Nutrition Basic 1 Macronutrients

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Information about Nutrition Basic 1 Macronutrients
Health & Medicine

Published on January 19, 2009

Author: nutriexcel

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NUTRITION BASICS 1 – MACRONUTRIENTS
By Dr. Mar B. Nieto Inventor, HMM nutr-i-care Products

NUTRITION BASICS 1 – MACRONUTRIENTS By Dr. Mar B. Nieto Inventor, HMM nutr-i-care Products Bringing nature’s diversity to your table! “ A new generation of wellness foods for the modern day consumers”

NUTRITION….. is the process of consuming foods, digesting and absorbing nutrients, and using these nutrients for growth, development, and maintenance of a healthy life. Keyword: healthy life

is the process of consuming foods, digesting and absorbing nutrients, and using these nutrients for growth, development, and maintenance of a healthy life.

Keyword: healthy life

CALORIE or ENERGY Caloric need varies from 1,000 to 4,000 calories a day Depending on age, sex, weight, physical activity, disorders present, and metabolic rate. However, typically, the number of calories needed per day to maintain body weight is about 1,600 for sedentary women, young children, and older adults 2,000 for older children, active adult women, and sedentary men 2,400 for active adolescent boys and young men

Caloric need varies from 1,000 to 4,000 calories a day

Depending on age, sex, weight, physical activity, disorders present, and metabolic rate.

However, typically, the number of calories needed per day to maintain body weight is about

1,600 for sedentary women, young children, and older adults

2,000 for older children, active adult women, and sedentary men

2,400 for active adolescent boys and young men

Foods consumed in the daily diet contain: *as many as 100,000 substances *only 300 are classified as nutrients * 45 are classified as essential nutrients such as certain vitamins, certain minerals, some amino acids (components of protein), and some fatty acids (components of fats). Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in the diet.

NUTRIENTS WE NEED Macronutrients Needed by the body in large amounts 1 gram per day to ¼ kg per day Carbs, proteins, fats and some minerals Micronutrients Needed by the body in small or trace amounts Less than 1 gram to 1millionth of a gram per day Vitamins and the other minerals Micro (trace) minerals include, boron, chromium, copper, germanium, iodine, iron, vanadium, and zinc. Protective Nutrients Nutrients that are not part of traditional nutrition but offer protection and other health benefits to the body Soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, antioxidants & other phytonutrients

Macronutrients

Needed by the body in large amounts

1 gram per day to ¼ kg per day

Carbs, proteins, fats and some minerals

Micronutrients

Needed by the body in small or trace amounts

Less than 1 gram to 1millionth of a gram per day

Vitamins and the other minerals Micro (trace) minerals include, boron, chromium, copper, germanium, iodine, iron, vanadium, and zinc.

Protective Nutrients

Nutrients that are not part of traditional nutrition but offer protection and other health benefits to the body

Soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, antioxidants & other phytonutrients

CARBOHYDRATES or CARBS Provides energy - 4 calories per gram 50-55% of our caloric intake should be carbohydrate 250 to 275 g/day (or ~1/4 kg/day) based on a 2000 calorie diet We need to eat more carbs than proteins and fats Diabetics need to regulate carbs consumption by testing their blood glucose

Provides energy - 4 calories per gram

50-55% of our caloric intake should be carbohydrate

250 to 275 g/day (or ~1/4 kg/day) based on a 2000 calorie diet

We need to eat more carbs than proteins and fats

Diabetics need to regulate carbs consumption by testing their blood glucose

CARBS - includes starch, dextrins, sugar, glucose, lactose, fructose, etc. HIGH CARBS FOODS INCLUDE: Breads Rice Oats Corn Cereals, pasta Honey, candies, chocolate, sweets And many others

HIGH CARBS FOODS INCLUDE:

Breads

Rice

Oats

Corn

Cereals, pasta

Honey, candies, chocolate, sweets

And many others

CARBS FACTS If people consume more carbohydrates than they need at the time, the body stores these carbohydrates within cells as glycogen to provide a day’s worth of calories The rest is converted to fat The end result is you gain weight

If people consume more carbohydrates than they need at the time,

the body stores these carbohydrates within cells as glycogen to provide a day’s worth of calories

The rest is converted to fat

The end result is you gain weight

FATS Provides more energy than carbs, 9 Calories per gram Stored in the tissues; source of energy during lean times 20-35% of our caloric intake or 40 g to 70 grams of fat/day based on a 2000 calorie diet

