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O psyc 1210 lec #6 - motivation and development

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Information about O psyc 1210 lec #6 - motivation and development
Education

Published on February 25, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

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Psyc 1210 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY II LECTURE 6 | FEBRUARY 24, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

LECTURE OVERVIEW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. GUEST ANNOUNCEMENTS RE: POP-PSYCH ASSIGNMENT MOTIVATION POP QUIZ DEVELOPMENT 1-2

RESEARCH PARTICIPATION OPPORTUNITY • RESEARCHER: TRACY DAVIDSON • SUPERVISOR: DR. CATHERINE ORTNER 1-3

SL PROGRAM • AN OPPORTUNITY TO REVISIT CONCEPTS COVERED IN LECTURE • SL LEADER FOR PSYC 1210 – KRISTINA FRANKS • UPCOMING SESSIONS – THE NEXT SL EXAM REVIEW WILL BE HELD ON SUNDAY MARCH 2 1:30-3:20PM IN OM2221. • REVIEW SESSION INCLUDES: ACTIVITIES, WORKSHEETS AND REVIEW EXERCISES – NEXT EXAM - MARCH 10TH • QUESTIONS, COMMENTS  EMAIL KRISTINA – KRISTINAFRANKS.SL@GMAIL.COM 1-4

RE: POP-PSYC ARTICLE • VERY ENJOYABLE READING, THANK YOU! – MARKS WILL BE POSTED BY NEXT CLASS • STILL AWAITING SUBMISSION FROM THE FOLLOWING STUDENTS (LATE PENALTIES APPLY): 48094 40061 56765 42640 62219 1-5 72606 52188 57427 55408 33679 29741 55942

MOTIVATION ASSOCIATED READING: CHAPTER 12 6

LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS DEFINE MOTIVATION? 2. WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPACT OF GENETICS VS. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON OBESITY? 3. WHAT ARE THREE ATTACHMENT STYLES? 4. HOW DO HORMONES INFLUENCE SEXUAL RESPONSE? 5. WHAT EVIDENCE IS THERE THAT WOMEN AND MEN DIFFER IN THEIR SEX DRIVES? 6. WHAT ARE SIX MOTIVES FOR HAVING SEX? 7. WHAT IS A SEXUAL SCRIPT? 8. WHAT ARE THREE CONDITIONS THAT ALLOW GOAL-SETTING TO IMPROVE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE? 9. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN APPROACH GOALS AND AVOIDANCE GOALS? 10.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERFORMANCE GOALS AND MASTERY GOALS? 11.WHAT ARE THREE KINDS OF COMMON MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS? 1-7

DEFINING MOTIVATION • MOTIVATION – AN INFERRED PROCESS WITHIN A PERSON OR ANIMAL THAT CAUSES MOVEMENT EITHER TOWARD A GOAL OR AWAY FROM AN UNPLEASANT SITUATION Copyright © 2013 12 - 8

DEFINING MOTIVATION • MOTIVATION AND DRIVES – STUDY OF MOTIVATION DOMINATED BY FOCUS ON DRIVES: BIOLOGICAL URGES, SUCH AS THOSE TO ACQUIRE FOOD & WATER, TO HAVE SEX, TO SEEK NOVELTY, AND TO AVOID COLD AND PAIN – BUT MOTIVATION IS MORE THAN JUST BIOLOGICAL DRIVES Copyright © 2013 12 - 9

INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION • MOTIVATION TO REACH GOALS MAY VARY DEPENDING ON THE SOURCE: – INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE PURSUIT OF AN ACTIVITY FOR ITS OWN SAKE AND THE PLEASURE IT BRINGS – EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE PURSUIT OF AN ACTIVITY FOR EXTERNAL REWARDS, SUCH AS MONEY OR FAME Copyright © 2013 12 - 10

