Nutrition of racing sled dogs Part 3

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Information about Nutrition of racing sled dogs Part 3

Published on October 20, 2008

Author: dominiquegrandjean


Slide 1: Prof. Dominique GRANDJEAN K9 Breeding and Sport Medicine National Veterinary School of Alfort Tom Cooley ISDVMA Memorial Award Pride Lifetime Achievement Award NUTRITION A keyword to performance and prevention in the racing sled dog Part 3 Slide 2: NUTRITION OF RACING SLED DOGS 1/ Historical approach 2/ Energy : from quantity to quality 3/ A mandatory protein/energy ratio 4/ Oxidative stress : a key concept 5/ Nutrition as a prevention tool 6/ Practical feeding 7/ The key points of sled dog nutrition Slide 3: Prevention : a key for sucess Slide 4: Optimisation of performance Prevention/Treatment of specific problems Nutrition Traumatology Stress related affections Loss of performance Fast rehabilitation Sled dogs Genetics Behaviour Training Keys to performance Sled dogs Slide 5: (100 p.cent = all racing dogs) 1. Diarrhea 2. Feet 3. Shoulders 4. Wrists 5. General fatigue 6. Muscles 7. Dehydration 8. Tendons 9. Stress fractures 10. Hips 11. Cardiorespiratory 12. Elbows 13. Ligaments 14. Non specific soreness 15. Cutaneous wounds 16. Frostbites 19.3 p.cent 10 p.cent 9.7 p.cent 8.0 p.cent 7.8 p.cent 6.4 p.cent 6.1 p.cent 4.6 p.cent 3.5 p.cent 2.1 p.cent 2.0 p.cent 1.1 p.cent 1.1 p.cent 0.7 p.cent 0.4 p.cent 0.1 p.cent Repartition of pathological problems during the Alpirod sled dog race Slide 6: Main pathological problems Stage race : La Grande Odyssée 2005-2007 Stress induced digestive tract disorders : Loose stools Stress diarrheoa Vomiting Digestive tract stress Stress induced digestive tract disorders Slide 8: Stress related dysfunctions Overtraining + Hostile environment + - « Doping » Gastric ulcers Bloody vomit Stomach rupture/Death REST + MEDICAL TREATMENT Gastric ulcerations Slide 9:  STRESS FACTORS  DRUG ABUSE - Overtraining - Overracing - Traumas - Sepsis - Restraint 1. ORIGINS - NSAIDs Gastric ulcerations Slide 10: - Dramatic cases are rare - Unexplained vomiting - Blood in the vomitus - Sudden death 2. CLINICAL APPROACH Gastric ulcerations Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs : Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs Studies conducted during Iditarod 2000 and 2001 [Davis, Oklahoma State University] Prevalence of gastric ulceration, erosion, hemorrage or dropped dogs 35 p100 in 2000 48.5 p100 in 2001 Study on the relation between durantion of exercise and gastric diseases [Davis, Oklahoma State University] 42 dogs randomly chosen for examination after 1 to 5 consecutive days of running 100 miles/days Endurance exercise increases intestinal protein loss Substancial exercise causes gastric alterations Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs : Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs Study conducted on beagles [Bersenas, Ontario Veterinary College] Ranitidine [Zantac] Fanotidine [Pepcid] Pantoprazole [Protonox] Omeprazole [Mopral] Study on Racing alaskan huskies [Wialliamson, Oklahoma Sate University]] Famotidine [Pepcid] is effective in reducing the severity of exercise-induced gastric diseases  22 mg/dog/peros/24 hours Slide 13:  Stool frequency, volume, consistency, color highly variable  Extracellular dehydration (electrolytes losses)  Cachexia (nutrient losses)  Anorexia  ± vomiting, ± hyperthermia  ± tenesmus  ± melana and/or hematochezia THE DIARRHEA-DEHYDRATION-STRESS SYNDROM Slide 14: EXERCISE BLOOD FLOW  MUSCLES  DIGESTIVE TRACT DIGESTIVE MUCOSA DAMAGES SLOWED MUCUS TURN OVER DECREASE IN WATER REABSORPTION EROSION OF INTESTINAL BLOOD VESSELS OSMOTIC DIARRHEA ± FRESH BLOOD SECONDARY ISCHEMIC COLITIS EXERCISE ENTERAL ISCHEMIA Slide 15:  “CAECAL SLAP SYNDROM”  “RUNNER’S TROT”  INDUCED EXTRACELLULAR DEHYDRATION - Microtraumas of the mucosa - Too much iron in the diet - Uncontrolled spasmodic contractions of colonic muscles - Soreness, tenesmus and bloody diarrhea OTHER FACTORS INVOLVED IN “STRESS“ DIARRHEA Slide 16: Number of participations 1 2 or more 1993 2.00 0.75 1994 4.74 2.48 1995 3.50 1.35 Cases of diarrhea per team INFLUENCE OF THE FIRST PARTICIPATION TO ALPIROD ON STRESS DIARRHEA Slide 17: ORIGIN