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Objective1

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Education

Published on March 20, 2008

Author: Mertice

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Tempus EU-PULA, 22-24 April 2001 :  Tempus EU-PULA, 22-24 April 2001 European Union Structural Funds. Presentation of the projects covering Objective 1. Wrocław University of Technology Brief review of EU Structural Funds :  Brief review of EU Structural Funds The European Union spends one third of its annual budget to support economic development through the Structural Funds, which provide the impetus for regional aid. There are four Structural Funds: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); European Social Fund (ESF); European Agricultural Guidance & Guarantee Fund (EAGGF); Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG). Additionally, there are Community Initiatives. European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) :  European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) The ERDF aims to reduce the gaps in development between the regions. Primarily, the fund provides support for the creation or modernisation of economic infrastructure, which contributes to the development, or conversion of regions concerned. European Social Fund (ESF) The ESF is the EU’s main tool for developing human resources and improving the workings of the labour market through it. The fund aims to improve employment opportunities by providing financial support for vocational training and job creation measures. European Agricultural Guidance & Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) :  European Agricultural Guidance & Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) This fund assists in the adaptation of agricultural structures and in developing and diversifying the EU’s rural areas. Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG) The FIFG aims to contribute to achieving a sustainable balance between fishery resources and their exploitation. It also seeks to strengthen competitiveness of the sector and the development of areas dependent upon it. EU Structural Funds:  EU Structural Funds These funds are used to implement an economic development strategy in the EU that is defined every 7 years in terms of key objectives. Objectives for the Period 2000 - 2006:  Objectives for the Period 2000 - 2006 For the period 2000 - 2006, the Objectives are: OBJECTIVE 1 - Promoting the Development of the Poorest Regions OBJECTIVE 2 - Support for Areas Associated with Socio-Economic Regeneration OBJECTIVE 3 - Human Resources Development (ESF only) Community Initiatives for the Period 2000 - 2006:  Community Initiatives for the Period 2000 - 2006 INTERREG - Promoting Cross Border, Transnational & Interregional Cooperation LEADER - Rural Development EQUAL - Human Resources Development Objectives & Community Initiatives for the Period 1994 - 1999:  Objectives & Community Initiatives for the Period 1994 - 1999 OBJECTIVE 1 - Promoting the Development of the Poorest Regions OBJECTIVE 2 - Helping Convert Areas Suffering from Serious Industrial Decline OBJECTIVE 3 - Combating Long Term Unemployment (ESF only) OBJECTIVE 4 - Adapting Workers to Industrial Change (ESF only) OBJECTIVE 5a - Modernisation of Agricultural Processes OBJECTIVE 5b - Facilitating Rural Areas Development OBJECTIVE 6 - Development of Sparsely Populated Areas COMMUNITY INITIATIVES: ADAPT, EMPLOYMENT, RECHAR, RETEX, RESIDER, KONVER, SME, LEADER, INTERREG, URBAN, PESCA, REGIS EU Objective 1 Regions:  EU Objective 1 Regions With 83.25 million inhabitants, Objective 1 regions account for just over 22% of the total population of the European Union. These are (for the period 2000 - 2006): regions where per capita GDP is less than 75% of the EU average; Finnish and Swedish regions covered by the former Objective 6 (development of regions with extremely low population density); the most remote regions (French overseas departments, the Canary Islands, the Azores and Madeira); Slide10:  Germany: Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia = population of 14.153 million; Greece: East Macedonia, thrace, Central Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Ionian Islands, Western Greece, Continetal Greece, Peloponnese, Attica, North Aegean, South Aegean, Crete (i.e. the whole country) = population of 10.476 million; Spain: Galicia, Asturias, Castile-León, Castile-La Mancha, Extremadura, Valencia, Andalusia, Murcia, Ceuta-Melilla, Canary Islands = population of 23.219 million; France: Guadeloupe, Martiniques, French Guiana, Reunion = population of 1.633 million; Italy: Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, Sardinia = population of 19.302 million; Slide11:  Border Midlands and Western = population of 965,000; Austria: Burgenland = population of 275,000; Portugal: North, Centre, Alentejo, Algarve, Azores, Madeira = population of 6.616 million; Finland: East Finland, Central Finland (part), North Finland (part) = population of 1.076 million; Sweden: North-Central Sweden (part), Central Norrland (part), Upper Norrland (part) = population of 453,000; United Kingdom: South Yorkshire*, West Wales & The Valleys*, Cornwall & Isles of Scilly*, Merseyside = population of 5.079 million. (*not eligible in 1994-99) EU Structural Funds 1994 - 1999:  EU Structural Funds 1994 - 1999 Case Studies of projects covering Objective 1 in the field of: Aid for SMEs and craft businesses Aid for large enterprises Cross-border, transnational and inter-regional cooperation Education and training Employment Energy EU Structural Funds 1994 - 1999:  EU Structural Funds 1994 - 1999 Case Studies of projects covering Objective 1 in the field of: Entrepreneurship and adapting to new technologies EnvironmentResearch and innovation Telecommunications and the information society Tourism and culture Transport Urban regeneration and industrial conversion Case Study # 1 - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East:  Case Study # 1 - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East When you switch the heating on in your camper or travel in comfort in a properly air-conditioned coach, you may have a firm in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania to thank. Webasto Sirokko GmbH in Neubrandenburg manufactures heating and air conditioning systems for cars and commercial vehicles. With European Union assistance, Webasto has managed to turn a former state enterprise into a viable modern company. It all looked anything but hopeful when the Berlin Wall fell. A state-owned enterprise in Neubrandenburg with 1200 workers and 200 apprentices was to be split up into a series of small businesses. Not many could cope with the demand for new investment at a time when traditional markets in eastern Europe were crumbling away. Unemployment today in Neubrandenburg, the former district capital, is around 17%. Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East:  Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East As early as 1990, the former Sirokko-Plant - now Webasto Sirokko GmbH - applied for an EU grant from the European Regional Development Fund to save itself from looming bankruptcy by making targeted investments. The money was used to build a modern manufacturing and assembly plant to produce state-of-the-art in-vehicle heating systems. Some of the buildings and land could be rehabilitated, but the entire south wing of the old plant had to be demolished. This was where they built the heart of the new plant: a 50-metre by 150-metre workshop. Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East:  Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East Despite problems with extremes of cold weather and an early start to the winter, the building work was finished by 1994 by the local firms to which the contract had been let. Today, under one roof, there is new machinery and equipment for working sheet metal, carrying out final assembly of the parts, storage and dispatch. A sophisticated computer system controls the entire production process. In the case of the new buildings, attention has been paid to using environmentally friendly processes such as distance heating, modern and low-pollution paint spraying technology and techniques for reducing water consumption. The working conditions of the employees have been improved enormously by new equipment at the workplace, particularly in the welding and paint shops but also by new recreational facilities and offices. Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East:  Case Study # 1 cont. - Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Heat from the East The investment has paid off. In 1993 the firm was still in deficit, but in 1994 already profits were DEM 6 million. Turnover rose by 40% in 1995-97 alone. After the successful conversion to meeting demand from the west, demand from former east European markets is also picking up again. The presence of the firm has encouraged a number of supplier businesses to locate nearby. Altogether 300 lasting jobs have been safeguarded. The old but rejuvenated heating works has become a symbol of hope for the region. TOTAL COST - DEM 44.5 million EU CONTRIBUTION - DEM 4.1 million Case Study # 2 - Greece (Thessaloniki) A leap forward for Greek railways:  Case Study # 2 - Greece (Thessaloniki) A leap forward for Greek railways Finance from the ERDF and the Cohesion Fund is being used to fully modernise the railway line between Athens and Idomeni (on the northern border) and sections of the Paleofarsalos-Kalabaka, Thessaloniki-Alexandropolis, Evangelismos-Leptokarya and Thriassio-Corinth lines, involving electrification, digital signalling and improved telecommunications. One hundred kilometres of track have already been doubled and the plan is to construct a marshalling yard at Thriasso and, eventually, a connection with the port of Piraeus. The entry into service of eight trains of the Intercity type and of fifteen modern engines between Athens and Thessaloniki has doubled the number of passengers between these two cities. The Union is also part-financing the reorganisation of the national railway company OSE and its development plan over the next few years. Case Study # 2 - Greece (Thessaloniki) A leap forward for Greek railways:  Case Study # 2 - Greece (Thessaloniki) A leap forward for Greek railways By 2000, the electrification rate of the Greek railways will have increased to over 21% (compared with 3% in 1990) and 13% of trains will run at speeds of over 140 k.p.h. (up from 0.6%). The target of doubling the whole of the line from Athens to Thessaloniki will practically have been achieved, and with the extra modernisation this will reduce journey times to four hours from the seven hours that passengers still had to endure in 1989. TOTAL COST - ERDF purposes (1989-1999) EUR 970 million Cohesion Fund purposes (1993-1999) EUR 721.7 million EU CONTRIBUTION - EUR 555 million (ERDF) EUR 484.4 million (Cohesion Fund) Case Study # 3 - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun:  Case Study # 3 - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun Irizar, a manufacturer of luxury buses, was a company in crisis. The only way out was a radical change of direction. An ambitious plan included an intensive cooperation with Ikerlan, one of the technology centres set up by the Basque government, to develop a new way to customise design and to update the company's manufacturing system. Since 1991, Irizar’s sales have tripled and its exports have increased tenfold. It is now the leading coach manufacturer in Spain, and one of the top three in Europe. Goal was to encourage the development of a technological network, support growth and create jobs and set up Technology Centres to provide ongoing assistance to help firms keep abreast of the latest research. Results are impressive with a seven Centres and over 850 permanent jobs created so far. Most new recruits are young people and 36% are women. Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun:  Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun The Centres start by identifying those areas which play a key role in the development of local industry, such as information technology, manufacturing and the environment. Research is concentrated in these fields, including the monitoring of scientific progress world-wide. This research is then put to practical use, particularly for producing machine tools, car components, household appliances and aeronautics equipment. Finally, knowledge is passed on to industry. Joint projects are set up with private companies to help them grow and develop new products. Training is an important aspect and managers and technicians attend seminars, information days, demonstrations and exhibitions. Highly qualified technical and research staff complete two-year training periods in Centres and work in the small firms to ensure research is put to good use – 700 people + so far! Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun:  Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun The government of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country started the project, and the Technology Centres so far have worked with over 450 medium-sized companies on different research projects. They have also organised 79 training courses for more than 1400 people from nearly 900 companies in the area. An interesting point about this project is that while the Centres were created specifically to serve industry, their working relationship is one of total cooperation. In practice, joint project teams are set up to link the company’s knowledge of the market with the technological expertise of the Centres. Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun:  Case Study # 3 cont. - Spain (Pais Vasco) Basking in the sun This method has clearly borne fruit. In addition to the 850 jobs created in the Technology Centres themselves, up to 7000 jobs have been created in the companies supported by the Centres. At Irizar, over 230 jobs were created between 1991 and 1997, and their current expansion will soon create another 150 jobs. The Managing Director is certainly proud of these results and he revealed his formula of success: “At Irizar, knowledge is a pillar on which we have based our future. For this reason, we never cease to look for the best technologies, and these can be found in the Technology Centres of the Basque Country.” TOTAL COST - EUR 7.7 million EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF EUR 3.85 million Case Study # 4 - France (Guadeloupe) Le Raizet: a shift to the north:  Case Study # 4 - France (Guadeloupe) Le Raizet: a shift to the north Since it opened in 1966, Le Raizet airport at Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe, France) has developed considerably, with passenger traffic increasing eight-fold to almost 2 million people in 1997. The opening in February 1996 of the new northern air terminal "Guadeloupe Pôle Caraïbes" marked the end of one of the largest construction projects ever carried out on the island and the beginning of a new era for Le Raizet. Work to displace the runway and some of the facilities to the north began in June 1993 and lasted 30 months, involving earthworks, construction of a freight terminal and a power station, road works, construction of a new terminal building for passengers and improvement of aircraft-related infrastructure (parking for planes, taxiing areas). Ultramodern equipment has been installed, mainly using local manpower (between 85% and 98% over the lifetime of the works as a whole). Case Study # 4 cont. - France (Guadeloupe) Le Raizet: a shift to the north:  Case Study # 4 cont. - France (Guadeloupe) Le Raizet: a shift to the north To achieve this very high rate and the start-up of the new facilities without nasty surprises, more than 2, 000 hours of training were provided. Where the skills required were not available locally, staff with roughly similar qualifications were sent on upgrading courses so that they could quickly begin working. The operation of a cruise ship, the "Costa Classica", out of Pointe-à-Pitre is bringing a further 60,000 passengers a year, which has strengthened Guadeloupe's role as the air/sea centre of the European Caribbean. TOTAL COST - Euro 130 million EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF Euro 45.5 million Case Study # 5 - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city:  Case Study # 5 - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city The historic centre of Cork City had become much diminished with neglect and poor planning over many years. Now, with an integrated set of measures rehabilitating historic sites and upgrading the streetscape, a much greater sense of pride and confidence in the whole area has returned. The area can once again hold its own as the centre of Ireland's second city. The old heart of Cork City had been in decline over a period of 20 years and many mediaeval and Georgian buildings had become derelict. Traffic congestion and accessibility were also a problem and these shabby city centre streets desperately needed to be reintegrated back into the life of the city. Cork City Council sought funding to help with the conservation of residential, commercial and civic buildings and to sort out traffic problems and this was received from the European Union in 1994. Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city:  Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city Eight important projects were funded under the Cork Major Initiative: The Historic Spine Route: The traditional "main street" quality of the north-south route has been reinstated and key touristic sites along its path have been linked together. The streetscape has been upgraded with new paving, street furniture, signage and lighting. In addition, the exterior and the interior of St. Peter's Church have been restored. Grattan Street / Lavitts Quay Route: These two streets have been upgraded and linked with environmental improvement works being carried out in the area. Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city:  Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city East-West Visitor Spine: The east west route through the town has been improved by linking it with major touristic attractions, pedestrianisation and environmental improvement works. Emmet Place has been developed, as it is the site of a number of key cultural buildings, including the Cork Opera House and the Crawford Gallery. Nearby Paul Street, Castle Street and Daunt Square have also been upgraded. Elizabeth Fort Project: A feasibility study has been completed to investigate the future use for the Fort and possible access improvements. Traffic Assessment Framework: A traffic model is being developed to ease traffic in the historic centre. Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city:  Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city Cork Centre for the Unemployed: A derelict building on the main thoroughfare of the historic core was refurbished and converted to house the Cork Centre for the Unemployed. Open Space Improvements: A local churchyard and a disused park have been upgraded to increase public open spaces. The work has been carried out by people on community employment schemes. As a result of improvements, new businesses have sprung up and there are less vacant properties. Indeed, significant investment has been attracted into the area and the historic centre is now a more attractive shopping, entertainment/leisure and residential location. Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city:  Case Study # 5 cont. - Ireland (South West) Ireland’s second city New private investment at the end of 1998 was in excess of EUR 31,743,451. Traders active in the design and implementation stages of the project have said that although there was concern about disruption to business during the works it is now generally agreed that the improvements have been more than worthwhile. Almost, 50% of the businesses surveyed in early 1999 said that the improvements have led to an increase in sales. Over a third of enterprises surveyed had already re-invested in their outlets directly as a result of improvement works and a further 65% indicated that they would be more likely to invest in the future. Residents have also benefited as the place looks and feels better and more safe. . TOTAL COST - EUR 8,253,297.50 EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF EUR 4,126,648.70 Case Study # 6 - Ireland (Dublin) Dublin: priority for buses and cyclists :  Case Study # 6 - Ireland (Dublin) Dublin: priority for buses and cyclists With assistance from the European Union, the Dublin authorities decided to start a series of interlinked schemes to improve traffic flow in the urban area of Greater Dublin. A complete network of "corridors" will be reserved for a quality bus service. Pedestrian precincts and some 60 km of cycle tracks have already been laid out and traffic has been organised to give priority to cyclists. In addition, several bicycle parks have been built in the city centre, at stations, along the principal roads into the city like the N11 which connects the south-eastern suburbs to the centre, at the university and at park entrances TOTAL COST - of the public transport strand (1994-999) EUR 42 million EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF EUR 27 million Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem :  Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem Three years after it was mooted, the idea was implemented. Some 190 managers in the jewellery sector (goldsmiths, jewellers and cutters of precious stones) created a consortium and launched the «Tarí» project. Tarí is the name of an ancient Neapolitan gold coin. The consortium was headed by Gianni Carita and is the only one of its kind in Italy. The idea was to create a versatile centre for the jewellery trade, plus permanent exhibition areas both for the members of the consortium and for seasonal exhibitors from elsewhere. This would make Tarí a crossroads in the European jewellery business. The centre was soon joined by commercial wholesale distribution structures, professional training workshops and research activities using the latest technologies. Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem :  Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem Occupies an area of around 13 hectares in the industrial estate of Marcianise at Caserta, near Naples. A strategic site, with good road and rail links, near the Capodichino airport and the Nola-Marcianise interport. However, it was necessary to redevelop access to the site and to introduce some basic infrastructure (such as water and electricity). The complex was rapidly built: it covers an area of 55 000 m2, with 5 000 m2 set aside for shared services (banking, accounting, cleaning, post office, bar, restaurant, etc.). The complex is surrounded by greenery and parking lots. Tarí has become one of the most modern of European centres and is an industrial hub in the Italian jewellery trade, which is itself a world leader. To preserve the age-old tradition of goldworking in the goldsmiths' quarter, the consortium members have kept their shops to maintain their retail trade. Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem :  Case Study # 7 cont. - Italy (Campania) Tarí, a little industrial gem The total investment exceeds 200 billion lire, making it one of the most important investments made in the Mezzogiorno by the private sector for years. In terms of turnover, the consortium's initiative accounts for about 40% of the jewellery trade in the province of Naples and 30% of regional activity. Employment has grown from 497 in 1982 to 1,447 in 1996 as a result of the project. The marketing sector alone saw an increase in jobs from 233 to 350 during the project period. TOTAL COST - EUR 28 million EU CONTRIBUTION - EUR 14 million Case Study # 8 - Portugal (Centro) Weaving the futures with threads from the past :  Case Study # 8 - Portugal (Centro) Weaving the futures with threads from the past The town of Covilhã, was specialising in wool production as far back as the 12th century. It