DOMAINS OF MOTIVATION 1. 2. 3. 4. TO EAT TO LOVE TO HAVE SEX TO ACHIEVE 1 - 11

MOTIVATION AND SEX 12

SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN CANADA • DUREX STUDY (2002) – CANADIAN CULTURE RELATIVELY SEXUALLY ACTIVE • AVERAGE NUMBER OF TIMES AN INDIVIDUAL HAS SEX IN CANADA IS 150/YEAR – HIGHEST - FRANCE (167), LOWEST - SINGAPORE (110) – CANADIANS HAVE SEX AT EARLIER AGES THAN TEENS IN OTHER COUNTRIES 12 - 13

NATIONAL COLLEGE HEALTH ASSESSMENT (2013) 1 - 14

MOTIVES FOR SEX • SEX IS INHERENTLY A SOCIAL ACT • FACTORS UNDERLYING HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: – BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND CULTURAL 12 - 15

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE • HORMONAL THEORY OF SEXUAL DESIRE – IN SEX, TIMING IS EVERYTHING • HORMONAL CYCLES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – ESTRUS (OVULATION) » INDICATES A TIME WHEN AN ANIMAL IS BIOLOGICALLY AND BEHAVIORALLY PREPARED TO MATE 12- 16

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE • SEXUAL RESPONSE (IN ANIMALS) – RATS – HIGHLY STEREOTYPED 12- 17

SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN THE FEMALE RAT • ESTRUS CYCLE – FEMALE EXPERIENCES A 15 HOUR PERIOD OF ESTRUS EVERY 4 DAYS • COINCIDES WITH OVULATION – REFERS TO TIME AT WHICH FEMALE IS MAXIMALLY RECEPTIVE FOR FERTILIZATION – FEMALE RATS REJECT MATING BEHAVIOUR OUTSIDE OF THE ESTRUS PERIOD 1 - 18

SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN THE FEMALE RAT • MATING PRACTISE – BEHAVIOURAL PROGRAM - HIGHLY STEREOTYPED – MALE APPROACHES A FEMALE AND NUZZLES HER SIDES/FLANK WITH HIS SNOUT •  REJECT  FEMALE BITES AND KICKS MALE –  ACCEPT … • 1) SMALL HOPS AWAY FROM MALE SUITOR • 2) LOOKS BACK + WIGGLES HER EARS • 3) ASSUMES RECEPTIVE POSITION – STANDS STILL, ARCHES BACK, AND MOVES HER TAIL TO THE SIDE THEREBY EXPOSING HER GENITALS • 4) MATING 1 - 19

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE • HORMONAL THEORY OF SEXUAL DESIRE – HIGHER TESTOSTERONE : MORE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR Copyright © 2013 12- 20

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE PRINCIPLES OF HORMONAL ACTION • GRADED RESPONSE – HORMONE IS SECRETED, BUT EFFECT IS NOT IMMEDIATE • PROBABILISTIC ACTION – INCREASES PROBABILITY OF A BEHAVIOR OCCURRING AS OPPOSED TO CAUSING IT • SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL CUES – BIOLOGY <-> BEHAVIOUR • MULTIPLICITY OF TARGETS – GIVEN HORMONE CAN ACT AT NUMEROUS RECEPTOR SITES IN BODY – TARGET TISSUE CAN ALSO RESPOND TO NUMEROUS HORMONES • BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS – LEVELS OF HORMONES FLUCTUATE IN CONCENTRATION ACCORDING TO CERTAIN RHYTHMS • INFRADIAN < CIRCADIAN < ULTRADIAN 12- 21

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE • HORMONAL THEORY OF SEXUAL DESIRE: LIMITATIONS – PROBABILISTIC AS OPPOSED TO CAUSAL EFFECT • BIDIRECTIONAL EFFECT – SEXUAL BEHAVIOR <-> TESTOSTERONE LEVEL – ELIMINATION OF T DOES NOT LEAD TO CESSATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • 3RD VARIABLE: AGE/STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT – PRIOR TO PUBERTY  NEVER DISPLAY MATING BEHAVIOR – ADULTHOOD  CONTINUE MATING BEHAVIOR, BUT AT A DECREASING RATE – REPLACEMENT THERAPY DOES NOT RESULT IN SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ALSO DEPENDS ON MANY OTHER FACTORS 12- 22