Provides more energy than carbs, 9 Calories per gram

Stored in the tissues; source of energy during lean times

20-35% of our caloric intake or 40 g to 70 grams of fat/day based on a 2000 calorie diet

TYPES OF FATS Liquid Fats or Oils – Unsaturated and liquid at room temperature Corn oil, canola oil, olive oil soy, bean oil, other plant oils and nuts oils, fish oil Classified as omega-3 and omega-6 Solid Fats – Saturated and solid at room temperature Lard or animal fat, shortening, butter, coconut oil Classified as long chain saturated, medium chain saturated or trans-fats

Liquid Fats or Oils – Unsaturated and liquid at room temperature

Corn oil, canola oil, olive oil soy, bean oil, other plant oils and nuts oils, fish oil

Classified as omega-3 and omega-6

Solid Fats – Saturated and solid at room temperature

Lard or animal fat, shortening, butter, coconut oil

Classified as long chain saturated, medium chain saturated or trans-fats

FATS FACTS - BAD All saturated fats except coconut oil are linked to high cholesterol, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease Excess omega-6 is inflammatory and increases cancer risk. Eat in moderation.

All saturated fats except coconut oil are linked to high cholesterol, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease

Excess omega-6 is inflammatory and increases cancer risk. Eat in moderation.

FATS FACTS - GOOD Omega 3 such as linolenic, DHA and EPA [fish oil, flax seed oil] Omega 6 in moderation is a good source of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid [olive oil, canola oil, corn oil sunflower seed oil and all plant oils that are not subjected to hydrogenation] Medium chain triglycerides such as lauric acid [coconut oil] http://www.advance-health.com/efa.html

Omega 3 such as linolenic, DHA and EPA [fish oil, flax seed oil]

Omega 6 in moderation is a good source of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid [olive oil, canola oil, corn oil sunflower seed oil and all plant oils that are not subjected to hydrogenation]

Medium chain triglycerides such as lauric acid [coconut oil]

http://www.advance-health.com/efa.html

PROTEINS Provides energy, 4 Calories per gram 0.8 g of good protein/kg body weight for both men and women [~60 g protein/day for an average person] 10-35% of caloric intake A good protein source is very important that provides essential amino acids

Provides energy, 4 Calories per gram

0.8 g of good protein/kg body weight for both men and women [~60 g protein/day for an average person]

10-35% of caloric intake

A good protein source is very important that provides essential amino acids

PROTEINS Every cell in your body is built from protein. It makes up the essential building blocks of your muscle, bone, cartilage, skin, blood, and lymph. Your hair and fingernails consist of fibers of a protein called keratin. Collagen is a protein which strengthens your skin, blood vessels, bones, teeth and provides glue that binds the cells in various organs and tissues. Your mucles are made up of fibers of protein called myosin and actin. Protein also helps regulate the balance of water and acids in your body. 

Every cell in your body is built from protein. It makes up the essential building blocks of your muscle, bone, cartilage, skin, blood, and lymph. Your hair and fingernails consist of fibers of a protein called keratin. Collagen is a protein which strengthens your skin, blood vessels, bones, teeth and provides glue that binds the cells in various organs and tissues. Your mucles are made up of fibers of protein called myosin and actin. Protein also helps regulate the balance of water and acids in your body. 

PROTEIN FACTS All animal sources of protein such as chicken, pork, beef, veal, egg, milk, etc. are good protein with balanced amino acids, except that they could be high in saturated fats and cholesterol Plant proteins such as soy protein, flax seed protein are good; Many other plant proteins especially nut and seed proteins are deficient in some essential amino acids and not good. Of the 20 amino acids, 10 are essential - arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Eating proteins that is deficient in one essential amino acids results to excessive nitrogen waste to be detoxified and excreted in the urine

All animal sources of protein such as chicken, pork, beef, veal, egg, milk, etc. are good protein with balanced amino acids, except that they could be high in saturated fats and cholesterol

Plant proteins such as soy protein, flax seed protein are good; Many other plant proteins especially nut and seed proteins are deficient in some essential amino acids and not good.

