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O psyc 1210 lec #7 - development

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Information about O psyc 1210 lec #7 - development
Education

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

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Psyc 1210 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY II LECTURE 7 | MARCH 3, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

LECTURE OVERVIEW 1. DEVELOPMENT I 1. THINKING LIKE A BABY 2. ATTACHMENT 3. MORAL DEVELOPMENT 2. GUEST ANNOUNCEMENT 1. STEP INTO WELLNESS - VIDEO SERIES 3. DEVELOPMENT II 1. 2. 3. 4. GENDER-IDENTITY ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD OLD-AGE 1-2

ASSOCIATED READING CHAPTER 13 DEVELOPMENT 1-3

LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. WHAT ARE SIX HARMFUL INFLUENCES THAT CAN DISRUPT THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMBRYO OR FOETUS? 2. WHAT ARE THREE FORMS OF ATTACHMENT THAT CAN DEVELOP BETWEEN A CHILD AND A CAREGIVER? HOW IS THE STRANGE SITUATION USED TO REVEAL THESE ATTACHMENT STYLES? 3. HOW DOES LANGUAGE DEVELOP BETWEEN 6 MONTHS AND 6 YEARS OF AGE? 4. WHAT ARE THE FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, ACCORDING TO PIAGET? 5. WHAT IS OBJECT PERMANENCE AND WHAT DOES A LACK OF IT REVEAL ABOUT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT? 6. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CHALLENGES TO PIAGET‟S VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT? 7. WHAT IS THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN POWER ASSERTION AND INDUCTION IN STYLES OF PARENTING AND HOW DO THESE STYLES RELATE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL BEHAVIOUR? 8. WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER TYPING AND GENDER IDENTITY? 9. WHAT IS THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND LEARNING FACTORS UNDERLYING GENDERED BEHAVIOUR? 10.WHAT ARE THE MAJOR PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES THAT GIRLS AND BOYS UNDERGO DURING ADOLESCENCE? 11. WHAT ARE THE EIGHT STAGES OR CRISES OF DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFESPAN THAT WERE PROPOSED BY ERIK ERIKSON? 12.WHAT KINDS OF INTELLECTUAL CHANGES TAKE PLACE AS PEOPLE REACH OLD AGE 13.CLARIFY THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FLUID AND CRYSTALIZED INTELLIGENCE. 1-4

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY – THE STUDY OF HOW PEOPLE CHANGE AND GROW OVER TIME, PHYSICALLY, MENTALLY, AND SOCIALLY • SOCIALIZATION – THE PROCESS BY WHICH CHILDREN LEARN THE RULES AND BEHAVIOUR EXPECTED OF THEM BY SOCIETY Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada 13 - 5

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS THINKING LIKE A BABY 1-6

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • ONE MILESTONE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • BEGINS IN THE FIRST FEW MONTHS (RESPONSIVE TO PITCH, INTENSITY, SOUND) – PARENTESE: ADULT USE OF BABY TALK, PITCH IS HIGHER AND MORE VARIED THAN USUAL, EXAGGERATED INTONATION, EMPHASIS ON VOWELS • OVER TIME, PERCEPTION OF PHONEMES IN NONNATIVE LANGUAGES DIMINISHES Copyright © 2013 13 - 7

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • MILESTONES: – – – – 6 MOS – 1 YEAR: BABBLING (BA-BA) 10 MOS : RECOGNIZE SAME WORD SPOKEN BY DIFFERENT PEOPLE 12 MOS : BEGIN TO NAME THINGS AND GESTURE 18 MOS – 2 YRS: TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH – 2 – 3 WORD COMBINATIONS – – 2 YRS: LEARN SYNTAX 6 YRS: VOCABULARY OF 8000 - 14,000 WORDS Copyright © 2013 13 - 8

JEAN PIAGET • 1896-1980 • CHILDREN = „LITTLE SCIENTISTS‟ – “CHILDREN ARE ACTIVE THINKERS, CONSTANTLY TRYING TO CONSTRUCT MORE ADVANCED UNDERSTANDINGS OF THE WORLD” 1-9

