Published on September 17, 2014
Introduction & Overview of OB-I Diversity Personality & Values Emotions & Moods Shivkumar Menon
Introduction & Overview of Organizational Behavior
3 Agenda organizational behavior- the what and why what do managers do? Mintzberg’s model managerial skills & the changing landscape luthan’s study – successful vs effective managers challenges & opportunities- OB OB- Basic Model
4 what is Organizational Behavior? Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness Why Study Organizational Behavior? Organizational Behavior Research is an area of study which unravels organizational events which in turn helps in predicting these events, eventually helping individuals to influence organizational events Theoretical OB I OB II Applied Human Resource Management (Micro) Organizational Change & Development (Macro) OB moves along two axes
5 what do Managers do? (functions) Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, monitor actions of the resources to ensure that the given goals are attained. Managers perform 4 key management functions, planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
6 mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Description 1 Interpersonal Figureheads, Leaders, Liaison 2 Informational Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson 3 Decisional Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator
7 skills required for Managerial Effectiveness Organizational Researchers have identified some key skills required by managers to become effective in their roles. These are based on studies and data collated from organizations Technical Skills – The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. These are specialized competencies which may require analytical ability or capability to use tools & techniques important for delivering in the core business of an organization. Very important at the lower level of management. Interpersonal / Human Skills – The ability to understand, communicate with, motivate and support other people both individually and in groups. People with superior technical skills may lack in Human skills, but since the manager’s core responsibility is to get their tasks accomplished from people, Human skills are very important. Conceptual Skills –.Managers must have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Conflict management, anticipation of future problems or challenges which will impede task accomplishment, develop alternative solutions to correct these problems are abilities which are part of conceptual skills required in a manager to be an effective manager.
8 the Changing Arena Conceptual Skills Interpersonal Skills Ideas People Technical Skills Things Top Level Managers Mid Level Managers Supervisory Managers Operatives In today’s changing arena, top Level Managers/Leadership teams are expected to be high on Ideas and Interpersonal skills, Mid Level and First level Managers are expected to be high on interpersonal skills and Technical skills and Operatives/ First rung executives are expected to be high only on Technical skills.
9 types of Domains in organizations today Business Leadership Planning Coordinating Budgeting Monitoring Team Building and Guiding the team Interpersonal Managing one to one relationships Intrapersonal Regulating emotions Attitudes Motivation Lower Level Domains are the most difficult to master, Intrapersonal being the most difficult Higher Level Domains are relatively easier to master as higher level domains build upon skills in lower domains
10 effective versus successful managers Fred Luthan and his associates studied to evaluate a co relation between successful and effective managers and came out with results which have helped in defining Managerial activities into 4 different groups To add to this, the study clearly differentiated between an average manager, an effective and a successful manager by the degrees of time spent in each of the 4 managerial activities by them Traditional Management – Decision making, planning & controlling Communication – Exchanging routine information, and processing paperwork Human Resource Management – Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training Networking – Socializing, politicking and interacting with outsiders
11 allocation of Activities by Time The average manager spent 32% of his /her time in traditional activities, 29% in communicating, 20% in Human Resource activities and 19% in Networking. But the results clearly showed that to become successful, networking is key and successful managers spend 48% of their time in networking, even communicating is a distant second at 28%.
12 enter organizational behavior A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure on the performance of an organization. The purpose of the study is to apply the learning's garnered from the study to maximize the growth and performance of the organization. OB uses evidence based management complementing systematic study adding to intuition before taking managerial decisions. Systematic study looks at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. A clear outcome of such a study is to predict behavior and influence decision making in an organization.
13 contributing disciplines to the ob field
14 there are a few absolutes in OB Laws in physical sciences – chemistry, astronomy, physics are consistent and apply in a wide range of situations. But there are only a few absolutes in OB. Contingency Variables play a key role and hence human behavior and decisions are different on the basis of situations. Hence in OB, its fairly common to surmise that x will lead to y in a given situation, but can move to z if the situation differs. x CCoonnttiinnggeennccyy VVaarriiaabblleess y
15 challenges & opportunities for OB Understanding organizational behavior has never been more important for managers than in today’s context. Some of the challenges & opportunities in today’s business environment where OB has an ample scope to contribute are shared below.
16 challenges & opportunities for OB (contd..)
