OB 04

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Education

Published on May 5, 2008

Author: shengvn

Source: authorstream.com

Decision Making and Creativity : Decision Making and Creativity I - Decision Making : I - Decision Making Decision Making at NASA : Decision Making at NASA The loss of the space shuttle Columbia (shown here lifting off for its final flight) and its crew was caused by more than foam hitting the left wing; it was also due to NASA’s flawed decision making. ©AP Photo/Chris O’Meara Decision Making Defined : Decision Making Defined Conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs. ©AP Photo/Chris O’Meara Rational Decision Making Model : 3. Develop alternatives 1. Identify problem 2. Choose decision style Rational Decision Making Model 4. Choose best solution 5. Implement solution 6. Evaluate decision Problem Identification Process : Problem Identification Process Problems and opportunities are not announced or pre-defined need to interpret ambiguous information Involves both rational and emotional brain centers probably need to pay attention to both in problem identification Famous Missed Opportunities : Famous Missed Opportunities A Knight’s Tale was a box office success, yet most Hollywood studios rejected Brian Helgeland’s proposal. They failed to see the appeal of a film about a lowly squire in 14th century England who aspires to be a knight, set to 1970s rock music and reflecting contemporary themes of youth, freedom, and equality. © Photofest Problem Identification Challenges : Problem Identification Challenges Perceptual bias: Selective attention mechanisms Influence from others Mental models Diagnostic skills: Defining problems in terms of solutions © Photofest Identifying Problems Effectively : Identifying Problems Effectively Be aware of perceptual and diagnostic limitations Understand mental models Discussing the situation with colleagues -- see different perspectives © Photofest Making Choices: Rational vs OB Views : Processing Information Evaluation Timing Rational: People can process all information Rational: Choices evaluated simultaneously Goals Rational: Clear, compatible, agreed upon OB: Ambiguous, conflicting, lack agreement OB: People process only limited information OB: Choices evaluated sequentially Making Choices: Rational vs OB Views Making Choices: Rational vs OB (con’t) : Info Quality Decision Objective Rational: People rely on factual information Rational: Maximization -- the optimal choice Standards Rational: Evaluate against absolute standards OB: Evaluate against implicit favorite OB: Rely on perceptually distorted information OB: Satisficing -- a “good enough” choice Making Choices: Rational vs OB (con’t) Intuitive Decision Making : Intuitive Decision Making Ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and select the best course of action without conscious reasoning Conduit for tacit knowledge Use intuition to complete rational process Choosing Solutions Effectively : Choosing Solutions Effectively Systematically evaluate alternatives Balance emotions and rational influences Scenario planning © Corel Corp. With permission Escalation of Commitment : Escalation of Commitment Escalation of commitment occurred when the British government continued funding the Concorde supersonic jet long after it’s lack of commercial viability was apparent. Some scholars refer to escalation of commitment as the “Concorde fallacy.” © Corel Corp. With permission Escalation of Commitment Causes : Escalation of Commitment Causes Self-justification Gambler’s fallacy Perceptual blinders Closing costs © Corel Corp. With permission Employee Involvement Defined : Employee Involvement Defined The degree to which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out Level of control over decision making Different levels and forms of involvement Levels of Employee Involvement : High Medium Low Levels of Employee Involvement High involvement Employees have complete decision making power (e.g.. SDWTs) Full consultation Employees offer recommendations (e.g.. gain sharing) Selective consultation Employees give information, but don’t know the problem Employee Involvement Model : Employee Involvement Model Potential Involvement Outcomes Employee Involvement Better problem identification More/better solutions generated Best choice more likely Higher decision commitment Contingencies of Involvement : Contingencies of Involvement Knowledge Source Decision Commitment Employees have relevant knowledge beyond leader Employees would lack commitment unless involved Risk ofConflict Norms support firm’s goals Employee agreement likely Decision Structure Problem is new & complex(i.e nonprogrammed decision) More employee involvement is better when: Decision Making and Creativity : Decision Making and Creativity II - Creativity : II - Creativity Creative Process Model : Preparation Creative Process Model Characteristics of Creative People : Characteristics of Creative People Above average intelligence Persistence Relevant knowledge and experience Inventive thinking Creative Work Environments : Creative Work Environments Learning orientation Encourage experimentation Tolerate mistakes Intrinsically motivating work Task significance, autonomy, feedback Open communication and sufficient resources Team trust and project commitment Creative Activities at EDS : Creative Activities at EDS These employees at the EDS eSpace innovation center near Detroit play with toys to generate new ideas. “We’re all about collaboration and creativity and inspiration, and the toys are props to stimulate the thought process,” says an employee at the computer service firm. ©M. Richardson II/The Detroit News Creative Activities : Creative Activities Solutions to Creativity Brainbusters : Solutions to Creativity Brainbusters Double Circle Problem : Double Circle Problem Nine Dot Problem : Nine Dot Problem Nine Dot Problem Revisited : Nine Dot Problem Revisited Word Search : Word Search FCIRVEEALTETITVEERS Burning Ropes : Burning Ropes One Hour to Burn Completely After first rope burned i.e. 30 min.

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