Central Europe Scandinavia North America 1993 0.79 3.33 1.33 1994 2.88 4.77 3.44 1995 1.25 3.12 2.75 Cases of diarrhea per team INFLUENCE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE DOG TEAM ON THE INCIDENCE OF STRESS DIARRHEA Slide 18: ► Acute osmotic diarrhea ► Non digested blood ► Fast induced extra cellular dehydration ► Possible death in 48 hours Symptoms Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Slide 19: Anorexia W O C Stress Diarrhea Extracellular Dehydration Vicious circle Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Slide 20: Quantity of food Concentrate Divide into several meals Quality of food Digestibility Ileal digestibility (ingredients) Total digestibility (final product) the difference between what comes in and what goes out Nutritional prevention of stress diarrhea Slide 21: Indigestible protein in ingredients Nutritional prevention of stress diarrhea Slide 22: Digestibility Slide 23: Nutritional prevention of stress diarrhea Slide 24: surface of exchange corresponding to 1 g of zeolite : hundreds of m2/g A great surface of exchange Very high porosity absorption of excess water in the intestine (up to 50 % of its own volume) Clays : properties of Zeolite and Smectite Slide 25: Mannan-Oligo-Saccharides (MOS) Non fermentable fibres Double action at the intestinal level: Lure effect / pathogenous bacteria 2) « Booster » effect upon local immunity: increased production of IgA(O ’Carra 1996, 1997) Slide 26: = Barrier effect Effect of 1g FOS /day upon bifidus in Man nutrition Douglass Brown, 1996 FOS : regulation effect upon bacterial flora Slide 27: Soluble fibres forming a viscous gel with the water contained in the intestinal tract. Can retain 10 times their water volume Slow down gastric emptying. Reduction of post-prandial glycaemia peak Increase viscosity of faeces and facilitate their elimination Psyllium is suggested in case of constipation in Man Mucilages : Psyllium EPA-DHA : Limiting step EPA-DHA Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) Eicosapentanoic acid = EPA (C20:5) Docosahexanoic acid= DHA (C22:6) PG3 Tx3 Lt5 Cyclooxygenase Lipoxygenase Anti-inflammatory Anti-aggregatory Vasodilatation Linoleic acid (C18:2) Gamma linolenic acid (C18:3) Arachidonic acid (C20:4) PG2 Tx2 Lt4 Pro-inflammatory Pro-aggregatory Vasoconstriction Vegetable oil Borage oil Animal tissues Flax oil Fish oil Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs The effects of pain during the run/work usually go unnoticed [will to go, endorphines…] Altered movement Multiple painfull spots Vicious circle Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs 1. Muscles and tendons No lesion Lesion Cramping Contracture Strechteched fibers Rupture Hematoma Rhabdomyolysis Correct hydratation antioxydant nutrients : Correct hydratation antioxydant nutrients Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Stress fractures 2. Bones and fractures Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs Tendinitis, bursitis Sprains, dislocations Calcium balance : Calcium balance Neither too much nor too little : avoiding excess and deficiency… 250 to 600 mg/kg/day Reinforcing the integrity of cartilage : GAGs : Reinforcing the integrity of cartilage : GAGs Chondroitin degeneration of cartilage Glucosamine proteoglycane synthesis Slide 35: Stress Fracture Slide 36: Interdigital Inflammation Grade 1 Slide 37: Interdigital Dermatits- Genetic Prevention Studies on sweat production Slide 38: Scratched pad Slide 39: Casein GAGS 20 g/dog/day 500 mg/dog/day Slide 40: Overheating Stress related dysfunctions RADIATION (60%) CONVECTION (3 à 12 %) Chemical Energy 100 Mecanical Energy 25 Heat Accumulation 75 Heat transfers during stamina VAPORISATION (28 to 37%) Slide 41: TRAINING VO2 max   Lactates Tolerance Muscle Power Anaerobic Lactic Power Movement balance Work as a game Red cell count   Oxidative stress   GOALS ENDURANCE RESISTANCE STRENGHT SPEED PROPRIOCEPTION MOTIVATION OXYGEN TRANSPORT STRESS NUTRITION Fueling : fat… LDH : Zn ; Vitamins B… Solid bones and tendons : Prot, Ca, P… Fueling : glycogen, Vit B… Quality of joints : gags, omega3, oe… Neuromediators : amino-acids Sports anemia: proteins Antioxidant nutrients

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