JEAN PIAGET • THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT – STAGED MODEL • METHODS – INFER COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH VERBAL RESPONDING • ASK CHILDREN TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND QUESTION THEM ABOUT THE REASONING BEHIND THEIR SOLUTIONS • OBSERVATIONS – CHILDREN THINK IN RADICALLY DIFFERENT WAYS THAN ADULTS – DEVELOPMENT OCCURS ARE A SERIES OF STAGES DIFFERING IN HOW THE WORLD IS UNDERSTOOD 1 - 10

DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING • ACCORDING TO PIAGET, COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT CONSISTS OF MENTAL ADAPTATIONS TO NEW OBSERVATIONS & EXPERIENCES • TWO FORMS OF ADAPTATION: – ASSIMILATION: THE PROCESS OF ABSORBING NEW INFORMATION INTO EXISTING COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OR SCHEMAS – ACCOMMODATION: THE PROCESS OF MODIFYING EXISTING COGNITIVE SCHEMAS IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIENCES Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada 13 - 11

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (BIRTH TO AGE TWO) – INFORMATION IS GAINED THROUGH MOTOR ACTIONS AND SENSES – COORDINATES SENSORY INFORMATION WITH BODILY MOVEMENT – MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENT IS OBJECT PERMANENCE • THE UNDERSTANDING THAT AN OBJECT CONTINUES TO EXIST EVEN WHEN YOU CANNOT SEE OR TOUCH IT Copyright © 2013 Pearson 13 - 12

Image credit: http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/Assets/Exec_fcn_anotb_EDIT-ILL_EN.jpg ‘A’ NOT ‘B’ EFFECT • EXPLANATION – 9-MONTH OLD CANNOT UNDERSTAND THAT OBJECTS EXIST INDEPENDENT OF HIS/HER OWN ACTIONS - CHILD BELIEVES THAT THEIR MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE OBJECT IS INTEGRAL TO ITS EXISTENCE • VIDEO  HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=LHHKJ3INQOE 1 - 13

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 2. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (AGES 2-7) – FOCUSED ON LIMITATIONS IN CHILDREN‟S THINKING • CHILDREN LACK ABILITY TO ENGAGE IN MENTAL OPERATIONS • ENGAGE IN EGOCENTRIC THINKING (INABILITY TO TAKE ANOTHER PERSON‟S PERSPECTIVE) • CANNOT GRASP CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION (UNDERSTANDING THAT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS CAN REMAIN THE SAME EVEN WHEN THEIR FORM OR APPEARANCE CHANGES) Copyright © 2013 13 - 14

PIAGET’S CONSERVATION TASK • PROCEDURE DEMONSTRATING PRE-OPERATIONAL COGNITION • TASK – EXPERIMENTER PRESENTS AN INFANT WITH THREE GLASSES • TWO ARE IDENTICAL IN SHAPE AND SIZE, WHEREAS THE THIRD IS TALLER AND MORE NARROW – THE EXPERIMENTER FILLS THE TWO IDENTICAL GLASSES WITH THE SAME AMOUNT OF WATER – THEN, ONE OF THE TWO GLASSES IS POURED INTO THE TALLER GLASS AND THE INFANT IS ASKED WHETHER THERE IS MORE WATER IN THE NEW GLASS OR HAS THE AMOUNT NOT CHANGED – INFANT RESPONDS THAT THERE IS MORE WATER IN THE NEW TALLER GLASS 1 - 15

PIAGET’S CONSERVATION TASK • EXPLANATION FOR EFFECT – PIAGET • INABILITY TO RELATE DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF THE OBJECT – INFANT UNDERSTAND THAT THE HEIGHT OF THE GLASSES DIFFER, BUT DOESN‟T YET UNDERSTAND THAT WIDTH OF THE BASE OF THE GLASS CAN COMPENSATE FOR CHANGES IN HEIGHT – LACK THE CAPACITY TO SIMULTANEOUSLY ATTENDED DIFFERENT OBJET PROPERTIES AND RELATE CHANGES IN EACH DIMENSIONS TO EACH OTHER 1 - 16

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 3. CONCRETE OPERATIONS STAGE (AGES 7-12) – EARLIER LIMITATIONS OVERCOME BUT PRIMARILY WITH CONCRETE INFORMATION – CONTINUE TO MAKE ERRORS IN REASONING ABOUT ABSTRACT CONCEPTS – UNDERSTAND PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION, REVERSIBILITY, CAUSE AND EFFECT Copyright © 2013 13 - 17

