Nutrition of racing sled dogs Part 1

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Information about Nutrition of racing sled dogs Part 1
Science-Technology

Published on October 20, 2008

Author: dominiquegrandjean

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: Prof. Dominique GRANDJEAN K9 Breeding and Sport Medicine National Veterinary School of Alfort Tom Cooley ISDVMA Memorial Award Pride Lifetime Achievement Award NUTRITION A keyword to performance and prevention in the racing sled dog Part 1 Slide 2: Energy A balanced nutrition… Proteins Carbohydrates Minerals Vitamins Gizmos … … … … fed the right way : … fed the right way Slide 4: A good nutrition program must ... … provide an optimal quality of energy in adequate amounts … minimize the volume and weight of the intestinal bolus … help keep the animal properly hydrated … take into account the dog’s body shape … help maximize results of others ergogenic activities … minimize the volume and weight of the intestinal bolus … fill physiological gaps created by stress … be a true preventive factor for stamina related gastrointestinal problems Slide 5: NUTRITION OF RACING SLED DOGS 1/ Historical approach 2/ Energy : from quantity to quality 3/ A mandatory protein/energy ratio 4/ Oxidative stress : a key concept 5/ Nutrition as a prevention tool 6/ Practical feeding 7/ The key points of sled dog nutrition Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding Very old days… Polar expedition Seal « meat » Blubber Fish Local « meat » Pemmican Ponies Wormout finneskos Mitts Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding WATKINS, 1930 « Bovril » Dog Pemmican Argentinian Beef [2/3 Proteins, 1/3 Fat] Dry Matter Digestibility ≈ 70 p100 Urine « saturated in urea and indigoïd pigments » The ideal is to have the maximum utilizable energy with a minimum of weight and bulk in the digestive tract Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding TAYLOR, 1950 Complaints about Pemmican « Deterioration in the condition of the dogs with loss of weight » « Almost constant diarrhea » « Development of sore gums and palatal ulcers » « Dogs so fed became reinvigorated after being fed fresh seal » Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding TAYLOR, 1958 Bob Martin’s Ltd Food 50 p100 Fat, 25 p100 Proteins, 20p100 Carbohydrates Dog’s work output  winning « rowing eight » in the Olympics 1924 Galop is a waste of energy (alternates retardations and accelerations) Dog muscle energy efficiency ≈ 20p 100 Drop of 1° F  increase of 0,3 p100 of Energy Requirement Beef Meal …….……….. 70 p100 Beef Fat ………….….. 22 p100 Dried Brewer’s yeast … 4 p100 Bone Meal ……………... 4 p100 Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding WYATT, 1963 British Polar Antarctic Expeditions Compares 30 p 100 Proteins 40 p100 Fat 20 p100 Carbohydrates CHO diet induces body weight loss Daily energy requirement over 4000 kcal / day versus 66 p 100 Proteins 33 p100 Fat Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding : Brief History of sled dog nutrition feeding KRONFELD, 1973 Interest of high fat-low carbohydrates diet Long term impact of stress on Proteins requirements Interest of high level of vitamin E/C Slide 12: FOOD TAYLOR 1959 “Pemmican” WYATT 1963 “Pemmican” WYATT 1963 “Nutrican” ORR 1965 “Pemmican” ORR 1965 “Nutrican” KRONFELD 1973 “Seal Meat” WOLTER 1982 “Far North” SERGHERAERT 1995 “Alpicroc” PROT/DM 66 62 30 63 22 33 26 38 FAT / DM 28 29 40 29 40 66 50 40 CLIN. RESULT - - ++ - + + + +++ Slide 13: NUTRITION OF RACING SLED DOGS 1/ Historical approach 2/ Energy : from quantity to quality 3/ A mandatory protein/energy ratio 4/ Oxidative stress : a key concept 5/ Nutrition as a prevention tool 6/ Practical feeding 7/ The key points of sled dog nutrition Slide 14: Energy requirements of racing sled dogs : from quantity to quality Slide 15: DILL, 1932 « With external temperature low and oxygen supply adequate, and when fuel and water are supplied, the performance of a dog is virtually tireless » Energy source Triglycerides Glycogene Creatine – Phosphate ATP Man ≈ 2000 ≈ 150 0.35 0.07 Horse ≈ 4000 ≈ 100 0.35 0.07 Dog ≈ 7000 ≈ 60 0.35 0.07 [in kj/kgBw] (from Poortmans, Sheng 71, Statfeld 78, Costill 79, Issekutz 84) Slide 16: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? The daily requested amount in order to maintain an adequate bodyweight Slide 17: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? Sprint Races [4 to 25 km/heat ; 3 days] Mid distance Races [30 to 60km/heat ; 3 days] Stage Races [50 to 100 km/day ; 10 to 15 days] Long distance Races [100 to 200 km/day ; 2 to 4 days] Ultramarathon Races [150 to 240 km/day ; 8 to 12 days] Slide 18: Multiplying factor or the energy requirement vs maintenance Variable expense according to the distance and climate « a 23 kg racing dog on a long distance race (AK) consumes up to 11 000 kcal/d (x 8 / MER); to compare to a cyclist on the « Tour de France »: 8000 kcal /d » (Hinchkliff 1997) Grandjean 1991 Evolution of the energy requirement in endurance efforts Slide 19: Energy intake and expenditure of sled dogs during the Alpirod race 1995 Mean body fat of dogs prior to the race = 11 p100 Fat loss during the race = 400g/dog  MBF = 6 p100 50 km/day ≈ 150 kcalME/kg/day 2800 kcalME/dog/day No difference / place in the team 3300 kcal/day Dog Musher Measurement of daily energy expenditure using doubly-labelled water method [Grandjean and Decombaz] Slide 20: Sustained energy expenditure in Alaskan sled dogs during heavy exercise in the cold Temperatures between -10°C and -35°C Training bout in race conditions of 490 km 170 km/day ≈ 440 kcalME/kg/day 11000 kcalME/dog/day No difference / place in the team  15 p100 of the energy = cost of thermoregulation Measurement of daily energy expenditure using doubly-labelled water method [Hinchclif] Slide 21: MacNamara, 1972 Multiplying factor of the energy expense in a dog at rest Influence of the external temperature on the energy requirement Slide 22: Energy Requirements and Endurance Slide 23: 23 kg 11 000 kcal/daily Energy Requirements and Endurance Slide 24: Michael DAVIS (2007) 240 kcal/lb/d Iditarod vs 100 kcal/lb/d Tour de France 500 kcal/kg/day  20kg  10 000 kcal/day MAINTENANCE [20 X 1320,75] THERMOREGULATION [0,3% per °F] MOVING [200km in 12 hours] Slide 25: Running Energy Cost per Hour 30 km/h [sprint] # 750 kcal/hour 25 km/h [mid distance] # 600 kcal/hour 20 km/h [stage race] # 500 kcal/hour 15 km/h [Iditarod style] # 380 kcal/hour 12 km/h [Quest style] # 300 kcal/hour 20 kg Dog Slide 26: Evolution of the energy requirements in racing sled dogs Case of a dog weighing 20 kg [44 lb] MAINTENANCE 1200 – 1700 TRAINING [5 to 8 km/day] 1300 – 1400 TRAINING [10 to 20 km/day] 1700 – 1800 TRAINING [30 km/day] 2000 – 2400 SPRINT RACE 1400 – 1800 LONG DISTANCE RACE 3000 – 4000 IDITAROD 7000 – 10000 PERIOD ENERGY REQUIREMENTS [kcalME/day] Slide 27: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? MORE ! DURATION OF STAMINA INTENSITY OF STAMINA CLIMATE TEMPERATURE INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS GOOD MUSHERS KNOW THEIR DOGS Slide 28: Food energy : why do we talk about "quality" ? What type of fuel for what type of race ? Slide 29: Aero and/or Anaerobic Stamina • Anaerobic Alactic • Anaerobic Lactic • Aerobic Nutrition Training Grandjean 1991 % of the work Sled Dog exercise physiology Slide 30:  Very High VO2max Nutrition Training Comparative VO2max Performance Very poor Poor Medium Good Very good Horse 70 90 110 130 160 Man 45 55 65 75 85 Dog 80 100 130 180 220 VO2max [ml O2/min/kg] Sled Dog exercise physiology Slide 31: Fat + O2  ENERGY GLYCOGEN  LACTATES + ENERGY ANAEROBIC LACTIC POWER AEROBIC POWER ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD INTENSITY [SPEED] TIME Slide 32: Orientation of the metabolism in different types of endurance efforts in sled dogs TYPE OF EFFORT Sprint [4 to 6 km] Sprint [10 to 20 km] Mid distance Stage race Long distance Ultra-marathon ANAEROBIC - LACTIC +++ ++ + [+ to ++]* 0 0 AEROBIC +++ +++ ++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ * push, or resistance [uphill] Muscular glycogen depletion after an effort : Glycogen repletion is important Muscular glycogen depletion