SEXUAL RESPONSE • SEX AS A PHYSIOLOGICAL EVENT – HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE • RESEARCH BY MASTERS AND JOHNSON AIMED TO BETTER UNDERSTAND AROUSAL AND ORGASM IN HUMAN SUBJECTS BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT AND OBSERVATION DURING SEX • RESULTED IN HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE CURVE 1 - 23

Image Credit: https://www.arhp.org/Publications-and-Resources/Clinical-Practice-Tools/Handbook-On-Female-Sexual-Health-AndWellness/Female-Sexual-Response SEXUAL RESPONSE 1 - 24

BIOLOGY OF DESIRE • STUDIES OF ORGASM HAVE INDICATED: – PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING SEXUAL AROUSAL AND ORGASM SIMILAR IN BOTH SEXES, BUT FEMALE SEXUAL CAPACITY GREATER DUE TO ABILITY TO HAVE MULTIPLE ORGASMS (MASTERS & JOHNSON) • AGE AND SEXUAL RESPONSE – GIVEN GOOD PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AND AVAILABILTY OF AN INTERESTED AND INTERESTING PARTNER - NO ABSOLUTE AGE WHEN SEXUAL ABILITIES DISAPPEARED • MEN LOSE THE ABILITY TO GAIN AN ERECTION FROM EROTIC VISUAL STIMULI BUT THEY CAN ACHIEVE ERECTION THROUGH DIRECT GENETIAL STIMULATION Copyright © 2013 12- 25

NORMAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR • A TAXONOMY OF HUMAN SEXUALITY (KINSEY REPORT) – DOCUMENTED THE RANGE AND VARIABILITY OF HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE US IN THE 1940S-1950S – N = 5300 MALES • MAJORITY BEING CAUCASIANS WITH SOME COLLEGE EDUCATION • REPORT: SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE HUMAN MALE (1948) – N = 5940 FEMALES • ALSO MAJORITY CAUCAUSIAN AND COLLEGE EDUCATED • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE HUMAN FEMALE (1953) Copyright © 2013 12- 26

KINSEY REPORT: BISEXUALITY • MALES: – KINSEY ESTIMATED THAT NEARLY 46% OF THE MALE POPULATION HAD ENGAGED IN BOTH HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL ACTIVITIES, OR "REACTED TO" PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES, IN THE COURSE OF THEIR ADULT LIVES (P. 656, MALE). 11.6% OF WHITE MALES (AGES 20-35) WERE GIVEN A RATING OF 3 (ABOUT EQUAL HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE/RESPONSE) ON THE 7-POINT KINSEY HETEROSEXUAL-HOMOSEXUAL RATING SCALE FOR THIS PERIOD OF THEIR LIVES (TABLE 147, P. 651, MALE). • FEMALES: – KINSEY FOUND ONLY A VERY SMALL PORTION OF FEMALES WITH EXCLUSIVELY HOMOSEXUAL HISTORIES. HE REPORTED THAT BETWEEN 6 AND 14% OF FEMALES (AGES 20-35) HAD MORE THAN INCIDENTAL HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE IN THEIR HISTORIES. (P. 488, FEMALE). 7% OF SINGLE FEMALES (AGES 20-35) AND 4% OF PREVIOUSLY MARRIED FEMALES (AGES 20-35) WERE GIVEN A RATING OF 3 (ABOUT EQUAL HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE/RESPONSE) ON THE 7-POINT KINSEY HETEROSEXUAL-HOMOSEXUAL RATING SCALE FOR THIS PERIOD OF THEIR LIVES.(TABLE 142, P. 499, FEMALE). 1 - 27