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 4. FORMAL OPERATIONS STAGE (AGES 12ADULT) – TEENAGERS BECOME CAPABLE OF ABSTRACT REASONING – IDEAS/CONCEPTS CAN BE COMPARED AND CLASSIFIED JUST LIKE OBJECTS – CAN FORMULATE HYPOTHESES, TEST IDEAS, SEARCH FOR ANSWERS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Copyright © 2013 13 - 18

CRITIQUES OF PIAGET • CURRENT VIEWS ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: 1. COGNITIVE ABILITIES DEVELOP IN CONTINUOUS, OVERLAPPING WAVES RATHER THAN DISCRETE STAGES 2. PRESCHOOLERS ARE NOT AS EGOCENTRIC AS PIAGET THOUGHT 3. CHILDREN, EVEN INFANTS, REVEAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES MUCH EARLIER THAN PIAGET BELIEVED POSSIBLE 4. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS INFLUENCED BY A CHILD‟S CULTURE Copyright © 2013 13 - 19

SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES • VYGOTSKY EMPHASIZED SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN – MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WORLD DEVELOPED THROUGH CULTURE AND LANGUAGE – PRIVATE SPEECH: HOW CHILDREN TALK TO THEMSELVES TO DIRECT THEIR OWN BEHAVIOUR • OVER TIME, PRIVATE SPEECH BECOMES INTERNALIZED AND SILENT Copyright © 2013 13 - 20

ATTACHMENT 1 - 21

ATTACHMENT • ATTACHMENT THEORY – DESCRIBES THE RELATIVELY STABLE PATTERN OF RELATIONSHIPS THAT ONE FORMS FROM BIRTH TO DEATH Copyright © 2013 13 - 22

Image credit: http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n14/experimento/lorenz/lorenz3_p.jpg ATTACHMENT • ATTACHMENT APPEARS TO BE IMPLICIT – MATERNAL IMPRINTING (LORENZ) • ATTACHMENT BOND IS FORMED JUST AFTER BIRTH AND ARE SUSTAINED THROUGH DEVELOPMENT 1 - 23

ATTACHMENT • BOWLBY – HEALTHY BOND BETWEEN CARETAKER AND INFANT HAS A TREMENDOUS IMPACT ON INFANT‟S DEVELOPMENT – ATTACHMENT SERVES AS A „SECURE BASE‟ FROM WHICH THE INFANT WILL FEEL FREE TO EXPLORE THE WORLD 1 - 24

ATTACHMENT • HARLOW‟S ATTACHMENT STUDY – INFANT MONKEYS SPENT MORE TIME WITH SOFT CUDDLY “MOTHER” THAN THE “MOTHER” WITH FOOD – CONTACT COMFORT WAS PREFERRED OVER FOOD Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada 10 - 25

ATTACHMENT • ONCE ATTACHED, INFANTS MAY SHOW SEPARATION ANXIETY IF PRIMARY CAREGIVER LEAVES – DISTRESS THAT MOST CHILDREN DEVELOP, AT ABOUT 6-8 MONTHS OF AGE, WHEN THEIR PRIMARY CAREGIVERS TEMPORARILY LEAVE THEM WITH STRANGERS • ATTACHMENT BONDS STUDIED THROUGH STRANGE SITUATION TEST (AINSWORTH) – THREE CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENTS BASED ON REACTIONS: SECURE, AVOIDANT, ANXIOUS/AMBIVALENT Copyright © 2013 13 - 26

CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENT • SECURELY ATTACHED – BABIES CRY OR PROTEST IF THE PARENT LEAVES THE ROOM, BUT WELCOME HER BACK AND PLAY HAPPILY AGAIN • INSECURELY ATTACHED – AVOIDANT: NOT CARING IF MOTHER LEAVES THE ROOM, MAKES LITTLE EFFORT TO SEEK CONTACT WHEN SHE RETURNS – ANXIOUS OR AMBIVALENT: RESISTING CONTACT WITH THE MOTHER AT REUNION BUT PROTESTING LOUDLY WHEN SHE LEAVES Copyright © 2013 13 - 27