is only natural, then, that the town, its university and its wool museum should be at the heart of the transnational pilot project Arqueotex, whose principal objective is to set up a European information network on the Old World’s textile industry heritage. The Museum of Wool in Covilhã has shown the way by creating a documentation centre in a specially equipped building. Several partners from other regions with textile traditions and facing the same industrial crisis– Catalonia in Spain, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur in France, the region of Cork in Ireland and the West Midlands in the UK – have joined the Portuguese mountain town to carry out this project. Together, they also intend to develop a touristic and cultural itinerary based on the textiles theme: a sort of “European textile tour”. Case Study # 8 cont. - Portugal (Centro) Weaving the futures with threads from the past :  Case Study # 8 cont. - Portugal (Centro) Weaving the futures with threads from the past Arqueotex hopes to “weave the future with threads from the past”. To this end, it uses the most modern facilities and state-of-the-art information technology. As well as affirming the industrial heritage of five European regions, the project also aims to put the spotlight on a series of interconnected activities: textile crafts, design, restoration and conservation. TOTAL COST - EUR 599,330 EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF EUR 941,000 (transnational pilot project, Article 10) Case Study # 9 - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education:  Case Study # 9 - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education In Portugal, the proportion of pupils pursuing education or training beyond the minimum school-leaving age has long been below the European average. The PRODEP programme is working to radically reverse this situation. In recent years, the education sector in Portugal has been given substantial and much needed investments by the European Union. In just 6 years, an impressive series of new buildings and improvements has enabled Portugal to offer students 6,000 new courses and has thus helped the move to increase compulsory schooling to nine years. The PRODEP programme (Programa de Desenvolvimento Educativo para Portugal, 1989-93) was designed both to widen access to education and to improve its quality. Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education:  Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education An investment of more than 209 billion escudos was used to fund schools, institutes of higher education and universities, as well as to finance ongoing training for teachers and lecturers. In four years, 1,409 projects were realised, by central government, leading professional bodies or the private sector. 4,281 training courses have been given to improve the abilities and qualifications of the teaching profession. Efforts have been made to facilitate access to teaching and to make it more attractive by developing sporting, social and apprenticeship activities for students. Working conditions and career planning for teachers have been rethought. Support actions include professional training in information technology, training for trainers and teachers, technological and artistic specialisation, adult education and other types of professional training. Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education:  Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education The programme PRODEP II (1995-99), is an extension of the original programme. It is continuing the actions undertaken during the first phase and is emphasising interaction between education and business in order to meet the needs of industry. During this second phase, the EU is continuing to lend its support to the construction of educational buildings from kindergartens to institutes of higher education, especially in the fields of professional, technological and artistic training. At Coimbra University, for instance, the buildings of the Polytechnic Faculty of Mechanics and Electronics are almost complete. The departments of civil engineering and chemistry have also been given new premises, now making it possible for them to teach 2,500 students. This project will involves an investment of 3.4 billion escudos (2.5 billion provided by the EU). Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education:  Case Study # 9 cont. - Portugal (Whole country) The building blocks of education The huge demand for secondary education in the region of Lisbon has been met by the construction of the Telheiras school. The EU contribution covers 75% of the total cost of this project, which was 400 million escudos. This new school opened its doors in autumn 1996 and accommodates 690 pupils. PRODEP II's areas of support are many and varied. For example, it has helped Aveiro university build a complex covering 3,450 m2 to accommodate 180 students in four new residential areas. The EU provided 248.4 million escudos for this project, out of a total cost of 357.4 million. TOTAL COST - EUR 1,130 million EU CONTRIBUTION - EUR 717 million Case Study # 10 - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside:  Case Study # 10 - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside The ability to transfer a piece of technology developed in Denmark to Portugal is what European cooperation is all about. When that transfer involves renewable energy, it's even more laudable. The Monte Chaos project was funded in part by the ERDF and got the wind in its sails so quickly. The idea of building a wind farm in Portugal grew in 1990 in the minds of a group of Danish businessmen, one of whom had visited Melides. The Portuguese coast, exposed to winds from the west, appeared to him to be a good site for a wind farm. A seven hectare site was chosen on Monte Chaos, a hill some 100 m high situated 3 km from the sea at Sines. The land is owned by the local authorities and the technology and expertise were provided by a private company (Aerogeradores de Portugal S.A.). Work began in April 1991 and six months later, the first wind turbines stood proudly facing the sea. Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside:  Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside Today, the entire wind farm is operational. It consists of 12 Wind World W-2800 turbines made in Denmark. They obtained their national certification at the RISO metrology station in Denmark and they will last for at least 20 years. Each turbine is 31 m high and has a rotation diameter of 28 m, which means that each blade sweeps 612 m2 of air, giving a total of 7,344 m2 for the farm as a whole. The turbines are distributed in three groups of four. They are interconnected and are managed using a fibre optics system. This leading edge technology makes it possible to command and control the turbines from a distance, even from as far away as Denmark, since the system operates across more than 3,000 kms. Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside:  Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside The wind farm generates a current of 380 volts collected by three transformer stations. There, the voltage is converted into 15,000 volts and injected into the network managed by the EDP, the national electricity company. The maximum power of each generator is 150 KW/hour, which is attained when the wind speed reaches 11-12 m/s or 40 km/hour; of course, that doesn't happen very often. The annual output of the wind farm is around 2.5 million KWh, which is just about equal to the energy consumption of the town of Sines (not counting industrial consumption). Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside:  Case Study # 10 cont. - Portugal (Alentejo) Windfarms at the seaside Aerogeradores de Portugal S.A. sells KWh to the EDP at an average gross price of 12.5 escudos. Yet this apparently simple fact conceals a changing reality, namely that the selling price of the electricity is highly variable depending on the time of year (demand is much higher in the winter, which pushes prices up) and the time of supply: day-time peaks and economy prices during the night. TOTAL COST - EUR 280,000 EU CONTRIBUTION - ERDF EUR 190,000 Case Study # 11 - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Renewal in Kinlochleven:  Case Study # 11 - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Renewal in Kinlochleven For Kinlocheven, a small village in the Highlands of Scotland, the announcement of the imminent closure of the aluminium smelter, which had operated for nearly 200 years, could have spelt disaster. A genuine regeneration project was launched to allow it both to develop as a tourist destination and to attract small and medium-sized businesses. The region has plenty of positive features; what it needed was a suitable infrastructure, and the Structural Funds came to their assistance here. Firstly – by supporting the demolition and decontamination of the former carbon factory. Secondly - by co-funding the conversion of the old buildings and the creation of a new business area on the decontaminated site. Case Study # 11 cont. - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Renewal in Kinlochleven:  Case Study # 11 cont. - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Renewal in Kinlochleven The project required making the most of historical and architectural features of old buildings to transform them into tourist facilities such as a hotel, a mountain centre, and so on, and constructing new buildings equipped to house the new companies. To attract tourists and investors, the project focused on the area’s overall attractiveness. Significant improvement work was carried out in the village, and several abandoned sites redeveloped. It is estimated, that the regeneration will result in the creation of around 150 direct jobs. Several dozen have already been created or saved. New infrastructures have had the effect of encouraging the region’s second-largest employer, which was about to move away, to remain in Kinlochleven. TOTAL COST - 4,628,691 EUR EU CONTRIBUTION - 2,148,117 EUR Objective 1 programme Case Study # 12 - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Virtual University for the Scottish Highlands & Islands:  Case Study # 12 - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Virtual University for the Scottish Highlands & Islands The programme has created a federal, collegiate university, dispersed across the Highlands and Islands, involving 10 main campuses and a network of outreach learning resource centres. Taking full advantage of possibilities offered by information and communication technologies, each location has access to shared information sources through a broadband electronic communications network. Video conferencing is used as a method of learning. Aim to increase the region’s knowledge-based skills, by improving the capacity for R&D and technology transfer, especially in indigenous economic sectors. It helps promote the sustained expansion of local firms. The Catalyst Centre, part of Lews Castle College in the Western Isles, targets tweed-making, food and drinks, rural development issues and supports local firms in developing niche markets in "Gaelic related" sectors. Case Study # 12 cont. - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Virtual University for the Scottish Highlands & Islands:  Case Study # 12 cont. - United Kingdom (Highlands & Islands) Virtual University for the Scottish Highlands & Islands 15 UHI projects have been supported by European programmes in partnership with local authorities, the Scottish Office, colleges and local enterprise agencies. Over 800 high quality permanent jobs have been created and a further 1500 people were employed during the construction phase – the biggest single jobs boost to the Highlands and Islands for decades. Moreover, the UHI is already helping stem the migration of young talent from the region and secure the region’s future as a place in which to live, work and study in the next century. TOTAL COST - £ 34.1 million EU CONTRIBUTION - £ 9.9 million