KINSEY REPORT: EXTRAMARITAL SEX • INCIDENCE – – • • NUMBER OF EXTRAMARITAL PARTNERS MALES: – – – – – • • MALES: KINSEY ESTIMATED THAT APPROXIMATELY 50% OF ALL MARRIED MALES HAD SOME EXTRAMARITAL EXPERIENCE AT SOME TIME DURING THEIR MARRIED LIVES (P. 585, 587, MALE). FEMALES: AMONG THE SAMPLE, 26% OF FEMALES HAD HAD EXTRAMARITAL SEX BY THEIR FORTIES. BETWEEN 1 IN 6 AND 1 IN 10 FEMALES FROM AGE 26 TO 50 WERE ENGAGED IN EXTRAMARITAL SEX, (P. 416, FEMALE). NUMBER OF EXTRAMARITAL SEXUAL PARTNERS, NOT COUNTING PROSTITUTES, DURING FIRST MARRIAGE: 71.6% REPORTED NONE 16.7% REPORTED 1-3 PARTNERS 5.6% REPORTED 4-6 PARTNERS 5.9% REPORTED 7 OR MORE (TABLE 351, P. 400, KINSEY DATA, COLLEGE SAMPLE) FEMALES: – – – – – NUMBER OF EXTRAMARITAL SEXUAL PARTNERS, NOT COUNTING PROSTITUTES, DURING FIRST MARRIAGE: 79% REPORTED NONE 15.7% REPORTED 1-3 PARTNERS 2.4% REPORTED 4-6 PARTNERS 2.7% REPORTED 7 OR MORE (TABLE 351, P. 400, KINSEY DATA, COLLEGE SAMPLE 1 - 28

KINSEY REPORT: ORGASM • SOURCES OF FIRST EJACULATION FOR MALES: – – – – – • SOURCES OF FIRST ORGASM FOR FEMALES: – – – – – – • 68.2% MASTURBATION 13.11% NOCTURNAL EMISSION 12.53% COITUS 4.33% HOMOSEXUAL CONTACT OTHER SOURCES, INCLUDING PREMARITAL PETTING (P. 190, MALE) 40% MASTURBATION 27% COITUS 24% PREMARITAL PETTING (NOT FOUND IN CHART) 5% NOCTURNAL DREAMS 3% HOMOSEXUAL 1% OTHER SOURCES (P. 545, FEMALE) 10% OF ALL FEMALES IN THE SAMPLE HAD NEVER REACHED ORGASM IN THEIR MARITAL COITUS, (FOOTNOTE, TABLE 113, P. 408, FEMALE). 39-47% OF FEMALES REPORTED REACHING ORGASM IN NEARLY ALL OF THEIR MARITAL COITUS, (TABLE 112, P. 408, FEMALE). ABOUT 50% OF FEMALES HAD EXPERIENCED ORGASM BY AGE 20; ABOUT 90% BY AGE 35. (P. 513, FEMALE) 1 - 29

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DESIRE • PSYCHOLOGICAL SET CHANGES INTERPRETATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – EXAMPLE: ANOTHER‟S HAND PLACED ON YOUR LAP • HAND OF YOUR PARTNER  INTIMACY AND POSITIVE AFFECT • HAND OF A STRANGER  REVULSION • PSYCHOLOGICAL SET – TYPE OF RELATIONSHIP, PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND EXPECTATIONS CHANGE OUR INTERPRETATION OF THE SAME BEHAVIOR 12 - 30

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DESIRE • VARIETY OF MOTIVATIONS FOR SEX – WHAT ARE 5 REASONS WHY PEOPLE CHOOSE TO HAVE SEX? • SIX COMMON PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES FOR SEX: – PLEASURE, INTIMACY, INSECURITY, PARTNER APPROVAL, PEER APPROVAL, ATTAINING A GOAL Copyright © 2013 12 - 31

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DESIRE FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION FOR SEX • GENDER – BOTH SEXES EQUALLY REPORT INTIMACY AS A PRIMARY MOTIVATOR FOR SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – MEN MORE COMMONLY REPORT MORE MOTIVES FOR SEX THAN WOMEN • AGE – MORE COMMONLY REPORT HAVING SEX FOR PERSONAL REASONS (INCREASE INTIMACY, FOR PLEASURE) THAN FOR PEER/PARTNER-APPROVAL • EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION – BEHAVIOUR UNDERTAKEN FOR REWARD OUTSIDE OF THE ACT ITSELF – MORE OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND CONSENTING TO UNWANTED SEX 12 - 32

