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O session 16b frontal lobes - pfc

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Information about O session 16b frontal lobes - pfc

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

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PSYC 3390 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY UNIT 16B - THE FRONTAL LOBES INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

THE WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST Demo - http://www.millisecond.com/download/library/v3/CardSort/CardSortTest.web

LECTURE OVERVIEW 1. ANATOMY OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX (PFC) 2. GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE PFC 3. PFC IN RESPONSE-SELECTION 1. 4 FACTORS 4. A REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE SUPPORTING RESPONSE-SELECTION

PREFRONTAL CORTEX • ALL AREAS OF THE FRONTAL LOBE THAT RECEIVES INPUT FROM THE DORSOMEDIAL NUCLEUS (MEDIAL DORSAL) OF THE THALAMUS

DIVISIONS OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX 1. DORSOLATERAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX – BA 9 AND 46 – INPUTS: • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS (STS) • POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX (PPC) – OUTPUT • MOTOR CORTEX • BASAL GANGLIA, SUPERIOR COLLICULUS (SC), AND CINGULATE CORTEX

DIVISIONS OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX INFERIOR FRONTAL ORBITOFRONTAL) CORTEX • BA 11, 12, 13, AND 14 • COMMUNICATES WITH – INFORMATION FROM ALL SENSORY MODALITIES – TEMPORAL LOBE • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS - AUDITION • INFERIOR TEMPORAL CORTEX (AREA TE) – VISION – ACTIVE IN RESPONSE TO LEARNING NEW VISUAL STIMULI • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS – MULTIMODAL – » GUSTATION (INSULA) » OLFACTION (PYRIFORM CORTEX) PARIETAL LOBE • SOMATOSENATION (AREA 43) • SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES – AMYGDALA AND HYPOTHALAMUS • INVOLVED IN AUTONOMIC REACTION TO EMOTIONAL RESPONSES

DIVISIONS OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX MEDIAL FRONTAL CORTEX • BA 25 AND 32 • IMPLICATED IN – ERROR DETECTION / COMPENSATION FOCUS TASKS (GEHRING ET AL., 1993) – CONFLICT MONITORING (RIDDERINKHOF ET AL, 2007) • FOR TASKS WITH HIGH RESPONSE CONFLICT – STROOP TASKS, GO/NO GO, AND VERB GENERATION/FLUENCY TASKS

CONNECTIONS OF THE PREFRONTAL AREAS • PREFRONTAL AREAS ARE THE TERMINUS OF BOTH THE DORSAL AND VENTRAL STREAMS OF VISUAL INPUT • DL-PFC (AREA 9 & 46) – RECIPROCAL CONNECTIONS WITH THE POSTERIOR PARIETAL AND INFERIOR TEMPORAL CORTEX • IFC (AREA 11-14) – RECIPROCAL CONNECTIONS WITH INFERIOTEMPORAL CORTEX

A THEORY OF FRONTAL-LOBE FUNCTION 1. MOVEMENT 2. PLANNING AND SELECTION OF ACTIONS 3. SELECTIVELY RESPONDING TO INTERNAL, EXTERNAL, AND CONTEXTUAL CUES 4. IGNORING DISTRACTING STIMULI AND PERSISTING IN THE CURRENT TASK 5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO (TEMPORAL) MEMORY

Internal Cues External cues Responseselection Autonoetic awareness Contextual Cues

PFC: RESPONSE-SELECTION • INTERNAL CUES – TEMPORAL MEMORY: MEMORY FOR THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT HAVE JUST TRANSPIRED

PFC: RESPONSE-SELECTION • EXTERNAL CUES – RESPONSE SELECTION AS FUNCTION OF INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE: EXTERNAL CUES – SOMETIMES THE EXTERNAL CUES DIRECT OUR BEHAVIOUR, PARTICULAR IF WE FIND THE EXTERNAL CUE REWARDS – ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • BEHAVIOUR CAN BE MODULATED BY FEEDBACK ABOUT REWARDING PROPERTIES OF STIMULI – LEARNING BY ASSOCIATION • ANATOMICAL CORRELATE – ORBITAL FRONTAL CORTEX