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dict.cc Wörterbuch :: objective :: Deutsch-Englisch ...

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzung für objective im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch).
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objective - Objective Software GmbH | software ...

Objective Software ist im Bereich der Business Intelligence Technologien bei der Konzeption und Umsetzung individueller Lösungen für große Technologie ...
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dict.cc | objectives | Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch

objective security objective spirit objective target objectively objectively correct objectiveness • objectives objectives of a firm objectivisation ...
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Objective-C - Ralf Ebert

Die Objective-C-Syntax für Methodenaufrufe unterscheidet sich also stark von der in anderen Sprachen gebräuchlichen Syntax obj.method(). Im Vergleich zu ...
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objective - Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch - leo.org

Das Sprachangebot für Englisch-Deutsch: Wörterbuch mit Übersetzungen, Flexionstabellen und Audio, interaktivem Forum und Trainer für flexibles Lernen.
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Objective | Define Objective at Dictionary.com

Objective definition, something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target: the objective of a military ...
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Objective Mind: Startseite

Objective Mind bietet interessante Beiträge und ausführliche Hintergrundinformationen zum postsowjetischen Raum. Im Vordergrund steht nicht nur Russland ...
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JDS Labs - Objective2 Headphone Amplifier

Reference grade amplification . Objective2 is an opensource amplifier designed by brilliant engineer NwAvGuy, with emphasis on benchmark performance and ...
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