INSECURE ATTACHMENTS • FACTORS THAT PROMOTE INSECURE ATTACHMENTS: 1. ABANDONMENT AND DEPRIVATION IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF LIFE 2. PARENTING THAT IS ABUSIVE, NEGLECTFUL, OR ERRATIC BECAUSE THE PARENT IS CHRONICALLY IRRESPONSIBLE OR DEPRESSED 3. THE CHILD‟S OWN GENETICALLY INFLUENCED TEMPERAMENT 4. STRESSFUL CIRCUMSTANCES IN THE CHILD‟S FAMILY Copyright © 2013 13 - 28

INSECURE ATTACHMENTS • AINSWORTH BELIEVED THAT SECURE ATTACHMENT DEPENDED ON MATERNAL SENSITIVITY, BUT DID NOT CONSIDER – CULTURAL FACTORS – CHILDREN WHO ATTACH TO MANY ADULTS MAY NOT PANIC WHEN THEIR MOTHERS LEAVE (STRANGE SITUATION) BECAUSE THEY ARE COMFORTABLE WITH STRANGERS – RESILIENCE – MOST CHILDREN DEVELOP SECURE ATTACHMENT DESPITE DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREARING PRACTICES – IMPACT OF NON-RELATIVE CARE – TIME SPENT ON DAYCARE HAS NO EFFECT ON THE SECURITY OF THE CHILD‟S ATTACHMENT BUT DID HAVE EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOURAL TRAJECTORIES (NICHD EARLY CHILD CARE RESEARCH NETWORK, 2006) 13 - 29

MORAL DEVELOPMENT 1 - 30

MORAL DEVELOPMENT • KOHLBERG – CHILDREN‟S ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND RIGHT FROM WRONG (REASONING ABOUT MORAL DILEMMAS) EVOLVES WITH COGNITIVE ABILITIES – EVOLVES THROUGH A SERIES OF STAGES WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF SELF-AUTONOMY AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY Copyright © 2013 13 - 31

KOHLBERG, 1964 • MORAL DILEMMA - “HEINZ STEALS THE DRUG‟ "IN EUROPE, A WOMAN WAS NEAR DEATH FROM A SPECIAL KIND OF CANCER. THERE WAS ONE DRUG THAT THE DOCTORS THOUGHT MIGHT SAVE HER. IT WAS A FORM OF RADIUM THAT A DRUGGIST IN THE SAME TOWN HAD RECENTLY DISCOVERED. THE DRUG WAS EXPENSIVE TO MAKE, BUT THE DRUGGIST WAS CHARGING TEN TIMES WHAT THE DRUG COST HIM TO MAKE. HE PAID $200 FOR THE RADIUM AND CHARGED $2,000 FOR A SMALL DOSE OF THE DRUG. THE SICK WOMAN'S HUSBAND, HEINZ, WENT TO EVERYONE HE KNEW TO BORROW THE MONEY, BUT HE COULD ONLY GET TOGETHER ABOUT $ 1,000 WHICH IS HALF OF WHAT IT COST. HE TOLD THE DRUGGIST THAT HIS WIFE WAS DYING AND ASKED HIM TO SELL IT CHEAPER OR LET HIM PAY LATER. BUT THE DRUGGIST SAID: "NO, I DISCOVERED THE DRUG AND I'M GOING TO MAKE MONEY FROM IT." SO HEINZ GOT DESPERATE AND BROKE INTO THE MAN'S STORE TO STEAL THE DRUG-FOR HIS WIFE. SHOULD THE HUSBAND HAVE DONE THAT?" (KOHLBERG, 1963). 1 - 32

MORAL DEVELOPMENT • KOHLBERG – IN REACTION TO THE MORAL DILEMMA, THE ANSWER IS SECONDARY TO THE RATIONALE BEHIND JUDGING WHETHER HEINZ WAS RIGHT OR WRONG – THE RESPONSES WERE THEN CLASSIFIED INTO VARIOUS STAGES OF REASONING IN HIS THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • LIMITATION – MORAL REASONING DOES NOT INDICATE MORAL BEHAVIOUR 1 - 33

MORAL DEVELOPMENT • PARENTAL METHODS USED TO ENFORCE MORAL STANDARDS: – POWER ASSERTION: PARENT USES PUNISHMENT AND AUTHORITY TO CORRECT CHILD‟S MISBEHAVIOUR – INDUCTION: PARENT APPEALS TO CHILD‟S OWN RESOURCES, ABILITIES, SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY, AND FEELINGS FOR OTHERS IN CORRECTING THE CHILD‟S MISBEHAVIOUR Copyright © 2013 13 - 34

