O session 14b parietal lobe ii

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Information about O session 14b parietal lobe ii
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Published on February 14, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 3390 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY UNIT 14B - PARIETAL LOBE INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

ASSOCIATED READING: CHAPTER 14 PARIETAL LOBE

A THEORY OF PARIETAL LOBE FUNCTION • ANTERIOR ZONE – PROCESS SOMATIC SENSATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS • POSTERIOR ZONE – INTEGRATE INFORMATION FROM VISION WITH SOMATOSENSORY INFORMATION FOR MOVEMENT • SPATIAL MAP(S) IN THE BRAIN?

SOMATOSENSORY SYMPTOMS OF PARIETALLOBE LESIONS • LESIONS TO THE POST-CENTRAL GYRUS CAN RESULT IN : – 1) HEIGHTENED SENSORY THRESHOLDS (DULLED SENSES) – 2) IMPAIRED POSITION SENSE – 3) ASTEREOGNOSIS (LOSS OF TACTILE PERCEPTION) • IMPAIRMENTS CAN BE DETECTED THROUGH – PRESSURE SENSITIVITY TEST • IPSI/CONTRALATERAL SIDE – 2 POINT DISCRIMINATION TESTS – TESTS FOR TACTILE PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS

Image credit: http://www2.palomar.edu/users/rmorrissette/Sensation/Labs/12Touch/TwoPointDiscriminator.jpg SOMATOPERCEPTUAL DISORDERS • ALTERED SOMATOSENSORY THRESHOLDS – DULLED SENSES COULD INDICATE DAMAGE TO PRIMARY SENSORY CORTEX (POST-CENTRAL GYRUS) • TESTS – 2 POINT DISCRIMINATION TEST TO ASSESS TOPOGRAPHIC PERCEPTION OF TACTILE SENSATION

SOMATOPERCEPTUAL DISORDERS • ASTEREOGNOSIS – INABILITY TO RECOGNIZE AN OBJECT BY TOUCH • ASSESSMENT – TEST FOR TACTILE PERCEPTION • VISUAL INPUT IS REMOVED AND SUBJECT MUST RELY ON TACTILE PERCEPTION TO MATCH A REFERENCE OBJECT TO THE TARGET OBJECT – FAILURE TO DO SO INDICATES AN IMPAIRMENT IN TACTILE SENSATION

SOMATOPERCEPTUAL DISORDERS • SIMULTANEOUS EXTINCTION – PRESENCE OF OBJECTS IN BOTH VISUAL FIELDS OCCLUDES PERCEPTION OF OBJECT IN DAMAGED VISUAL FIELD – CAN APPEAR ACROSS SENSORY MODALITIES (VISUAL, AUDITORY, TACTILE, ETC.) • INDICATES DAMAGE TO RIGHT SOMATIC SECONDARY CORTEX (AREAS PE/PF)

EXTINCTION TEST • TWO STIMULI ARE PRESENTED SIMULTANEOUSLY TO OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE BODY • GOAL IS TO TRY AND IDENTIFY CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH EXTINCTION OCCURS • EXTINCTION = A FAILURE TO REPORT A STIMULUS ON ONE SIDE

SOMATOPERCEPTUAL DISORDERS • BLIND TOUCH – CANNOT FEEL STIMULI, BUT CAN REPORT THEIR LOCATION – SIMILAR TO ‘BLINDSIGHT’ ARISING IN PATIENTS WITH DAMAGE TO THEIR OCCIPITAL LOBES – SUGGESTS PRESENCE OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS OF TACTILE PERCEPTION • SYSTEM A FOR DETECTION • SYSTEM B FOR LOCALIZATION

SOMATOSENSORY AGNOSIAS ASTEREOGNOSIS SOMATOSENSORY ANOSOGNOSIA FINGER ANGOSIA AGNOSIAS ASOMATOGNOSIA AUTOPAGNOSIA ASYMBOLIA

SOMATOPERCEPTUAL DISORDERS • ASOMATOGNOSIA 1. AUTOPAGNOSIA 1. LOSS OF SPATIAL AWARENESS ABOUT ONE’S BODY 2. ANOSOGNOSIA 1. UNAWARENESS OR DENIAL OF ILLNESS 3. ASYMBOLIA FOR PAIN 1. ABSENCE OF NORMAL REACTIONS TO PAIN 4. FINGER AGNOSIA 1. UNABLE TO POINT TO THE FINGERS OR SHOW THEM TO THE EXAMINER

POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX • POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX  SPATIAL NAVIGATION – COGNITIVE SPATIAL MAP • ROUTE KNOWLEDGE, UNCONSCIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO REACH A DESTINATION

POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX • EVIDENCE FOR PRESENCE OF COGNITIVE SPATIAL MAP – WEINSTEIN-SEMMES MAPS • LOCOMOTOR TASK REQUIRING THE PATIENT TO FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS ON A 9-PONT MAP • THE PATIENT MUST FOLLOW THE ROUTE BY WALKING BETWEEN THE DOTS – PATIENT IS NOT ALLOWED TO TURN THE MAP TO BETTER ASSESS THE TRANSLATION OF MENTAL SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS – IMPAIRMENT ASSOCIATED WITH LESIONS TO RIGHT PARIETAL CORTEX – SATO ET AL. (2006) • CHEMICAL INACTIVATION OF AREAS IN THE MEDIAL PARIETAL REGION DISRUPTED VISUAL NAVIGATION IN MONKEYS – MEDIAL PARIETAL REGION (MPR) • NEURONS SHOW RESPONSES ASSOCIATED WITH MAKING A SPECIFIC MOVEMENT AT A SPECIFIC LOCATION

SYMPTOMS OF POSTERIOR PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE • CONTRALATERAL NEGLECT – NEGLECT FOR VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND SOMESTHETIC STIMULATION ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY OR SPACE • NEGLECT APPLIES TO BOTH REAL AND IMAGINED SCENCES – BISIACH AND LUZZATTI (1978) - PIAZZA DEL DUOMO TASK • PATIENTS ASKED TO DESCRIBE VISUAL SCENE IN STANDING IN FRONT OF THE CATHEDRAL – ONLY ONE SIDE IS DESCRIBED • THEN ASKED TO IMAGINE STANDING TO THE SIDE OF THE CATHEDRAL AND TO RE-DESCRIBE THE SCENE – ELEMENTS MISSING FROM FIRST DESCRIPTION ARE NOW REPORTED

SYMPTOMS OF POSTERIOR PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE • ANATOMICAL CORRELATES – PATIENTS OFTEN HAVE LESIONS IN THE RIGHT INFERIOR PARIETAL LOBE • RIGHT INTRAPARIETAL SULCUS AND THE RIGHT ANGULAR GYRUS – OCCASIONALLY NOTED AFTER LESIONS TO THE FRONTAL LOBE AND CINGULATE CORTEX – TMS STUDY (MUGGLETON, 2006) • TMS CURRENT APPLIED OVER RIGHT IPS AND AG INDUCE NEGLECT-LIKE SYMPTOMS IN HEALTHY CONTROLS

SYMPTOMS OF POSTERIOR PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE • THEORIES OF NEGLECT – DEFECTIVE SENSATION OR PERCEPTION • DAMAGE DISRUPTS ‘INTEGRATION’ WITHIN PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES (AMORPHOSYNTHESIS) – DEFECTIVE ATTENTION OR ORIENTATION • ABILITY TO ATTEND TO STIMULI THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN REGISTERED

SYMPTOMS OF POSTERIOR PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE • RECOVERY – POSSIBLE BUT SPONTANEOUS REMISSION OFTEN OCCURS – 2 STAGES OF RECOVERY • ALLESTHESIA – ATTENTION IS PAID TO SPATIAL ELEMENTS IN PREVIOUSLY NEGLECTED SIDE • SIMULTANEOUS EXTINCTION – PATIENT RESPONDS NORMALLY TO BOTH SIDES OF SPACE UNTIL THERE IS SIMULTANEOUS STIMULATION OF BOTH SIDES CAUSING THE PATIENT TO ATTEND TO ONLY ONE SIDE • SUGGESTS THAT THIS IS BOTH A – ATTENTIONAL DISORDER (CONTINGENT CAPTURE) – SPATIAL DISORDER

OTHER ASPECTS OF PARIETAL FUNCTION • THREE SYMPTOMS OF PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE DO NOT FIT WITH THE VISUOMOTOR VIEW OF THE PARIETAL LOBE – DIFFICULTIES WITH ARITHMETIC – DIFFICULTIES WITH CERTAIN ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE – DIFFICULTIES WITH MOVEMENT SEQUENCES

OTHER ASPECTS OF PARIETAL FUNCTION • ACALCULIA – INABILITY TO DO ARITHMETIC – NOTED IN PARIETAL LOBE PATIENTS – MIGHT RESULT FROM THE SPATIAL 984 - 23 PROPERTIES OF ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION • TWO DIGIT NUMBER OCCUPY DIFFERENT SPACES • ‚BORROWING‛ DURING SUBTRACTION VS. 983 - 24

OTHER ASPECTS OF PARIETAL FUNCTION • LANGUAGE – WORDS HAVE SPATIAL ORGANIZATION • ‚TAP‛ VS. ‚PAT‛ – I SAID HELLO TO… • THE DAUGHTER OF MY FRIEND • THE FRIEND OF MY DAUGHTER • MOVEMENT SEQUENCING – INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS OF THE MOVEMENT HAVE A SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

SYMPTOMS OF POSTERIOR PARIETAL LOBE DAMAGE • BALINT’S SYNDROME – IMPAIRED VISUAL FIXATION ON OBJECTS – SIMULTAGNOSIA (BOSTON COOKIE THEFT PICTURE DESCRIPTION – OPTIC ATAXIA

END OF LECTURE

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