17 developing an ob model A model is an abstraction of reality, a simplified representation of some real world phenomenon. The basic OB model is based on 3 types of variables viz. inputs, processes and outcomes at three levels of analysis viz. individual, group and organizational. The basic OB model showcases independent and dependent variables. Dependent variables move on the basis of actions and behavior exhibited by the independent variables like individuals, groups and organization. Some Dependent Variables Productivity Attrition Absenteeism Turnover Effectiveness Efficiency Job Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB)
18 basic ob model Processes Individual Level •Emotions & Moods •Motivation •Perception •Decision making Group Level •Communication •Leadership •Power and Politics •Conflict and Negotiation Organizational Level •Human Resource Management •Change Practices Outcomes Individual Level •Attitudes & Stress •Task Performance •Citizenship Behavior •Withdrawal Behavior Group Level •Group Cohesion •Group Functioning Organizational Level •Productivity •Survival Inputs Individual Level •Diversity •Personality •Values Group Level •Group Structure •Group Roles •Team Responsibilities Organizational Level •Structure •Culture
19 The Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable. x y
20 The Dependent Variables Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness Achievement of goals. Efficiency The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it.
21 The Dependent Variables Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.
22 The Dependent Variables Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
23 The Dependent Variables Job satisfaction A general attitude toward one’s job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.
24 ob model – stage II Dependent Variables (x) Independent Variables (y)
Diversity in Organizations 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 25 XLRI
Learning Objectives • Major Forms of workforce diversity • Levels of Diversity • Recognize Stereotypes and how they function in organizational settings • Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB • Define Intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB • Contrast Intellectual and Physical Ability • Diversity Management Strategies – an overview 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 26 XLRI
Diversity Demographic characteristics in the workforce differ from country to country and largely influences the strategies to be adopted while practicing Diversity management in organizations. A survey conducted in the US indicates clearly that the US workforce is already diverse today. • The earnings gap between Whites and other racial and ethnic groups have decreased and in many instances even been reversed. • The challenges faced in the US workforce is more towards the aging of the workforce. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 27 XLRI
Diversity (contd..) Whereas challenges faced in the Indian workforce is different •Largest youth population in the world. •Youth come from urban as well as rural backgrounds •First generation, second generation and many third generation workers •Understanding the motivation, aspirations, preferences of these diverse groups is the biggest challenge faced by middle managers in India 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 28 XLRI
Levels of Diversity 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 29 XLRI
Levels of Diversity • Surface-level diversity: – Difference in easily perceived characteristics – It can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotype and assumption. – Such as race, age, gender… • Deep-level diversity: – More important for determining similarity as people get to know one another – Such as values, personality, and work preferences 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 30 XLRI
Case Study Manoranjan and Latika are co-workers who seem to have little in common in first glance. Manoranjan is a young, recently hired male college graduate with a business degree, raised in a Bengali speaking neighborhood in Delhi. Latika is an older long-tenured woman raised in rural Orissa, who achieved her current level in the organization by starting as a high school graduate and working her way through the hierarchy. At first these co-workers experienced some differences in communication based on their surface level differences in education, ethnicity, regional background, and gender. But eventually they found similarities like deep commitment to their families, a common way of thinking about important work problems, common aspirations for international assignments in the future. These deep level similarities will overshadow the superficial surface level dissimilarities and help them in ‘ collaborating 09/17/14 to work efficienPtGlyC. Business Management - 31 XLRI
Case Study Prateek and Vivek are two unmarried male college grads from Bangalore who recently started working together. Superficially they seem evenly matched. Prateek is highly introverted, prefers to avoid risks, solicits the opinions of others before making decisions, and likes the office quiet. Vivek is extraverted, risk seeking, and assertive and likes a busy, active and energetic work environment. Their surface level similarity will not necessarily lead to positive interactions, because they have such fundamental and deep level differences. It will be a challenge for them to collaborate and work together as their values, beliefs are completely in conflict. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 32 XLRI
Recognize Stereotypes 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 33 XLRI
Discrimination Discrimination means, allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people. Discrimination in itself is not harmful if its recognized on healthy terms viz. noticing one employee is more qualified for making hiring decisions and another is taking on leadership responsibilities exceptionally well. But when it goes beyond looking at individual characteristics unfair discrimination assumes everyone in a group is the same, which in turn is harmful to organizations and employees Most overt forms of discrimination have faded after coming under legal scrutiny and social disapproval but covert forms like incivility or exclusion has increased Discrimination causes serious negative consequences for employers including reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, high employee turnover, qualified candidates lose out on initial hiring and promotions and creates a unhealthy work culture affecting the performance of t0h9/e1 7o/1r4ganization PGC Business Management - 34 XLRI
