free e-mail alert service: www.oecd.org/OECDdirect Subscribe to our OECDiLibrary and statistics services: www.oecdilibrary.org Find Job Vacancies on the OECD Human Resources website at www.oecd.org/hrm. Photo credits: Front cover: © Pauline Tezier Page 9: © Soizick De Tilly and Pauline Tezier Page 12: © Pauline Tezier Page 15: © Nicolas Gascard – Fotolia Page 17: © Elena Elisseeva – iStockphoto Page 20: © Brian Jackson – Fotolia Page 22: © Huguette Roe – Shutterstock Page 27: © Mitch Hrdlicka – Thinkstock Page 30: © Stockbyte – Thinkstock OECD Publications, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris cedex 16 printed in france – (00 2012 42 1) – No. 90127 – 2012
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OECD Work on Climate Change ... mechanisms to address climate change. In January 2013, the OECD published ... www.oecd.org/env/cc G20/OECD (2014), ...
... is due in 2014. Current work underway at the OECD on ... oecd.org/env/biodiversity ... OECD (2013), OECD DAC statistics Biodiversity ...
This brochure provides an overview of our work on: ... 2014). In 2013, the OECD ... Energy, Food, Transport, Waste, Water (2014) www.oecd.org/env ...
... and reports www.oecd.org/env/biodiversity ... 2013, the OECD organised a seminar ... is due in 2014. Current work underway at the OECD on biodiversity ...
Jacqueline Allan, Head of Biotechnology . ... 2013-2014 – a flavour . 1 ... Read more about our work: www.oecd.org/sti/sti-brochure.pdf .
... OECD ENV-Linkages model. 2010 1 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 ... the NEA issued a brochure in ... Working Papers, No. 3, ENV/WKP(2008)2, OECD ...