WHY IS PUNISHMENT AN INEFFECTIVE FORM OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE? 1 - 35

THE CONS OF PUNISHMENT 1. PEOPLE OFTEN ADMINISTER PUNISHMENT INAPPROPRIATELY 1. NOT SPECIFIC, IMMEDIATE, OR CONSISTENT 2. MOST MISBEHAVIOUR IS HARD TO PUNISH IMMEDIATELY 1. PRINCIPLE OF CONTIGUITY APPLIES 3. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT IS OFTEN TEMPORARY AND DEPENDS ON THE PRESENCE OF THE PUNISHER 1. WHEN THE THREAT OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT IS GONE, THE UNDESIRED BEHAVIOUR RETURNS 4. PUNISHMENT ELICITS AN UNDESIRABLE RESPONSE IN RECIPIENT (ANXIETY, FEAR, OR RAGE) 5. PUNISHMENT CONVEYS LITTLE INFORMATION 1. IT DOESN‟T TEACH THE CORRECT BEHAVIOUR IN A GIVEN SITUATION

IMPACT OF PARENTING STYLE ON BEHAVIOURAL DEVELOPMENT THE RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS’ DISCIPLINARILY STYLE AND CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOURAL DEVELOPMENT (BAUMRIND, 1971) • VARIABLE 1 – PARENTS DISCIPLINARY STYLE • AUTHORITARIAN • AUTHORITATIVE • PERMISSIVE • VARIABLE 2 = BEHAVIOURAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD • OBSERVATION OF COOPERATIVE AND FRIENDLY BEHAVIOUR IN A PRESCHOOL SETTING • GROUPS • CLUSTERED SAMPLE INTO PRE-EXISTING PARENTING STYLES • RESULTS • AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING WAS CORRELATED TO THE BEST BEHAVIOURAL OUTCOME? • LIMITATION • TEMPERAMENT OF CHILD <-> PARENTING STYLE 2 - 37

MORAL DEVELOPMENT • ONE OF MOST IMPORTANT SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SKILLS CHILDREN NEED TO ACQUIRE IS SELF-REGULATION – THE ABILITY TO SUPPRESS THEIR INITIAL WISH TO DO SOMETHING IN FAVOUR OF DOING SOMETHING ELSE THAT IS NOT AS MUCH FUN – PREDICTS ABILITY TO DELAY GRATIFICATION, CONTROL NEGATIVE EMOTIONS, PAY ATTENTION TO TASK AT HAND, AND DO WELL IN SCHOOL • SELF-REGULATION IS IMPORTANT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIENCE. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada 13 - 38

GENDER 1 - 39

GENDER DEVELOPMENT • GENDER IDENTITY – THE FUNDAMENTAL SENSE OF BEING MALE OR FEMALE – INDEPENDENT OF WHETHER A PERSON CONFORMS TO THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RULES OF GENDER • GENDER TYPING – THE PROCESS BY WHICH CHILDREN LEARN THE ABILITIES, INTERESTS, AND BEHAVIOURS ASSOCIATED WITH BEING MASCULINE OR FEMININE IN THEIR CULTURE Copyright © 2013 13 - 40

COMPLEXITY & GENDER • COMPLEXITY EVIDENT IN CASES THAT DO NOT FIT CATEGORIES OF MALE & FEMALE – INTERSEX CONDITIONS: CONDITION OCCURRING WHERE CHROMOSOMAL OR HORMONAL ANOMALIES CAUSE A CHILD TO BE BORN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALS OR GENITALS THAT CONFLICT WITH CHROMOSOMES – TRANSGENDER: TERM DESCRIBING CATEGORY OF PEOPLE WHO DO NOT FIT COMFORTABLY INTO USUAL CATEGORIES OF MALE & FEMALE Copyright © 2013 13 - 41

INFLUENCES ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT • BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES: – EARLY PLAY AND TOY PREFERENCES HAVE A BASIS IN PRENATAL HORMONES (I.E., ANDROGENS), GENES, OR BRAIN ORGANIZATION 13 - 42

INFLUENCES ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT • COGNITIVE INFLUENCES: – TOY PREFERENCES ARE BASED ON GENDER SCHEMAS – EARLY RECOGNITION THAT THERE ARE TWO SEXES (FACES) – CHANGE BEHAVIOURS TO CONFORM TO CATEGORY THEY GENDER-LABEL THEMSELVES Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada 13 - 43

