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Information about obesity(350)

Published on March 18, 2018

Author: Y16MPH350

Source: authorstream.com

ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES: ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES TITLE :OBESITY Submitted to : Mr.Chandra sekhar Mr.Phani kumar (DEPARTMENTOFPHARMACOLOGY) PRESENTED BY G.POOJA : Y16MPH350 1 CONTENTS: CONTENTS RELEVANCE DEFINITION INTRODUCTION CAUSES OF OBESITY COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF OBESITY CURRENT APPROCHES TO OBESITY MANAGEMENT OBESITY DRUGS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION 2 2 PRELEVANCE: P RELEVANCE As obesity continues to rise and is a growing health problem in many of the richest nations . The prevalence is also increasing rapidly in numerous developing nations worldwide. Very few drugs in this class are approved and newer agents are under extensive research. 3 3 INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Evolution has furnished a mechanism for storing any excess energy in adipose tissues as energy-dense triglycerides, such that these can be easily mobilized when food is scarce. When this storage of triglycerides in fat cells is increased leads to obesity. . 4 5 DEFINITION: DEFINITION A condition in which excessive body fat may put a person health risk which is primarily induced and sustained by an over consumption or under utilization of caloric substrate . 5 4 BODY MASS INDEX: BODY MASS INDEX According to the international obesity task force ,obesity is defined as a body mass index [BMI] >30KG/(m)2. . Body mass index [BMI]=weight in kg/height (m) 2 6 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 acceptable weight(normal). 25-29.9kg/m2 grade 1 under weight 30-39.9kg/m2 grade 2 under weight. >40kg/m2 grade 3( obese ). 6 Types of obesity: Types of obesity 7 Android/central obesity: -fat accumulates in upper segments -apple shaped distribution Gynecoid obesity: -more subcutaneous fat and accumulates over thigh and lower segments -pear shaped distribution and complicatons are fewer 7 CAUSES OF OBESITY: CAUSES OF OBESITY Genetic Endocrine disorders Age Certain diseases and medications Economic status Psychological pregnancy 8 8 COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY: COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY 9 9 Certain medications causes weight gain: Certain medications causes weight gain These includes; - Sulfonylureas - Thiazolidinediones -Atypical anti psychotics - Antidepressants -Steroids - Anti convulsants 10 10 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF OBESITY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF OBESITY Resistance or low leptin Disturbance in mediators- -Reduced insulin sensitivity (muscle and fat) - Decreased beta 3 activity ( Lypolysis) 11 11 LEPTIN: LEPTIN 12 12 LEPTIN: LEPTIN 13 13 INSULIN: INSULIN 14 14 INSULIN: INSULIN 15 15 PHYSICAL EXCERSISE: PHYSICAL EXCERSISE 16 16 Current approaches to obesity management: Current approaches to obesity management Diet and lifestyle intervention Drug treatment Bariatric surgery Physical exercise Herbal products 17 17 ANTI OBESITY DRUGS: ANTI OBESITY DRUGS Drugs that primarily acts on CNS and decrease appetite or increase satiety - Sibutramine - Phendimertazine -Diethylpropion -Benzphetamine -Mazindol 18 18 Slide19: Drugs that increase RMR and thermogenesis and decrease appetite -Dextroamphetamine -phentaramine -Caffeine -Ephedrine Drugs act on gastrointestinal tract -orlistat 19 19 AMPHETAMINE: AMPHETAMINE Sympathetic amine Decrease appetite Increase metabolic rate ADR : Tachycardia Hypertension Drug abuse 20 21 AMPHETAMINE-DERIVED DRUGS: AMPHETAMINE-DERIVED DRUGS Includes - Benzphetamine - Phendimertazine Pharmacological activity similar to the amphetamine FDA-approved for short term treatment of obesity . 21 22 NON- AMPHETAMINE ANOREXIANTS: NON- AMPHETAMINE ANOREXIANTS Includes: -Mazindol -phentaramine Primarily decrease appetite, but they may have some potential to increase metabolic rate. Indicated for short term treatment of obesity. (for only few weeks ,up to 12 weeks) 22 23 SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS: SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS Fluoxetine is a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(SSRI) that may decrease appetite. Bupropion and sertraline long term efficacy in the treatment of obesity. 23 24 SIBUTRAMINE: SIBUTRAMINE Pharmacological action: Sibutramine inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake in hypothalamus. Acts primarily through increasing satiety and reduce food intake, although there may be some stimulation of thermogenesis by activating beta adrenal receptor in adipose tissue. Approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity. Usual dosage sibutramine is taken once daily with or with out food 24 25 : Use of sibutramine is contraindicated for patients Uncontrolled hypertension Coronary heart disesses Arrhythmias Stroke Renal failure Side effects Dry mouth,constipation,headache,insomnia , Should take in morning to avoid insomnia 25 26 ORLISTAT (xenical): ORLISTAT ( xenical ) Orlistat is a gastrointestinal pancreatic lipase inhibitor that impairs the absorption dietary fat. orlistat is most likely to benefit those who: -Do not feel hungry. - Are not pre occupied with food. ADR : Oily stools, Fecal urgency and fecal incontinence. Mal absorption of fat soluble vitamins Usual dosage: Orlistat is taken 3 times daily with meals 26 27 TOPIRAMATE: TOPIRAMATE Topiramate is a novel antiepileptic drug approved by FDA as an antiseizure medications Patients were experiencing unexpected weight loss and mechanism for weight loss is still poorly understand. 27 28 ANTIOBESITY DRUGS IN DEVELOPMENT: ANTIOBESITY DRUGS IN DEVELOPMENT Central stimulate agents of catabolic pathway - Leptin - Melanocortin 4 receptor agonist Central inhibiting agents of anabolic pathway - neuropeptide y and MCH 28 29 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST : CANNABINOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST CB1receptor antagonist Remonabant. Remonabant blocks the CB1 receptor, which is found thought the CNS. Reduce the appetite, may result in body weight reduction. 29 30 Slide30: DOPAMINE RECEPTOR AGONIST Risperidone was shown to result in body weight reduction in Avery small trial involving treatment of patients with prader –willi syndrome. P57 An extract from cactus that reportedly as been eaten by African tribesmen in order to decrease hunger during long hunting trips. Clinical trials are planned to determine its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of obesity . 30 31 Slide31: CHOLISYSTOKININE A PROMOTER CCK A is a gut hormone produced in the upper small intestine. It activates gastric fiber and cause satiety. CCKA agonists may prove to be a useful treatment for obesity. GHRELIN ANTAGONIST In future development ghrelin antagonists leads to decrease the appetite. 31 32 CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now affecting both adulthood and younger age groups. T he increased consumptions of calorie-dense fast food and sucrose-enriched drinks, together with an increasingly sedentary life style appear to be major factors contributing to this epidemic .while prevention of obesity should receive high priority 32 33 REFERENCES: REFERENCES Legal KM,Carrol MD,Rang and dale,sharma and Sharma. The American journal of clinical nutrition.(8/11/15). Division of nutrition physical activity and obesity adult obesity fact , centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 2015. Early release of selected estimates based on data from 2007 national health survey. Center for disease control and prevention.(sited on 8/11/15) U S obesity trends center for disease control(sited on/8/11/15) Weight control information network(sited on9/11/15) . An overview on obesity ,emedicine health(11/11/15 ). 33 34 THANK YOU: THANK YOU 34 35 Slide35: 35

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