after an effort g glycogen / 100 g of muscular tissue Wakshlag 2002 30 mn on a treadmill average speed: 6,6 m / sec (24 km/h) Muscular glycogen repletion rate with or without supplementation : Muscular glycogen repletion rate with or without supplementation The more intense the exercise session, the more efficient the supplementation will be. Reynolds 1997 Wakshlag 2002 Slide 35: Inuit Greenland Nansen Baashus-Jenssen Wyatt Orr Durrer Hammon Taylor Kronfeld Brzezinska Grandjean Reynolds Hinchkliff, Grandjean Pemmican + Fat More than 30% Fat/DM HFD prevents rhabdomyolisis Dog oxidizes FFA during stamina HFD improves racing time Adaptation to HFD Necessity of antioxidant supplementation 1900 1950 1980 Historical approach Dry food Dry food Wet food Slide 36: Plasma free fatty acids concentration (mmol/l) Reynolds, 1996 Even before training, a high fat diet encourages the fatty acid consumption by muscles. Influence of the fat content on the amount of free fatty acids Slide 37: % mitochondrial volume /muscular fibre Reynolds 1996 A high fat diet improves the ability to « burn » fat. Influence of the fat content on the volume of mitochondria Slide 38: ml O2/kg/sec Reynolds 1996 A high fat diet increases the quantity of available oxygen for the muscles: endurance is improved. Influence of the diet on VO2 Max Slide 39: If the muscles preferably use the fat, glycogen reserves are saved. glycogen reserves can be exhausted within 2 hours Fat reserves are almost unlimited. A high fat diet pushes back the stage of fatigue apparition Slide 40: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs Energy rapidly and easily disponible on site of utilization (muscle cell) Balance of the energetic components generating - a minimum of waste - a maximal efficiency - no risk of metabolic « blocage »  Excellent digestibility  Easy to metabolize  Existence of ergogenic helpers FATS Slide 41: Serum of a sled dog before and after a race Pot race serum of a sled dog « refrigeration test » Slide 42: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » DIGESTIBILITY OF FEEDSTUFF FATS FEEDSTUFF Chicken fat Pork fat Fish oil Butter Soya oil Peanut oil Corn oil Coco oil Olive oil DIGESTIBILITY 84 – 99 96 97 95 – 97 96 97 97 98 97 Slide 43: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » Coco, coprah oil Digestive and metabolic utilization similar to water No need for acyl-carnitine No risk of ketone-bodies production « Fast fats » SHORT CHAINS FATTY ACIDS Slide 44: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » PUFA Essentiel Increase cell membrane permeability to O2 Increase cell membrane deformability Anti-inflammatory effect Omega 6 / Omega 3 ≈ 5 OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS Slide 45: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  »  Quality of feces OTHER ROLES OF FATTY ACIDS Fatty Acid + O2 H2O 100 g 107g metabolic water Glycerol  intracellular hydratation  H2O consumption Slide 46: 10 à 20 p100 Fat/DM 30 à 40 p100 Fat/DM Sprint Medium Endurance  20 p100 of fats as short chain fatty acids  Omega 6 / Omega 3 # 5 Slide 47: Energy Source Oxidation lipid Oxidation CHO Glycogenolysis Phosphagenes Power developped 1 2 4 12 Average Speed 16 km/h [x1] 23 km/h [x14] 32 km/h [x2] 55 km/h [x3.4] Type of race Iditarod Stage Sprint Start] V . Power vs speed in racing sled dog Slide 48: Why must training and nutrition stay closely linked ? TRAINING For each type of competition the training puzzle will be different : For each type of competition the training puzzle will be different Motivation Respect of biology Speed Explosivity Proprioception Endurance Resistance Strenght Slide 50: Type of race Ultra-marathon race Long distance race Stage race Mid distance race Sprint race Example Iditarod, Finmark, Quest Montana, Femund, Kobuk Wyoming, Grande Odyssee EC, WC EC, WC p100 VO2 max 30 50 70 ➙ 110 80 ➙ 110 90 ➙ 120 Slide 51: Marathon Stage Sprint Fast recovery Aerobic power Anaerobic power “Fat” + O2 Glycogenresynthesis Slide 52: Interval training Endurance training Resistance training

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