Published on April 26, 2014
• OD Diagnosis • What does it mean: “Dx is Tx”? • What is the traditional OD approach to Dx? • What are the mechanisms involved in deriving Dx? • What is the value/utility of a Dx? (nomenclature) • What is the Reflective Learning model & how is it used? • Consider the models: McKinsey 7S, Weisbord 6-box, etc– what do they have in common? • What is Systems Theory & how is it used? • Team Task: Analyze and draw a systems model of an organizational problem showing mechanisms & possible intervention points
a consultant or team of consultants are brought in by executives to "look them over," much as a patient might go to the doctor for an annual physical. The consultants are supposed to find out what is wrong with which part of the organization, and then, like a physician, recommend a program of treatment. doctor-patient model:
Expert information and/or service is being bought by the client. For a successful outcome, this model depends on: 1. whether the manager has correctly diagnosed his own needs 2. whether he has correctly communicated these needs to the consultant 3. whether he has accurately assessed the capability of the consultant to provide the right kind of information or service 4. whether he has thought through the consequences of having the consultant gather information, and/or the consequences of implementing changes which may be recommended by the consultant." Exchange model:
Process Consultation Process consultation, by contrast to both of these models, focuses on joint diagnosis, and the passing on to the client of diagnostic skills. The key assumption is that the client sees the problem for himself, shares in its diagnosis, and is actively involved in generating a remedy. Edgar Schein
1. Think of visiting your health care, computer or auto mechanic professional. What is a diagnosis? 2. What does s/he do to diagnose (Dx) your condition? 3. What are the uses/purposes of a Dx; What does it allow you to do? 4. What, therefore, are the criteria for a sound Dx? 5. How is a diagnosis derived? Organization Diagnosis
The diagnostic process Level 1: raw data Level 2: concepts & constructs Level 3: conceptual description (the explanation) Level 4: diagnostic label e.g., conflict, leadership, norms, roles, communication channels, decision style, etc. e.g., Transition adjustment reaction with emphasis on role diffusion e.g., during organizational transition, stakeholder roles have become diffused, resulting in role overload, role conflict, and role boundary disputes. These in turn have led to increased anxiety about the future and lowered productivity. e.g., observations, statements, survey, archived data, etc.
Dx is Tx 1. Common focus 2. Identification and examination of key factors 3. Exploration of relationships among factors 4. Gap analysis: development of cognitive dissonance 5. Reflective learning: awareness leads through the cycle 6. Mechanism: the process is the corrective mechanism for current and future problems The OD process of deriving a diagnosis entails activation of the same organizational mechanisms required for intervention
• Lewin’s FFA • McKinsey 7-S model • Gelinas-James Model • Weisbord 6-box model • Systems theory • etc… Paradigm Effect: The model you use will help you find some things but will prevent you from seeing others Weisbord 6-Box Model
Instrumented Feedback– Diagnosis is treatment • Complete the initial OD stages of scouting, contracting, etc. • Identify the areas of primary focus: key result areas, mission critical, etc. • Gather information (survey, hard data, perceptions, judgments, etc.) • Organize and present information to stakeholders • Explore interpretations– what do these reflect? What do you think it means? • Action– what do you want to do about it?
Reflective Learning Cycle
Fishbowl The Fishbowl Technique What to observe: • communication • power & influence • roles • conflict • norms • decision making • problem solving • leadership • goal clarity • task/maintenance Debriefing • share observations • explore interpretations • consider application
Survey Feedback • Identify area of concern & associated beliefs • Involve client system in survey construction • Gather data • Analyze data to contrast with beliefs • Present to client group • Use Reflective Learning Model to • identify discrepancies • explore interpretations • consider interventions • implement
Organizational LifeLine 1982 1992 2002----? Women Officers Uniform, promotion Militich Admin Lyons Admin Waller Admin Wilson Death FTO Program Equipment Vests Automatics Training Spouse support CLEFS Grant Early OD efforts New hopes Balance Support Community Policing Sokolov field training model Mandatory Domestic arrest 12-hour shifts
Value Chain Analysis Referral intake Pre- placement Assessment Week 1 Assessment Week 2 Assessment Week 3 Assessment Week 4 Discharge Outcome Criteria: • timeliness • accuracy • thoroughness • integrated • consistency • relevant to purpose • staff support • pride in product & process Process • backward reconstruction: what must precede this? • what is done at each stage? • what is the value of that task (criteria)? • where are the bottlenecks? • what can be streamlined without decreasing value?