Different forms of Discrimination 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 35 XLRI
Biological Characteristics or Surface Level Diversity and its influence on OB 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 36 XLRI
Biological Characteristics Biological characteristics such as age, gender, race, disability and length of service / tenure has its impact on employee productivity & turnover, deviance, absence, citizenship and satisfaction. Some more biological characteristics include religion, sexual orientation and gender identity Motivation, power and politics or organizational culture are hard to assess. But the biological characteristics are surface level characteristics which are easily attainable from an HR file. Variations in these surface level characteristics may not necessarily have its impact on organization but its worth knowing how closely its related to work outcomes. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 37 XLRI
India Diversity Concerns Diversity Attributes Issues Concerns Gender Gender Diversity is important New mothers want remote working setups. Female employees may want wider networking opportunities Age Youthful population and how do seniors respond to their aspirations Young people may want mentoring and promotion on merit and performance rather than on tenure Older employees may want training on newer technologies City & Hinterland The third largest economy globally based on Purchasing Power, but there is a stark divide between urban and rural consumers and both are growing. Can we sell the same products in the same manner to both groups Both groups have different needs. Rural India needs handholding for assimilating them to urban culture and Urban India needs training to understand the rural psyche to sell better. Geographies, Religious and Cultural Backgrounds Does a North Indian woman decide in the same way as a South Indian woman. Each state has a different culture and ethos and different ways of taking decisions Respect for each other’s culture needed. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 38 XLRI
Discrimination Diversity Attributes Issues Concerns Fast Changing GDP Distribution While Agriculture produce is increasing, its composition versus Manufacturing and Services is decreasing Moving from an old economy to a new economy brings up the need for orientation programs Physically Challenged Disabled persons constitute 2% of the total population Clear recruitment policies. Equal & fair opportunities of job placements and growth Marital Status Sensitivities to single parents, widowers, widows , the divorced and their needs These groups may want co-workers to be sensitive to their needs Sexual Orientation Most of the world is still in the wilderness when it comes to sexual orientation The world is going through self discovery Nationality India is increasingly attracting specialized talent and acquiring organizations. How we interact, learn and deal with such cross cultural and regional diversities is important Orientation is required for companies coming to India and for Indian companies acquiring assets abroad to understand the cross cultural challenges and ethos to succeed 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 39 XLRI
Deep Level Diversity and its influence on OB 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 40 XLRI
Ability Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform various tasks in a job. Overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: Intellectual Physical 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 41 XLRI
Intellectual Ability • Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. • Most societies place a high value on intelligence, and for good reason. • Intelligent Quotient (IQ) tests are designed to ascertain a person’s general intellectual abilities. • The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization & memory 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 42 XLRI
Dimensions of Intellectual ability Dimension Description Job Example Number Aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Accountant: Computing the sales tax on a set of items. Verbal Comprehension Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other Plant Manager: Following Corporate Policies while hiring Perceptual Speed Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly & accurately Fire Investigator: Identifying clues to support a charge of arson Inductive Reasoning Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem Market Researcher: Forecasting demand for a product in the next time period Deductive Reasoning Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Supervisor: Choosing between the two different suggestions offered by employees Spatial Visualization Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed Interior Decorator: Redecorating an office Memory Ability to retain and recall past experiences Salesperson: Remembering the names of customers 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 43 XLRI
Intellectual Ability and its influence on OB Researchers recognize a general factor of intelligence , General Mental Ability (GMA) and evidence supports the idea that the structures and measures of intellectual abilities generalize across cultures. Jobs differ in the demands they place on intellectual abilities. The more complex a job in terms of information processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform successfully. Interestingly, while intelligence is a big help in performing a job well,, it doesn’t make people happier or more satisfied with their jobs. The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero. Research suggests that while intelligent people get their job done faster, their expectations from their workplace, peers and subordinates are also substantially high 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 44 XLRI
Physical Abilities While the changing nature of work suggests intellectual abilities are increasingly important for many jobs, physical abilities have been and will remain valuable. Nine basic abilities have been identified for performance of physical tasks. Strength Factors 1.Dynamic Strength 2.Trunk Strength 3.Static Strength 4.Explosive Strength Flexibility Factors 1.Extent Flexibility 2.Dynamic Flexibility Other Factors 1.Body Coordination 2.Balance 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 45 3.Stamina XLRI