ACTIVITY: DEFINING ‘NORMAL’ SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR • FIRST COMPLETE THE QUESTIONNAIRE INDEPENDENTLY THEN TRY AND THEN TRY AND REACH CONSENSUS OF NORMAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR ACROSS THE ITEMS WITHIN YOUR GROUPS 1 - 33

SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR QUESTIONNAIRE (KITE, 1990) INSTRUCTIONS: PLEASE RATE WHETHER OR NOT EACH OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES REPRESENTS NORMAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR BY PLACING EITHER A Y (YES) OR N (NO) IN THE BLANK. _______ 1. WATCHING PORNOGRAPHIC VIDEOS SEVERAL TIMES A WEEK. _______ 2. HAVING SEX WITH MORE THAN ONE PERSON AT THE SAME TIME. _______ 3. PREFERRING ORAL SEX OVER INTERCOURSE. _______ 4. HAVING INTERCOURSE WITH A MEMBER OF THE SAME SEX. _______ 5. FANTASIZING ABOUT HAVING SEX WITH A MEMBER OF THE SAME SEX. _______ 6. FANTASIZING ABOUT A PERSON OTHER THAN ONE‟S PARTNER DURING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. _______ 7. MASTURBATING IN FRONT OF A PARTNER. _______ 8. HAVING SEX SOMEWHERE OTHER THAN A BED (E.G., FLOOR, SHOWER, KITCHEN, OUTDOORS). _______ 9. NEVER ENGAGING IN MASTURBATION. _______ 10. BECOMING EXCITED BY EXPOSING ONESELF IN PUBLIC. _______ 11. BEING CELIBATE. _______ 12. BEING UNABLE TO ACHIEVE ORGASM. _______ 13. ENJOYING BEING PHYSICALLY RESTRAINED DURING SEX (E.G., BONDAGE). _______ 14. BECOMING AROUSED BY VOYEURISM (E.G., PEEPING TOMS). _______ 15. PLAYING WITH FOOD (E.G., FRUIT AND WHIPPED CREAM) DURING SEX. _______ 16. DRESSING IN THE CLOTHING OF THE OTHER SEX. _______ 17. PREFERRING THAT ONE‟S PARTNER INITIATES SEX. _______ 18. INFLICTING PAIN DURING SEX. _______ 19. RECEIVING PAIN DURING SEX. _______ 20. USING SEX TOYS (E.G., A VIBRATOR) DURING SEX. _______ 21. HAVING RAPE FANTASIES. _______ 22. MASTURBATING AFTER MARRIAGE. _______ 23. NOT BEING AROUSED BY A NUDE MEMBER OF THE OTHER SEX. _______ 24. BEING AROUSED BY RECEIVING AN OBSCENE PHONE CALL. _______ 25. BEING AROUSED BY MAKING AN OBSCENE PHONE CALL.34 1-

DISCUSSION 1. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BETWEEN GROUPS? DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES 2. WERE THERE DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCES IN ARRIVING AT A GROUP CONSENSUS? 3. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF PERSONAL CHOICES IN AFFECTING ONE'S DEFINITION? 4. HOW STRONGLY DO SOCIAL NORMS PLAY A ROLE IN DECIDING ON DEFINITIONS? 5. ARE THERE GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE DEFINITIONS? 1 - 35

THE CULTURE OF DESIRE • CULTURES TRANSMIT RULES & REGULATIONS ABOUT SEX TO MEMBERS BY: – GENDER ROLES • COLLECTIONS OF RULES THAT DETERMINE THE PROPER ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR FOR MEN AND WOMEN – SEXUAL SCRIPTS • SET OF IMPLICIT RULES THAT SPECIFY PROPER SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR FOR A PERSON IN A GIVEN SITUATION, VARYING WITH THE PERSON‟S GENDER, AGE, RELIGION, SOCIAL STATUS, AND PEER GROUP Copyright © 2013 12 - 36

