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Published on November 5, 2007

Author: Nastasia

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  WELCOME Slide2:  EFFICIENT UTILISATION OF FUEL IN TRANSPORT BY Thekkekere Narayana SCI/MARITIME TRAINING INSTITUTE, POWAI, MUMBAI FUEL :  FUEL 103.m tonnes Rs. 80000 Crores (01-02. Estimated) 70% Import, 30%Indeginous production SCI 0.43m tonnes Rs. 393.95 Crores (00-01) shipping 0.85m tonnes Rs. 788 Crores (Estimated) Transport (inclusive Air, Sea, River, Road, RAIL About 40% ie.: 41.2m tonnes Rs32,000 Crores Efficient utilization of fuel in transport:  Efficient utilization of fuel in transport Design Operational aspects Maintenance of equipment / system Alternative fuels / propulsion Procurement of bunker Retrofitting / modifications Design Aspects :  Design Aspects Ship : Large length & beam Small block coefficient Aft hull shape Large propeller Light weight ( High tensile steel ) Diesel Engines:  Diesel Engines Super long stroke Fuel efficient main engines Exhaust Gas Boiler Turbo Compound System (PTI) Jerk Type Fuel Pump - Variable Injection Timing Common Rail System – Electronic valves Slide7:  Combustion chamber design Type of fuel burners ( Boilers ) Blending of fuel oil in auxiliary engines LNG Boil Off - used as fuel (-161C ,0.15%, 1:600 ) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) used as fuel ( Intertanko research report: saving USD 700 m / annum): VIZ: per tanker US$ 400000 / annum Operational Aspects:  Operational Aspects Ship : Economical speed Smooth hull surface (Anti fouling paints) Polished propeller Automatic steering Optimum trim Slide9:  Weather / Ocean routing ( saves 20% to 50% of fuel) Dry docking Satellite navigation – integrated navigation system Extra ballast on board Diesel Engines:  Diesel Engines Fuel oil pre treatment before injection Complete Combustion ( Incomplete combustion produces 70% less heat than that of complete combustion) Good Combustion:  Good Combustion Atomization – ( High residual fuel are heated prior atomization) Correct air / fuel ratio Quality of fuel Fuel & air flow dynamics / turbulence Penetration of fuel Slide12:  Blending of HFO & DO in Auxiliary engines Use of Heavy fuel oils in AE’s without blending Maintenance of Hull / Equipment:  Maintenance of Hull / Equipment SHIP : Under water cleaning of Hull & Propeller Diesel engines: Indicator diagram Choked fuel valve Leaky fuel valve Late injection Slide14:  Effect of low grade fuel on piston,Rings & Liner Fouling air cooler & turbocharger Planned Maintenance system (Computerized maintenance system) Intelligent monitoring ( Intelligent engines) Alternative sources of energy:  Alternative sources of energy Coal ships: -Lack of infrastructure -Lack of fluidized coal burning boilers -Lack of bunkering facilities Nuclear powered ships - Accidents - Proliferation of nuclear waste Slide16:  Alternative to current propulsion system: Computer controlled sails (Japan) Retrofitting:  Retrofitting Changing of auxiliary engines –blending Replacement of slow speed nozzles Consideration for the retrofit: -Age of the ship -Economic life of the ship -Compatibility of the retrofit with the existing ship Procurement of Bunker:  Procurement of Bunker Spot purchase Long term contract Good bunker planning Road Transport:  Road Transport 41 million tonnes 320000m. Rupees 2/3 WHEELERS 4 WHEELERS HEAVY VEHICLES ROAD TRANSPORT :  ROAD TRANSPORT DESIGN OPERATION DRIVING HABITS MAINTENANCE TERRAIN/GEOGRAPHICAL ALTERNATE SOURCES AIR:  AIR OPTIMUM FLIGHT LEVELS Fuel mileage penalty 2000ft above: 1% Optimum 0 2000 ft below 1% 4000 ft below 3% 6000 ft below 6% 8000 ft below 10% AIR :  AIR OPTIMUM ALTITUDE SELECTION FLIGHT LEVEL UPLIFTMENT OF EXTRA FUEL - FUEL MILEAGE ISSET ALTITUDE/TEMP. - ONE TONNE EXTRA 2% EXTRA FUEL - AT 50% FLIGHTS ONE TONNE EXTRA 4 CRORES EXTRA - DIRECT FUNCTION OF AEROPLANE GROSS WEIGHT NO WEIGHT REDUCTION IS INSIGNIFICANT IN TODAY’S FUEL ENVIRONMENT HENCE MINIMUM EXTRA UPLIFTMENT AIR :  AIR OPTIMUM CLIMB SPEEDS LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY -- 4% MAC SHIFT 0.5% REDUCTION IN FC. ENGINE START MINIMISE APU OR USE GROUND POWER TAXI : JUDICIALLY USE ENGINE POWER AIR:  AIR ASSYMETRIC FLIGHT INDUCED BY MISRIGGED CONTROLS,ASSYMETRIC THRUST OR FUEL IMBALANCE BETWEEN WINGS. PROPER TRIMMING MINIMISES DRAG DEVIATIONS IN TRIM CAUSE DRAG IN SPEED AND THRUST. RETRIM ONCE IN EVERY FLIGHTPHASE, OR WHEN TRIMMING IN DOUBT SPECIFIC RANGE ABOUT 1.5% USE OPTIMUM SPEED DESCENT DO NOT DESCENT EARLIER WHERE MORE POWER ON ENGINES EVERY MINUTE EARLY DESCENT 20 TO 40 KG OF FUEL BETTER TO HOLD AT HIGHER LEVELS. CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION TRAINING COSERVATION CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SAFETY Slide26:  The views expressed here is of mine and not of SCI. Slide27:  THANK YOU

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