Social Identity Map 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 46 XLRI
Social Identity Map We all have multiple identities. Its human nature to want to “fit in” as well as to be unique. Some identities are visible and some less apparent. Some are accepted and some are taboo. You continually gain or lose or change some aspects of your identity and some remain etched. Context affects which identities are most important, helpful or harmful for leadership influence. Three internal processes relevant for social identity are Categorization, Identification & Comparison Mapping these helps us to articulate, discuss and reflect upon these processes. Our Social identity and that of others has the power to bind us or blind us. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 47 XLRI
Social Identity Map 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 48 XLRI
Diversity Management 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 49 XLRI
Diversity Management Strategies Diversity Management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. The role of managers in managing diversity comes in different forms. Attracting, Selecting, Developing & Retaining Diverse Employees Diversity in Groups Effective Diversity Programs 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 50 XLRI
Effective Diversity Programs Effective, comprehensive workforce programs encouraging diversity have 3 distinct components. Legal Framework – Managers are taught the legal framework for equal employment opportunities and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics Diverse Workforce – Managers are taught how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers & clients. Personal Development Practices - Foster personal development practices that bring out skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone. Diversity has to do much about fair treatment and stop undue discrimination on the basis of race, gender, ethnicity and so on and forth.. Organizations acknowledge this cannot be achieved through one time programs and needs constant sessions or workshops to change perceptions. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 51 XLRI
Effective Diversity Programs Researchers suggest that diversity experiences are more likely to lead to positive adaptation for all parties if : Diversity programs based on these principles are likely to be more effective than traditional classroom learning. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 52 XLRI
Personality & Values 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 53 XLRI
Learning Objectives Define Personality & how is it measured; Factors Determining Individual Personality Myers Briggs Type Indicator: Strengths & Weaknesses The Big Five Personality Model Influence of the Big Five Traits on behavior at workplace Define Values & Its Importance ; Contrast Terminal & Instrumental Values Generational Values & Dominant Values in today’s Workforce Personality-Job Fit Theory by John Holland Hofstede’s Six Value Dimensions of National Culture 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 54 XLRI
What is Personality & how is it measured Gordon Allport’s Definition of Personality “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment” In other words, the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, measurable traits a person exhibits why & how is Personality measured at the workplace Research proves, personality tests are useful to make crucial hiring decisions to get the best fit for a given job. Two commons forms used to measure Personality are Self Reporting and Observer Rating 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 55 XLRI
Self Reporting Surveys where individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors. Works well when the survey questions are well constructed Respondents lie, Manage Impressions in hiring tests and tend to share more accurate responses for self awareness Observer Rating An observer or a co-worker does the rating (with or without the subject’s knowledge) Better Predictor of success on the job Observers can be biased 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 56 Using both observer ratings and self report ratings of personality for important XLRI employment decisions is the best approach
Factors determining Personality “a combination of self reports and observer reports predicts performance better than any type of information” Heredity Environment 2 Major Factors Heredity refers to the biological, physiological & inherent psychological makeup and research has proven that heredity plays a much greater role in influencing and developing personality traits in individual than the environment. Two 09/Frameworks 17/14 are dominantly PGC used Business at the Management workplace - to measure Personality, 57 the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator and the Big Five XLRI Model
The Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) MBTI is a 100 question personality test, a self report that asks an individual how they feel in a particular situation. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 58 XLRI
The Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) Respondents are classified under any of the 4 terms. These classifications together describe 16 personality types, identifying every individual by one trait from each of the 4 pairs For example, an Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking and Judging (INTJ) person is a visionary with an original mind and great drive. Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking & Judging (ESTJ) are organizers, realistic, analytical, logical and often are a natural for business or mechanics Weakness Research and empirical evidence is clearly against using MBTI as a measuring tool to make hiring decisions at the workplace It forces every individual into one type or another; whereas in reality, people can be both extraverted or introverted to some degree. Hence MBTI is a reliable tool only for self awareness and providing career guidance and not for making crucial hiring decisions or to predict individual effectiveness 09/17/14 PGC Business Man aigne am ejnotb - 59 XLRI