SEXUAL SCRIPTS SEXUAL SCRIPTS IN PRIMETIME NETWORK TELEVISION (KIM ET AL., 2007) • FOUND THEMATIC DIFFERENCES IN HOW MEN/WOMEN THINK, FEEL, AND BEHAVE IN ROMANTIC AND SEXUAL ENCOUNTERS • SCRIPTS FOR MEN/BOYS – SEX AS MASCULINITY – (LACK 0F) MASCULINE COMMITMENT • SCRIPTS FOR GIRLS/WOMEN – GOOD GIRLS – FEMININE COMMITMENT 1 - 37

Diagram credit: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17599272 1 - 38

MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE 39

MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE • MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE IS GOAL-DIRECTED: – APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE GOALS • DESIRE TO SUCCEED : AVOID FAILURE 1 - 40

TYPES OF GOALS • APPROACH GOALS – GOALS FRAMED IN TERMS OF DESIRED OUTCOMES OR EXPERIENCES • SUCH AS LEARNING TO SCUBA DIVE TO EXPLORE UNDERWATER CAVES AND SEALIFE • AVOIDANCE GOALS – GOALS FRAMED IN TERMS OF AVOIDING UNPLEASANT EXPERIENCES, SUCH AS TRYING NOT TO LOOK FOOLISH IN PUBLIC • LEARNING TO SCUBA DIVE FROM A CERTIFIED COURSE TO AVOID THE BENDS 12 - 41

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION PARENTING STYLE DESIRE FOR SUCCESS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION COGNITIVE FACTORS 1 - 42 FEAR OF FAILURE

ENCOUNTERING ADVERSITY • COGNITIVE FACTOR WILL AFFECT HOW PERSON DEALS WITH FAILURE • COGNITIVE FACTORS – MASTERY ORIENTATION • CONCERNED WITH INCREASING THEIR COMPETENCE AND SKILLS AND FINDING INTRINSIC PLEASURE IN WHAT THEY ARE LEARNING • FAILURE  INCREASED EFFORT • TENDENCY TO FRAME FAILURE IN TERMS OF LESSONS LEARNED – PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION • CONCERNED PRIMARILY WITH BEING JUDGED FAVOURABLY AND AVOIDING CRITICISM • FAILURE  DECREASED EFFORT • TENDENCY TO SEEK OUT ALTERNATIVE EXPERIENCE 12 - 43

ENCOUNTERING ADVERSITY MUELLER & DWECK, 1998 • N = 128 CHILDREN (AVERAGE AGE: 10.4) • TASK - SOLVE A SERIES OF PUZZLE PROBLEMS • VARIABLES • IV: TYPE OF PRAISE GIVEN • • • INTELLIGENCE-APPRAISAL („BEING SMART‟) EFFORT-APPRAISAL („WORKING HARD‟) DV: CHILD‟S REPORTED GOAL FOR COMPLETING TASK • • MOTIVATED FOR PERFORMANCE MOTIVATED FOR MASTERY (LEARNING) • 12 - 44

ENCOUNTERING ADVERSITY MUELLER & DWECK, 1998 • TASK - SOLVE A SERIES OF MATH PROBLEMS • RESULTS • CHILDREN WHO CHOSE PERFORMANCE GOALS • DECREASED EFFORT/PERFORMANCE ON SUBSEQUENT PUZZLES • • • REPORTED LESS ENJOYMENT ARISING FROM THE TASK MORE LIKELY TO ATTRIBUTE POOR PERFORMANCE TO LOWER ABILITY (AS OPPOSED TO LOWER EFFORT) CHILDREN WHO CHOSE MASTERY GOALS • MORE LIKELY TO SUSTAIN EFFORT AND CONTINUE SOLVING DIFFICULT PUZZLES FOLLOWING „FAILURE‟ (DECREASED-PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL) • MORE LIKELY TO FOCUS ON PROCESS OF LEARNING AS OPPOSED TO FOCUSING ON THE RESULT OF LEARNING 12 - 45

