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Health & Medicine

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: maheswarijaikumar

Source: slideshare.net


Occupational Health in India



OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. DEFINITION “OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH is the promotion & maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental & social wellbeing of the workers in all occupations”.


OBJECTIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Prevention among workers of departure from health caused by their working conditions. Protection of workers from risk resulting from factors adverse to health. Placing & maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to his/her physiological & psychological equipment. Adaptation of worker to man & each man to his job.

ILO RECOMMENDATION. Focus on providing the following to promote health of the employees as follows. Nutrition. Prevention & control of communicable disease. Environmental sanitation. --------Water supply. --------Food. ---------Toilet facilities.

General Plant cleanliness. Floor Space. Wastage & Garbage disposal. Lighting & Ventilation. Protection against hazards. Housing. Maternity benefit. First Aid. Crèches. Family Planning. Mental Health. Health Education.

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY. INDIAN CONSTITUTION. States; “The state shall in particular direct it’s policy towards security that the health & strength of the workers, man, woman, & the tender age of children are not abused & that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their strengths”. The state shall make provisions for securing just & humane conditions of work

DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH IN INDIA. 1930– All India Inst of Hygiene & Public Health. 1945 – Adarkar’s report on Health Insurance foe Industrial workers. 1945- Directorate of General Factory Inspection & Advisory Service established. 1946 – Bhore Committee report. 1946 – Thomas Badford – Report on Health of Industrial workers. 1947 – Report on the health of workers PLANTATION. 1881 – The first Indian Factories Act.

1947 – Coal Mines Labour Welfare Act. 1948 – ESI Act. 1948 – Indian Factories Act. 1960 – Central Labour Institute – Mumbai.( 3 Regional Institutes _ Chennai.). Research Institutions--- Central Mining & Research Station. – Dhanbad. The Industrial Toxicology & Research Centre.Lucknow. Occupational Health research Institute. – Ahemedhabad. National Environment Engineering Research Institute – Nagpur.

All India Institute of Hygiene & Public Health. – Calcutta. Indian Institute of Technology – Kanpur. Museums of Industrial Health, training sections. COUNCILS: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Indian Council of Medical research. 1984 – The ESI Amendment Bill. 1984 – The Workman’s Compensation Amendment Act. 1987 – Factories Amendment Act.( Operated to protect employees exposed to hazardous process.) 1989 – ESI Amendment Act. (Employee,

OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS Physical Chemical Biological Heat. Local action. Bacteria. cold. Light. Noise. Vibration UV rays Ionizing R Inhalation. Ingestion. Virus. Fungi. Parasites. Protozoon' s Mechanica Psychosocia l Accidents Psycho social conditio ns.

PHYSICAL HAZARDS. HEAT: Burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, heat cramps, decreased efficiency, increased fatigue, & enhanced accident rates. COLD: Chill blains, erythrocyanosis, immersion cyanosis, frost bite, hypothermia. LIGHT: Eye strain, headches, Eye pain, lacrymation, congestion around cornea, eye fatigue, miner’s nystagmus, discomfort, annoyance, visual fatigue, blurring of vision leading to accidents.

NOISE: Temporary / permanent hearing loss, nervousness, fatigue, interference with communication, decreased efficiency, annoyance. VIBRATION: White fingers, injuries to joints. ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION: Conjunctivitis, keratitis, (welder’s flash), redness of eyes & pain. IONIZING RADIATION: Genetic changes, malformations, cancer, leukemia, depilation, ulceration, sterility, death.

CHEMICAL HAZARDS LOCAL ACTION : Dermatitis, eczema, ulcers, cancer, allergy, systemic effects (TNT, Aniline dyes). INHALATION : DUST: (.1 – 150 microns ),< 5 microns, directly inhaled into the lungs.Pnuemoconiosis.(silicosis, anthracosis, byssinosis, bagassosis,asbestosis, farmer’s lung). GASES: Poisoning. Eg ; CO poisoning, anesthetic gases, - ether & chloroform. METALS & THEIR COMPOUNDS: Toxic effects of the corresponding metals.

BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS. Exposure & effect of parasitic agents,--brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, hydatidosis, psittacosis, tetanus, encephalitis, fungal infections, schistosomiasis. MECHANICAL HAZARDS. 10% of accidents in industries are due to mechanical hazards.

PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS Frustration, loss of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor human relationships, emotional tensions, depression, sickness, absenteeism, peptic ulcer, rapid ageing, heart disease,


DISEASES DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENTS . HEAT : Heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps, burns, prickly heat. COLD : Trench foot, frost bite, chilblains. LIGHT : Occupational cataract, miner’s nystagmus. PRESSURE : Air embolism. NOISE : Occupational deafness. MECHANICAL FACTORS : Injuries & accidents. ELECTRICITY : Burns.

DISEASES DUE TO CHEMICAL AGENTS . POISONING – CO,CO2,NH3,N2, H2S,SO2. DUST : Pneumoconiosis. INORGANIC DUST : Coal dust : Anthracosis.  Silica : Silicosis.  Asbestos : Asbestosis.  Iron : Siderosis.