The Big Five Personality Model The Big Five Model – 5 basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variations in human personality. Extraversion Captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts are gregarious, assertive & sociable, whereas Introverts are reserved, timid & quiet Agreeableness Individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable traits are cooperative, warm & trusting; the inverse traits are cold, disagreeable & antagonistic Conscientiousness is a measure of reliability. Highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable & persistent, whereas the inverse traits are disorganized, unreliable & easily distracted Emotional Stability is a person’s ability to withstand stress. Self confident, secure and calmness are the positive traits, whereas the inverse is nervous, anxious, depressed & insecure Openness to Experience addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are curious, creative & artistically sensitive 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 60 whereas on the other end, people are conventional and stick to comfort zones XLRI
Big Five traits & how it influences OB 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 61 XLRI
Big Five traits & how it influences OB 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 62 XLRI
Other Personality traits relevant to OB CCoorree SSeellff EEvvaalluuaattiioonn Individuals high in core self evaluations see themselves as effective, capable and in control of their environment. This directly relates to job satisfaction as they see more challenge in their jobs and attain more complex jobs. Job performance also tends to be extraordinary as they set ambitious goals, are persistent and ascend rapidly over time. Those with negative core self evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities and view themselves as powerless over their environment. MMaacchhiiaavveelllliiaanniissmm High on pragmatism, maintains emotional distance and believes ends can justify means. High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more. They like their jobs less, take a lot of stress and engage in more deviant work behaviors. High Machs flourish (i) when they interact face to face (ii) when the situation has minimal rules and regulations (iii) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs. Hence Jobs which require high bargaining skills or in commissioned sales, 09/17/high 14 Machs are very productive PGC Business Management - 63 XLRI
Other Personality traits relevant to OB NNaarrcciissssiissmm A person who has a grandiose sense of self importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, is arrogant and has low empathy towards others. Evidence suggests that narcissists are more charismatic and are more likely to emerge as leaders. Though not a desirable trait, Narcissists are known to be leaders and grow rapidly as they are manipulative and have no empathy towards employees. They tend to whittle down opposition in the ranks and file of the organization and do not take feedback in a positive light. Research has shown that barring a few narcissist CEO’s, the more pragmatic and affable leaders are more effective in their performance SSeellff MMoonniittoorriinngg Individuals high on self monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to situations and are more tactical in their approach and interactions with co-workers. They tend to be highly mobile, get appraised better than low monitors and are highly successful in their workplace. Low Monitors however tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation and stick to the conventional. Hence growth is largely stunted or very difficult to achieve. 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 64 XLRI
Other Personality traits relevant to OB RRiisskk TTaakkiinngg An Individual high on risk taking ability manages to take quick decisions based on calculated risks. Research suggests that the effectiveness and success ratio enjoyed by risk takers is the same as people who are averse to taking risks. PPrrooaaccttiivvee PPeerrssoonnaalliittyy People who take active initiative to improve their current circumstances or create new ones are also called as proactive personalities. They show action, initiative and persevere until meaningful change occurs and hence are more successful in jobs which require high persistence levels and positivity Proactives are also likely to challenge the status quo or voice their displeasure when situations arent’ to their liking. Proactives make good entrepreneurial candidates, however they are also more likely to leave organizations faster to start their own ventures. OOtthheerr OOrriieennttaattiioonn Individuals with high level of other –orientation feel more obligated to help others who have helped them, whereas those who are more self oriented will help others when they expect to be 09/helped 17/14 in the future by them PGC Business Management - 65 XLRI
Values 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 66 XLRI
Define Values and its importance Values represent basic convictions. They contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good or desirable Values have content and intensity attributes. The content attributes says a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. Every Individual has a set of values and gives relative importance to freedom, self respect, honesty, obedience, equality, faith and so on and so forth. These values are generally established in the formative years of a child through parents, teachers and mentors and hence not very fluid and flexible. However they can change as per the situation or after being continuously exposed to a different environment. For example, an individual must have been taught not to take bribes, but working in an government organization, they may be forced to take bribes on account of peer pressure and standard unofficial norms, which if not, abided may make co-workers antagonistic towards 09/17/14 the individPuGaCl Business Management - 67 XLRI
Classify Values Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), which comprised of two sets of values, each containing 18 individual value items Terminal Values refers to desirable end states. These are goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving terminal values 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 68 XLRI
Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). Terminal Values 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 69 XLRI
Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). Instrumental Values 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 70 XLRI
Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44. Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Research studies indicate clearly that RVS values vary among groups. People in the same occupation or categories tend to uphold similar values. Activists in this exhibit hold Equality as one of their top most terminal values, whereas Executives and Union Members uphold them at 12 and 13 Understanding the differences and the vested interest of each group in the same set of values can help tremendously while forming Organizational, economic and 09/17/14 soPcGiCa lB pusoinliecsise Ms anagement - 71 XLRI
Generational Values- Dominant Values in today’s workforce Researchers have integrated several recent analyses of work values into groups that attempt to capture the unique values of different cohorts or generations. The classification of these cohorts and their values differ based on geography The US Workforce The Indian Workforce Veterans workforce entered in the 50’s or early ’60s. Boomers those who entered the workforce between ‘65 to ‘85 Xers those who entered the workforce between 1985 and 2000 Nexters those who entered the workforce after 2000 Socialists workforce entered in the 50’s to the late ‘80s Liberals those who entered the workforce between 1990s to 2000 Xers those who entered the workforce between 2000 and 2005 Millennials those who entered the workforce after 2005 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 72 XLRI
Dominant Values in today’s workforce Socialists Hardworking, conservative, conforming, loyal to the organization, emphasis on a comfortable and secure life Liberals Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to career, ends can justify means philosophy, material success is important Xers Work Life Balance, dislike of rules, confident, want financial success, self reliant but team oriented, loyalty to both self and relationships, nuclear families, job satisfaction is important, less willing to make personal sacrifices Technology is taken for granted (its an SOP), entrepreneurial, want to get rich quickly, high sense of entitlement, low attachment to jobs or relationships, want meaning out of their actions Millennials 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 73 XLRI
John Holland’s Personality – Job Fit Theory The changing needs of the workplace today have made it imperative for managers to be more interested to go beyond matching an individual’s personality and values to the organization and gauge the flexibility to meet changing situations and commitment to the organization. Enter John Holland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory… Realistic (R) Investigative (I) Artistic (A) Social (S) Enterprising (E) Conventional (C) 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 74 XLRI
what is john holland’s theory all about “Satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement.” Realistic (R) person in a realistic job is more congruent viz. agreeable situation than a realistic person in an investigative or a social job. Numerous studies done in this area supports the value of assessing vocational interests in the selection process with a match between interests and job requirements. For example, individuals higher in openness to experience as children, were more likely to take jobs, high on the investigative and artistic dimensions 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 75 Holland’s typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations P.T.O XLRI
Personality Type Characteristics Congruent Occupations Realistic: Prefers physical Shy, genuine, persistent, activities that require skill, stable, conforming & practical strength & coordination Mechanic, Drill press operator, assembly line worker, farmers etc… Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing and understanding Analytical, original, curious and independent Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter etc… Social: Prefers activities that involve helping & developing others Sociable, Friendly, cooperative, understanding Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical psychologist Conventional: Prefers rule regulated, orderly and unambiguous activities Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, file clerk etc…. Enterprising: Prefers Verbal activities where opportunities to influence others arises Self confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering Lawyer, real estate agent, PR specialist, Business Managers etc.. Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator Holland’s typology of Personality & Congruent Occupations 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 76 XLRI
Hofstede’s Value Dimensions for assessing cultures Geert Hofstede’s interviewed more than 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work related values and found that managers & employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. A 6th one was added recently. Power deDgrisetea ntoc ewhich people in a country accept that power in institutions & organizations is distributed unequally. High Rating Low Rating Large inequalities of power and wealth exist and tolerated in the culture, discouraging upward mobility Characterizes societies that stress on equality & opportunity 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 77 XLRI
Individualism Vs Collectivism Individualism Collectivism degree to which people prefer to act as individuals than in groups and believe in individual rights above all else emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in the groups to look after and protect them Masculinity Vs Femininity Masculinity Femininity degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles as opposed to viewing men and women as equals. High masculinity rating indicates the culture has separate roles for men and women with men dominating the society High femininity rating indicates the culture sees little differentiation between male & female roles & treats everyone at par Hofstede’s Value Dimensions for assessing cultures 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 78 XLRI
Hofstede’s Value Dimensions for assessing cultures Uncertainty Avoidance degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance. In cultures scoring high on this dimension, people have an increased level of anxiety about uncertainty & use laws and controls to reduce them Long Term Versus Short Term Orientation Long Term Orientation Short Term Orientation people in such cultures look to the future & value thrift, persistence & tradition people in such cultures value the here & now, accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 79 XLRI