EXPECTATIONS AND SELF-EFFICACY • SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY – EXPECTATIONS CAUSE YOU TO BEHAVE IN WAYS TO MAKE THE EXPECTATION COME TRUE • INFLUENCES LEVEL OF EFFORT DEVOTED TO A TASK • SELF-EFFICACY – LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE IN BEING ABLE TO SUCCEED • INFLUENCES ABILITY TO COPE WITH PROBLEMS Copyright © 2013 12 - 46

Image credit: http://psychologyforpoliceofficers.weebly.com/uploads/1/6/2/8/16288220/4142680.gif?278 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 12 - 47

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • MASLOW PROPOSED THAT PEOPLE‟S MOTIVES FORMED A PYRAMID CALLED A HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THAT REFLECTED THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT MOTIVES – – – – – NEED FOR SELF-ACTUALIZATION (TOP LEVEL) ESTEEM NEEDS: SELF- AND OTHER -RESPECT SOCIAL NEEDS: BELONGING, AFFECTION SECURITY NEEDS: SHELTER, SAFETY SURVIVAL NEEDS: FOOD, SLEEP, WATER (BOTTOM LEVEL) Copyright © 2013 12 - 48

UNIVERSAL PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS SHELDON, ELLIOT, KIM, & KASSER (2001) • TOP FOUR PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AMONG STUDENTS WERE FOUND TO BE: – AUTONOMY: FEELING THAT YOU ARE MAKING CHOICES BASED ON TRUE INTERESTS AND VALUES – COMPETENCE: FEELING ABLE TO MASTER CHALLENGES – RELATEDNESS: REELING CLOSE TO OTHERS WHO ARE IMPORTANT TO YOU – SELF-ESTEEM: HAVING SELF-RESPECT Copyright © 2013 12- 49

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: SELFENHANCEMENT • SEEK ACTIVITIES THAT ARE INTRINSICALLY PLEASURABLE • FOCUS ON LEARNING GOALS, NOT ONLY ON PERFORMANCE GOALS • ASSESS YOUR WORKING CONDITIONS • TAKE STEPS TO RESOLVE MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICTS Copyright © 2013 12- 50

ASSOCIATED READING CHAPTER 13 DEVELOPMENT 1 - 51

LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. WHAT ARE SIX HARMFUL INFLUENCES THAT CAN DISRUPT THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMBRYO OR FOETUS? 2. WHAT ARE THREE FORMS OF ATTACHMENT THAT CAN DEVELOP BETWEEN A CHILD AND A CAREGIVER? HOW IS THE STRANGE SITUATION USED TO REVEAL THESE ATTACHMENT STYLES? 3. WHAT EVIDENCE IS THERE FOR OR AGAINST THE IDEA THAT THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF LIFE ARE CRITICAL FOR SHAPING LATER DEVELOPMENT? 4. HOW DOES LANGUAGE DEVELOP BETWEEN 6 MONTHS AND 6 YEARS OF AGE? 5. WHAT ARE THE FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, ACCORDING TO PIAGET? 6. WHAT IS OBJECT PERMANENCE AND WHAT DOES A LACK OF IT REVEAL ABOUT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT? 7. WHAT ARE TWO DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN‟S THINKING DURING THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT? 8. WHAT ARE FIVE MAJOR CHALLENGES TO PIAGET‟S VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT? 9. WHAT ARE FOUR PROBLEMS WITH STAGE THEORIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT? 10. WHAT IS THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN AUTHORITATIVE AND AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING STYLES, AND HOW ARE THESE STYLES RELATED TO POWER ASSERTION AND INDUCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL BEHAVIOUR? 11. WHAT DO GENDER TYPING, GENDER IDENTITY, AND GENDER SCHEMAS REFER TO? 12. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES THAT GIRLS AND BOYS UNDERGO DURING ADOLESCENCE? 13. WHAT ARE THE EIGHT STAGES OR CRISES OF DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFESPAN THAT WERE PROPOSED BY ERIK ERIKSON? 14. WHAT KINDS OF INTELLECTUAL CHANGES TAKE PLACE AS PEOPLE REACH ADULTHOOD 1 - 52

