nypss nsta nov 2003

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Information about nypss nsta nov 2003

Published on June 26, 2007

Author: BAWare

Source: authorstream.com

Not Your Parents’ Solar System!:  Not Your Parents’ Solar System! Frank Summers Space Telescope Science Institute NSTA Institute Symposium November 15, 2003 How I learned the solar system:  How I learned the solar system Sun andamp; 9 planets Separate section on each Mention asteroids and comets Lots of cool facts Slide3:  What’s wrong?:  What’s wrong? Memorization Factoids Highlights differences Little or no relevance Little or no 'big picture' An Improvement:  An Improvement Compare and contrast Discuss broad ideas Apply to planets, moons, etc., as a group Highlight similarities Appearance Characteristics Events Slide6:  Slide7:  Slide8:  Slide9:  Other comparisons:  Other comparisons Craters – Earth, Moon, Mercury, etc Volcanoes – Mount St. Helens, Olympus Mons, Io, etc Canyons – Grand Canyon, Mariner Valley Storms, Winds, Seasons, Weather, Ice Floes, Magnetic Fields, Moons, Rings, etc Compare and Contrast:  Compare and Contrast Messages What happens on Earth happens elsewhere Solar system is understandable Problems Need to establish facts before comparison Big picture still lacking 21st Century View:  21st Century View Six families of the solar system Star Rocky planets Asteroid belt Gas giant planets Kuiper belt Oort cloud Slide13:  Slide14:  Slide15:  Slide16:  Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt Slide17:  Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt Thousands of asteroids … about a million miles apart! Slide18:  Slide19:  Slide20:  Kuiper Belt Slide21:  Oort Cloud ? Billions of icy minor planets – comet nuclei Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU Predicted by Jan Oort Explains long-period comets No observations Families of the Solar System:  Families of the Solar System Classes of similar objects Size Composition Orbit size Orbit shape Orbit inclination Moons Rings Families of the Solar System:  Families of the Solar System Classification Structure of the solar system Similar objects lie in similar regions Clues to solar system formation and evolution Slide24:  Slide25:  Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Gas Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud Slide26:  Sun Oort Cloud Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroid Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Kuiper Belt Slide27:  Some Others Cheer May View Elaborate Mnemonics As Boring, Just Some Useless Nonsensical Knowledge, But What about Pluto?:  What about Pluto? Not a rocky planet Not a gas giant planet For teachers, it is an opportunity Planet Pluto:  Planet Pluto 1930 Tombaugh discovers Pluto Double Take: Charon:  Double Take: Charon 1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to refine Pluto’s orbit Notices elongated images, deduces moon 1985 – Charon occults Pluto, confirms existence Refined sizes and masses – tiny First Pictures of Pluto/Charon:  First Pictures of Pluto/Charon 1995 – Hubble Space Telescope infrared 1996 – Hubble Space Telescope visible First Pictures of Pluto:  First Pictures of Pluto Slide33:  Black Sheep of the Planets:  Black Sheep of the Planets Pluto is the oddball Size Companion Composition Orbit 3:2 resonance with Neptune Pluto/Charon as double ice planet? Kuiper Belt:  Kuiper Belt History 1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans-Plutonian objects 1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates objects beyond Pluto 1951 – Gerard Kuiper predicts that a massive Pluto would disperse small objects into a belt 1980 – Fernandez predicts belt that resembles what was eventually found KBOs:  KBOs 1992 – Jewitt andamp; Luu find object dubbed QB1 Distance of 42 AU First (third?) object discovered in the Kuiper Belt More and more KBOs:  More and more KBOs Large searches for KBOs ensued Hundreds discovered within a decade Over 600 so far (Nov 2003) Over 70,000 predicted with diameters andgt; 100 km, orbits 30-50 AU Plutinos – Neptune resonance Scattered – Neptune affects orbit Classsical – Separated from Neptune Slide38:  Slide39:  Slide40:  Slide41:  Pluto/Charon orbits within Kuiper Belt Large KBOs:  Large KBOs Pluto still larger, but not by that much Note: plot below doesn’t include Quaoar Slide43:  Binary KBOs:  Binary KBOs Pluto/Charon not the only binary object Nine discovered so far (Nov 2003) All types of KBOs have binaries Slide45:  What is Pluto?:  What is Pluto? You make the call Singular ice planet Mutant giant double comet King of the Kuiper Belt ??? Kuiper Belt Expert’s View:  Kuiper Belt Expert’s View 'So, bluntly put, one has two choices. One can either regard Pluto as the smallest, most peculiar planet moving on the most eccentric and most inclined orbit of any of the planets or one can accept that Pluto is the largest known, but otherwise completely typical, Kuiper Belt Object. The choice you make is up to you, but from the point of view of trying to understand the origin and significance of Pluto it clearly makes sense to take the second option.' Dave Jewitt, University of Hawaii IAU Official Position:  IAU Official Position IAU defines Pluto to be a planet IAU cannot define 'planet' Upper limit: not massive enough to produce any form of fusion at its core Deuterium fusion occurs for objects about 15 times Jupiter’s mass No lower limit specified Reasonable lower limit? Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical At least 13 planets No reasonable definition produces 9 planets What is a Planet?:  What is a Planet? Solar system alone is category of one What about other solar systems? Slide50:  Slide51:  Slide52:  Beta Pictoris Slide53:  Slide54:  Slide55:  Disks around Other Stars:  Disks around Other Stars Lots of them Proplyds – proto-planetary disks Kuiper Belt sized and larger Some substructure seen Planets around Other Stars:  Planets around Other Stars Cannot see directly (yet) Detect via gravitational pull on star Wobble Periodic shift of spectral lines Monitor for many years (several orbits) Large gas giant planets detectable Planets around Other Stars:  Planets around Other Stars Current count (Nov 2003) 102 planetary systems 117 planets 13 multiple planet systems At least 15% of sun-like stars have planets Slide59:  Slide60:  Planets around Other Stars:  Planets around Other Stars Jupiter mass planets in Mercury orbits Elliptical orbits Multiple Jupiter sized planets Saturn mass planets detected (2003) Planets around pulsars Perspective on the Solar System:  Perspective on the Solar System Our solar system is the oddball Need to generalize our formation and evolution scenarios Implications for life in the universe Lots of planets Stability of orbits? New era of solar system study

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