INFLUENCES ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT • LEARNING INFLUENCES: – GENDER SOCIALIZATION INSTILLS MESSAGES ABOUT WHAT BOYS & GIRLS ARE SUPPOSED TO DO • SIGNALS PROVIDED VERY EARLY ON AS TO HOW TO TREAT THE CHILD BASED ON ACTIONS, CLOTHING, PORTRAYALS – GENDER APPROPRIATE PLAY MAY BE REINFORCED BY PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND PEERS – BELIEFS ABOUT “NATURAL” TALENTS FOR MALES & FEMALES ALSO EXPRESSED 13 - 44

ADOLESCENCE 1 - 45

ADOLESCENCE • ADOLESCENCE – PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN PUBERTY AND ADULTHOOD – CULTURE VARIATIONS IN THE DURATION OF ADOLESCENCE ACCORDING TO WHEN YOUTH ARE EXPECTED TO ASSUME ADULT RESPONSIBILITIES • PUBERTY – AGE A PERSON BECOMES CAPABLE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION – ONSET DEPENDS ON GENETIC & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Copyright © 2013 13 - 46

PHYSIOLOGY OF ADOLESCENCE • PUBERTY – AGE A PERSON BECOMES CAPABLE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION • FEMALES – DEVELOPMENT OF BREASTS – MENARCHE: ONSET OF MENSTRUATION (DEPENDS ON CRITICAL LEVEL OF BODY FAT FOR ONSET) • MALES – ONSET OF NOCTURNAL EMISSIONS & GROWTH OF TESTES, SCROTUM, AND PENIS • HORMONES INVOLVED IN EMERGENCE OF SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS (E.G., BODY HAIR) Copyright © 2013 13 - 47

PHYSIOLOGY OF ADOLESCENCE • EARLY MATURATION CAN HAVE DIFFERENT OUTCOMES FOR MALES AND FEMALES – MALES: EARLY MATURERS HAVE MORE POSITIVE VIEW OF BODY, AND ARE TYPICALLY MORE ATHLETIC. ALSO MORE LIKELY TO SMOKE, DRINK ALCOHOL, USE OTHER DRUGS, AND BREAK THE LAW – FEMALES: EARLY MATURERS ARE MORE SOCIALLY POPULAR, PERCEIVED AS MORE SEXUALLY PRECOCIOUS, MORE LIKELY TO FIGHT WITH PARENT, DROP OUT OF SCHOOL, HAVE NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND BE ANGRY OR DEPRESSED Copyright © 2013 13 - 48

PSYCHOLOGY OF ADOLESCENCE • ADOLESCENT “TURMOIL” & MAJOR PROBLEMS ARE EXCEPTION NOT THE RULE – RATE OF VIOLENT CRIMES COMMITTED BY ADOLESCENTS DROPPING SINCE 1993 – FEELINGS OF SELF-ESTEEM REMAIN STABLE FOR BOTH SEXES – TEENS MORE SEXUALLY CONSERVATIVE THAN PARENTS, • MOST COMMON PROBLEMS: – CONFLICT WITH PARENTS, MOOD SWINGS & DEPRESSION, AND HIGHER RATES OF RISKY BEHAVIOUR Copyright © 2013 13 - 49

COGNITION IN OLD AGE – SOME COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS DECLINE WITH AGE (BUT NOT ALL) – FLUID INTELLIGENCE: CAPACITY FOR DEDUCTIVE REASONING & ABILITY TO USE NEW INFORMATION TO SOLVE PROBLEMS; TENDS TO DECLINE IN OLD AGE – CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: COGNITIVE SKILLS AND SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF INFORMATION ACQUIRED OVER A LIFETIME; TENDS TO REMAIN STABLE OVER THE LIFETIME Copyright © 2013 13 - 50

MENTAL FUNCTIONING OVER TIME Copyright © 2013 13 - 51

EXPERIENCE IN OLD AGE • FACTORS ENFORCING RESILIENCE IN OLD-AGE – – – – – GENETICS HIGH LEVEL OF MOTIVATION GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR MODERATE LEVELS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH OTHERS 1 - 52

END OF LECTURE 1 - 53

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