Process Map Examples
Processing Mapping Questions 1. What steps were followed in chronological order to complete the task? 2. How long did each step take? 3. When were decisions made; what criteria used? 4. What steps required outside help and resources? 5. Were any steps unnecessary or redundant? 6. Were tasks in the right order for best use of time & resources? 7. Where were delays and bottlenecks; how could these be reduced?
Gelinas-James Elements of Organizations Model What are the key areas for examining organizational functioning?
The 7-S McKinsey model
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change • What are the key areas? • How are they connected?
Dx-Tx considerations: • identify the key problem • identify linkages • trace multiple linkages • identify barriers to solution • explore removing barriers The Problem What influences it? What influences it? What influences it? What influences it? What prevents it from being solved? What influences it?
Problems with OD Dx– there ain’t none! 1. There are no widely used, standard, or conventional diagnostic systems in OD 2. There is no standard diagnostic nomenclature 3. There are no standard tools for assessment 4. There is low reliability (and few reliability studies) regarding inter-rater diagnoses 5. Some labels are so poorly defined as to be meaningless 6. There is no clear relationship between Dx and Tx 7. Most interventions are not standardized 8. There are very few studies on Tx outcomes 9. They usually focus on what is going wrong rather than what is going right (e.g., solution focus, appreciative inquiry, etc.)
• what’s wrong? • how did it happen? • how can we fix it? • fix it! • did we fix it? Traditional problem solving:
The problem with a problem-centered approach • problems statements are not necessarily related to the solution • focusing on the problem can reinforce it • complex problems require a shift in frame • trying to remove problem elements may elicit resistance • absence of a problem does not mean high level functioning • many solved problems simply maintain the status quo
Solution focused change • emphasizes second-order change • utilizes ongoing change • makes distinctions that make a difference • provides goal well-formedness (clear favorable outcome; S.M.A.R.T goals)
Solution Focused Change Exception Question Sequence: • 1. When don't you have that problem? • 2. What's different about those times? What occurs instead? • 3. How can that be made to occur more often? Who needs to do what? • 4. How will you begin to notice that the problem is being solved? What will be different? Miracle Question Sequence: • 1. If a miracle occurred tonight, and when you woke up tomorrow the problem was solved, what would be the first just noticeable indication that things were different? • 2. What will have to be different for that to begin happening? • 3. When does that already happen, even if only a little? Who will have to do what to make that happen more? • 4. What will be an indication to you and others that the problem is really solved? Coping Question Sequence: • 1. Why aren't things worse than they are? • 2. What are people doing to prevent things from getting worse? • 3. How are those things helpful? What else would be helpful? • 4. What needs to happen for those things to continue? Pessimistic Question Sequence: • 1. What do you think will happen if things don't get better? • 2. What will happen after that? What next? Then what? • 3. If the problem solvers start to become more optimistic (or at least dissatisfied with their negative premonitions), shift to the constructive question sequences above.
1. Discovering what works 2. Understanding how it works 3. Amplifying and transferring what works Appreciative Inquiry
The - D Model of Appreciative Inquiry Discovery-- Appreciating what energizes; what is most valued? High points of career? Core factors and vitality of the organization? Dream-- Imagining what might be; interview, discuss, obtain stories to enhance the collective sense of what might be possible Design-- Determining what will be; create propositions related to the purpose; establish commitments to plans Delivery-- Creating what will be; group, team, and community collaboration to make it happen
Learning History: series of short stories recounting particular episodes. Segments below focus on dilemmas, questions, & anecdotes within these stories. Right Column: The personal stories from different groups of stakeholders (identified by role) Left Column: commentary, insights, comments, reflections & perspectives brought forward to consider the implications of the story Full Column Prologue: derived from significant and noticeable results of the events for the organization & participants
Team Diagnostic Activity • Teams identify and discuss an OD case (at least one member must be very familiar with the case– your client) • Identify the “problem” context • Discuss the relationships among key variables relevant to “the problem” • Draw a “systems model” that shows the connections among events (include feedback loops) • What is it about the structure/processes that enables “the problem” to arise and maintains it? • Where are the intervention points implied by this conceptualization? • What would you do if you could?
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