Indulgence Restraint degree to which people find it alright to enjoy life, have fun, and fulfill natural human desires is the extent to which social norms govern the gratification of basic human desires & people’s behavior Indulgence Versus Restraint Countries score differently on Hofstede’s dimensions Malaysia scores very high on power distance, whereas the United States is very individualistic. Economic differences also influence these dimensions. The drawback of Hofstede’s model is that the data is more than 30 years old now and the research is completely based on IBM 09/17/14 PGC Business Management - 80 XLRI
Emotions & Moods
82 Learning Objectives 1. Differentiate Emotions from Moods and list the basic ones 2. Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve 3. Sources of Emotions & Moods 4. Impact of Emotional Labor on employees 5. Affective Events Theory and its application 6. Emotional Intelligence – Contrast the evidence for and against its existence 7. Strategies for emotion regulation & its likely effects 8. Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues
83 Emotions & Moods Affect defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience. Affect can be experienced in the defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience. Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods form of emotions or moods Emotions Moods Intense feelings directed at someone or something More reactive and action oriented by nature Can last very briefly or transform into a mood Specific and numerous in nature Intense feelings directed at someone or something More reactive and action oriented by nature Can last very briefly or transform into a mood Specific and numerous in nature Cause is often unclear and general Lasts longer than emotions or could be triggered by emotions Two main dimensions, positive and negative affects Cognitive in nature Moods also transform into emotions Cause is often unclear and general Lasts longer than emotions or could be triggered by emotions Two main dimensions, positive and negative affects Cognitive in nature Moods also transform into emotions
84 Sources of Emotions & Moods Primary Influences of Emotions and moods Personality – Moods and emotions have a trait component. Hence we observe affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply. People can experience the same moods at different intensities based on their personality traits Day of the week and time of the day – People tend to be in their best moods in the latter half of the week and in their worst moods on a Monday aka Monday blues. Weather – Even weather can influence moods or emotions. A dull and gloomy weather can bring out a sad mood in people or can make them depressed and a bright and sunny weather can make the day exciting as well. Stress – a constant diet of low stressful events can also cause workers to experience a gradual increase of strain over time. Isolated stressful events at work or home can also impact your mood in a negative manner Social Activities – Social activities like partying with friends, or interacting with like minded people or planning informal trips out can also have a positive effect on a person’s moods. Sleep – Inadequate sleep or poor quality of sleep can also influence and bring about negative emotions in people Exercise, Age and Sex are three other sources which can have an influence or bearing on the moods and emotions of people
85 Impact of Emotional Labor on employees Emotional Labor is relevant to almost every job. Its an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. The true challenge arises when employees have to project one emotion while feeling another. This disparity is called emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance takes a heavy toll on employee’s job performance and job satisfaction Surface Acting is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. This is more stressful than deep acting. Deep Acting is trying to modify our inner feelings based on display rules.
86 Affective Events Theory AET model demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and this reaction influences performance and satisfaction at the work place. Emotions provide valuable insights into how work place hassles and uplifting emotions influence employee performance and satisfaction and drive employee attitude at the workplace. Secondly, employees and managers shouldn’t ignore emotions or the events that cause them, even when they seem to be minor as they accumulate over a period of time
87 Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is a person’s ability to perceive emotions in self and others, understand the meaning of these emotions and regulate one’s emotions accordingly to bring effective outcomes
88 Emotional Intelligence Components of Emotional Intelligence EI Component Definition Hallmarks Self Awareness Knowing one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values, and goals – and their impact on others Self Confidence Realistic Self Assessment Self-deprecating sense of humor Thirst for constructive criticism Self-Regulation Controlling or redirecting disruptive emotions and impulses Trustworthiness Integrity Comfort with ambiguity & change
89 EI Component Definition Hallmarks Motivation Being Driven to achieve for the sake of achievement A passion for the work itself & for new challenges Unflagging energy to improve Optimism in the face of failure Empathy Considering other’s feelings, especially when making decisions Expertise in attracting and retaining talent Ability to develop others Sensitivity to cross-cultural differences
90 EI Component Definition Hallmarks Social Skill Managing Relationships to move people in desired connections Effectiveness in leading change Persuasiveness Extensive Networking Expertise in building and leading teams
91 Impact of emotions and moods on the workplace Understanding of emotions and moods can improve our ability to explain and predict the selection process in organizations, Decision making, Creativity, Motivation, Leadership, Negotiation, Customer Service, Job Attitudes, Deviant Workplace behaviors, Safety and Injury at work
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