ORGANIC DUST CANE FIBRE : Bagassosis. COTTON DUST : Byssinosis. TOBACCO : Tobacossis. HEY/ GRAIN DUST : Farmer’s lung.

DISASES DUE TO BIOLOGICAL AGENTS Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, actinomycosis, psittacosis, tetanus, encephalitis, fungal infections. OCUPATIONAL CANCERS. Cancer of lungs, skin, & bladder. OCCUPATIONAL DERMATOSIS. Dermatitis, eczema.

DISEASES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ORIGIN. Industrial neurosis, hypertension, peptic ulcer.


THE FACTORIE’S ACT- 1948.(1987 – Amended). SCOPE : DEF OF ESTABLISHMENT. 10 or more workers where power is used & 20 or more workers where power is not used. HEALTH SAFETY & WELFARE. The act addresses matters as cleanliness, lighting, ventillation, treatment of waste & effluents, disposal & elimination of dust, fumes – provision of spittoons, control of temperature, supply of cool drinking water during summer, employment of cleaners.

OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS INCLUDE : 500 cu ft space for each worker. Precautions regarding the safety of the workers. Appointment of safety officers 1976 ammendment.(1000 or more workers.). Specific welfare measures.– washing facilities, facilities for drying & storing, facilities for sitting, first aid appliances, rest rooms, lunch rooms, canteens, crèches, welfare officer – 500 employees.(200 worker – canteen, 30 women – crèche.)

EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS. The act prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 yrs., 15 – 18 yrs – Adolescents for employment should be certified by surgeon for fitness of work.(6AM7PM). The act prohibits employment of women & children in dangerous occupations.

HOURS OF WORK. The act prescribes a maximum of 48 hrs/wk not exceeding 9 hrs / day with half an hour rest after continuous work. Work – The act promotes spread over work – 10 -12 hrs work. The total working hours must not exceed incl OT- 60 hrs.

LEAVE WITH WAGES. Workers are entitled for a leave with wages after 12 months continuous service. 1 day / 20 days – adults. 1 day / 15 days – children. The leave can be accumulated up to 30 days in adults, 40 days in children.

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. The act enlists the schedule of notifiable diseases. The act includes for provision for occupational health surveys in factories & industries.

EMPLOYMENT IN HAZARDOUS PROCESS. The amendment act specifies procedures relating to hazardous process. The site appraisal committees is to be involved in examining the service conditions of employees involved in the hazardous process.

THE ESI ACT - 1948 THE ACT WAS AMMENDED IN 1975, 84 & 89.The ESI act is an important measure of social security & health insurance. SCOPE : The act covers whole of India. The act covers all factories using power. The following are the areas that the act extends.  Small power using factories.(10 -19 workers).  Factories having 20 workers without power.  Shops.

Cinemas & theatres. Road – motor transport establishments. News paper establishments. The act involves employees of all cadres ( manual, clerical, supervisory, technical drawing up to 7500/mo.

ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN – ESI DELIVERY. ESI CORPORATION Representatives of central & state Govt employers, employees, medical professionals & parliament. Min for labour Vice chairman –Sec to Govt of India, ministry of labou DGI -ESI Insurance commissioner. Medical commissioner. Financial commissioner. Actuary. Medical benefit council chairman.DGHS Benefits Medical Sickness Maternity Disablement Dependants

EXTRA BENEFITS Extended sickness' benefit. Artificial limbs/dentures/family planning. Family medical care. Protection against dismissal / discharge from service. Funeral expenses. Rehabilitation allowances. Medical facilities to dependants.

FINANCE --- ESI. The ESI scheme is run by contributions of employers, employees & grant from central & state govt. Employee – 4.75 % of the total wage bill. Employer – 1.75 % (1.1.97). Employees getting wages below Rs 15/day are exempted from contribution.

BENEFITS. MEDICAL BENEFITS : Full medical care, out patient care, supply of drugs & dressings, specialist services in all specialties – (pathological & radiological services), ambulance services, immunization, family planning, AN,PN services, H/E, & in- patient care. ESI dispensaries : & insurance for medical practitioners in having 1000 employees. out patient & inpatient services available. Dentures , spectacles, hearing aids, artificial limbs & special appliances.

SICKNESS BENEFIT Cash payment to injured sick person(91 days) on certification by insurance medical officer. ( 365 Days – at daily rate – 50 % of the daily wages.). EXTENDED SICKNESS BENEFIT : for TB, leprosy,chronic empyema, AIDS, payable upto 309 days. NEOPLASMS : malignant diseases. EDOCRINE : DM – retinopathy, nephropathy, MATERNITY : Confinement services for insured women, miscarriage or sickness arising out of pregnancy

Maternity leave – 12 wks., miscarriage – 6 wks., sickness – 30 days. DISABLEMENT BENEFIT : Pension at partial & at full rate. DEPENDENT’S BENEFIT : Pension at the rate of 40 % to widows & children. Rs 14 / day – for children up to the age of 18 or marriage. FUNERAL EXPENSES – Rs 2500 cash payment. REHABILITATION : on payment of RS 10 insured person & his family members continue to avail treatment.

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