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY – THE STUDY OF HOW PEOPLE CHANGE AND GROW OVER TIME, PHYSICALLY, MENTALLY, AND SOCIALLY • SOCIALIZATION – THE PROCESS BY WHICH CHILDREN LEARN THE RULES AND BEHAVIOUR EXPECTED OF THEM BY SOCIETY Copyright © 2013 13 - 53

CONCEPTION TO FIRST YEAR • MATURATION – THE SEQUENTIAL UNFOLDING OF GENETICALLY INFLUENCED BEHAVIOUR & PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS • STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT: 1. GERMINAL: BEGINS AT CONCEPTION, SPERM UNITES WITH EGG (FERTILIZED CELL CALLED ZYGOTE) 2. EMBRYONIC: BEGINS ONCE IMPLANTATION OF EMBRYO HAS OCCURRED UNTIL 8 WEEKS AFTER CONCEPTION 3. FETAL: BEGINS AT 8 WEEKS UNTIL BIRTH, FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANS & SYSTEMS IN FETUS Copyright © 2013 13 - 54

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • • TERATOGENS: – HARMFUL INFLUENCES THAT CAN CROSS THE PLACENTAL BARRIER: EXAMPLES 1. GERMAN MEASLES (RUBELLA) 2. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO X-RAYS OR OTHER RADIATION & TOXIC SUBSTANCES SUCH AS LEAD 3. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 4. CIGARETTE SMOKING 5. REGULAR CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL  FETAL ALCHOL SYNDROME 6. DRUGS OTHER THAN ALCOHOL Copyright © 2013 13 - 55

Image credit: http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/fetal-alcohol-syndrome FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME • BIRTH DEFECT CAUSED BY MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY • ASSOCIATED WITH: – – – – – LOW BIRTH WEIGHT A SMALLER BRAIN FACIAL DEFORMITIES LACK OF COORDINATION, AND MENTAL RETARDATION. 1 - 56

THE INFANT’S WORLD 1 - 57

THE INFANT’S WORLD • MANY INFANT PHYSICAL & PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES ARE PRESENT AT BIRTH – MOTOR REFLEXES: AUTOMATIC BEHAVIOURS THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SURVIVAL (SEE TABLE 14.1) – PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES FOR SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE • NEWBORN‟S VISUAL RANGE OF FOCUS REFLECTS ABOUT THE DISTANCE BETWEEN FACES OF INFANT & CAREGIVER (~20 CM) • CAN DISCRIMINATE PRIMARY CAREGIVER FROM OTHERS VERY EARLY BY SIGHT, SMELL, SOUND Copyright © 2013 13 - 58

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS THINKING LIKE A BABY 1 - 59

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • ONE MILESTONE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • BEGINS IN THE FIRST FEW MONTHS (RESPONSIVE TO PITCH, INTENSITY, SOUND) – PARENTESE: ADULT USE OF BABY TALK, PITCH IS HIGHER AND MORE VARIED THAN USUAL, EXAGGERATED INTONATION, EMPHASIS ON VOWELS • OVER TIME, PERCEPTION OF PHONEMES IN NONNATIVE LANGUAGES DIMINISHES Copyright © 2013 13 - 60

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • MILESTONES: – – – – 6 MOS – 1 YEAR: BABBLING (BA-BA) 10 MOS : RECOGNIZE SAME WORD SPOKEN BY DIFFERENT PEOPLE 12 MOS : BEGIN TO NAME THINGS AND GESTURE 18 MOS – 2 YRS: TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH – 2 – 3 WORD COMBINATIONS – – 2 YRS: LEARN SYNTAX 6 YRS: VOCABULARY OF 8000 - 14,000 WORDS Copyright © 2013 13 - 61

Image credit: http://biogrph.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/71c1.jpg JEAN PIAGET • 1896-1980 • CHILDREN = „LITTLE SCIENTISTS‟ – “CHILDREN ARE ACTIVE THINKERS, CONSTANTLY TRYING TO CONSTRUCT MORE ADVANCED UNDERSTANDINGS OF THE WORLD” 1 - 62

END OF LECTURE 1 - 63

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