PFC: RESPONSE SELECTION • CONTEXT CUES – CONTEXT DETERMINES APPROPRIATE CLASS OF RESPONSES AND OUR CORRECT INTERPRETION OF CONTEXTUAL CUES IS INTEGRAL TO CORRECT RESPONSE-SELECTION – ANATOMICAL CORRELATE • ORBITOFRONTAL LOBE • DAMAGE HERE IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROPER BEHAVIOUR IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

PFC: RESPONSE SELECTION • AUTONOETIC AWARENESS – REFERS TO ‘SELF KNOWLEDGE’ • INCLUDING A RECORD OF CONSEQUENCES OF PAST RESPONSES – IMPORTANT FOR BINDING TOGETHER THE AWARENESS OF ONESELF AS CONTINUOUS THROUGH TIME

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • LOSS OF DIVERGENT THINKING – LOSS OF SPONTANEITY • VERBAL FLUENCY • NON-VERBAL/ DESIGN FLUENCY • REDUCTION IN GENERAL BEHAVIOUR – IMPAIRED CONTROL OF BEHAVIOUR IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CUES

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • CONVERGENT VS. DIVERGENT THINKING – CONVERGENT THINKING: ONLY ONE ANSWER TO THE QUESTION – DIVERGENT THINKING: QUESTIONS THAT ASK FOR A VARIETY OF RESPONSES – FRONTAL LOBE PATIENTS ARE IMPAIRED ON DIVERGENT THINKING

IDEA FLUENCY TEST (NEMOTO, MIZUNO, & KASHIMA) • GENERAL TEST FOR DIVERGENT THINKING • INSTRUCTIONS – THINK OF AS MANY USES FOR TIN CANS AS POSSIBLE

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • FRONTAL LESION PATIENTS OFTEN LOSE THEIR ABILITY FOR SPONTANEOUS SPEECH • IMPAIRED VERBAL FLUENCY • ASSESSMENT – THURSTONE WORD FLEUNCY TEST

THURSTONE WORD FLUENCY TEST • FIRST TASK – WRITE AS MANY WORDS STARTING WITH A GIVEN LETTER (E.G. THE LETTER R) AS POSSIBLE IN 5 MINUTES • SECOND TASK – INTRODUCE FURTHER CONDITIONS – WRITE AS MANY 4 LETTER WORDS STARTING WITH THE GIVEN LETTER IN 4 MINUTES

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED DESIGN (NON-VERBAL) FLUENCY – DESIGN FLUENCY ASSESSMENT (GOTMAN & MILNER) • 2 PART TASK SIMILAR TO WORD-FLUENCY TEST • FIRST TASK – DRAW AS MANY DIFFERENT DESIGNS AS POSSIBLE IN 5 MINUTES • SECOND TASK – RESTRICT GENERATED DESIGNS TO AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING CONDITION(S) » EACH DESIGN CAN ONLY USE 4 ELEMENTS

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • KOLB AND TAYLOR – FRONTAL-LESIONS PATIENTS • FEWER FACIAL GESTURES • ALTERED VERBALIZATION – LATERALITY » RIGHT LESIONS  EXCESSIVELY TALKATIVE » LEFT LESIONS  RARELY SPOKE • LETHARGIC • TROUBLE INITIATING BEHAVIOUR

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL CUES 1. INABILITY TO FORM A STRATEGY 2. INCREASED PERSEVERATION 3. LOSS OF RESPONSE INHIBITION • ASSESSMENTS – WISCONSIN CARD-SORTING TASK – STROOP TEST

IMPAIRED STRATEGY FORMATION • SHALLICE & BURGESS – TASK • REAL-WORD TEST FOR SUBJECTS TO COMPLETE A NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES WITHIN A GIVEN TIME FRAME • SUBJECTS WERE INSTRUCTED NOT TO DEVIATE FROM THE LIST OF ERRANDS GIVEN – RESULTS • FRONTAL LOBE LESION PATIENTS – INEFFICIENT AT TASK – BROKE RULES (ENTERED UNNECESSARY SHOPS) – FAILED TO COMPLETE ALL ERRANDS

THE WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST Demo - http://www.millisecond.com/download/library/v3/CardSort/CardSortTest.web

STROOP TASK • • • • • • RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE PURPLE

END OF LECTURE

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