Of the 20 amino acids, 10 are essential - arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Eating proteins that is deficient in one essential amino acids results to excessive nitrogen waste to be detoxified and excreted in the urine

BURNING OF CALORIES & WEIGHT LOSS CARBS, PROTEINS AND FATS SUPPLY ENERGY IN FORM OF CALORIES Burning of energy follows a protocol When fewer calories are consumed for the body's daily needs, the body begins to use carbohydrates stored in the liver and muscle. Because the body burns stored carbohydrates quickly this process is fast and will last only a short time. Next, the body uses stored fat. Because fat contains more energy per pound, weight loss is slower as the body uses fat for energy. However, the amount of fat stored is much larger and can, in most people, provide energy for a long time. Only during prolonged, severe shortages of energy, does the body break down protein. If normally nourished people experience total starvation (when no food is consumed), death occurs in 8 to 12 weeks.

CARBS, PROTEINS AND FATS SUPPLY ENERGY IN FORM OF CALORIES

Burning of energy follows a protocol

When fewer calories are consumed for the body's daily needs, the body begins to use carbohydrates stored in the liver and muscle. Because the body burns stored carbohydrates quickly this process is fast and will last only a short time.

Next, the body uses stored fat. Because fat contains more energy per pound, weight loss is slower as the body uses fat for energy. However, the amount of fat stored is much larger and can, in most people, provide energy for a long time.

Only during prolonged, severe shortages of energy, does the body break down protein. If normally nourished people experience total starvation (when no food is consumed), death occurs in 8 to 12 weeks.

Macrominerals The total mineral content of the body is approximately 4 percent of body weight. Macrominerals are present in the body in relatively larger amounts than micro minerals (thus the name) and include calcium , phosphorus , magnesium , sodium , chloride, and potassium . Calcium makes up approximately 1.75 percent of total body weight, phosphorus makes up approximately 1.10 percent of total body weight, and magnesium makes up approximately .04 percent of total body weight.

The total mineral content of the body is approximately 4 percent of body weight. Macrominerals are present in the body in relatively larger amounts than micro minerals (thus the name) and include calcium , phosphorus , magnesium , sodium , chloride, and potassium .

Calcium makes up approximately 1.75 percent of total body weight, phosphorus makes up approximately 1.10 percent of total body weight, and magnesium makes up approximately .04 percent of total body weight.

CALCIUM Calcium is an important mineral for bone and tooth structure , blood clotting , and nerve transmission; Deficiencies are associated with skeletal malformations (as in rickets), increased skeletal fragility (as in osteoporotic fracture and stress fractures), and blood pressure abnormalities.

Calcium is an important mineral for bone and tooth structure , blood clotting , and nerve transmission; Deficiencies are associated with skeletal malformations (as in rickets), increased skeletal fragility (as in osteoporotic fracture and stress fractures), and blood pressure abnormalities.

SODIUM Essential in small amounts Your body needs some sodium to function properly. Helps maintain the right balance of fluids in your body Helps transmit nerve impulses Influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles DRI is 1300 mg/day to 2400 mg/day Main source is salt and salty foods, but is also present in most foods and drinks

Essential in small amounts

Your body needs some sodium to function properly.

Helps maintain the right balance of fluids in your body

Helps transmit nerve impulses

Influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles

DRI is 1300 mg/day to 2400 mg/day

Main source is salt and salty foods, but is also present in most foods and drinks

POTASSIUM Functions Maintenance of membrane potential Cofactor for enzymes Several large epidemiological studies have suggested that increased potassium intake is associated with decreased risk of stroke. At least four cross-sectional studies have reported significant positive associations between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in populations of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women as well as elderly men Adequate Intake (AI) In 2004, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine established an adequate intake level ( AI ) for potassium based on intake levels that have been found to lower blood pressure, reduce salt sensitivity, and minimize the risk of kidney stones (4) . Adequate Intake (AI) for Potassium (mg/day) Infants 0-6 months - 400; Infants 7-12 months - 700; Children 1-3 years - 3,000; Children 4-8 years - 3,800; Children 9-13 years - 4,500; Adolescents 14-18 years - 4,700; Adults 19 years and older - 4,700; Pregnancy14-50 years - 4,700; Breast-feeding14-50 years - 5,100 http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/potassium/

Functions

Maintenance of membrane potential

Cofactor for enzymes

Several large epidemiological studies have suggested that increased potassium intake is associated with decreased risk of stroke.

At least four cross-sectional studies have reported significant positive associations between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in populations of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women as well as elderly men

Adequate Intake (AI)

In 2004, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine established an adequate intake level ( AI ) for potassium based on intake levels that have been found to lower blood pressure, reduce salt sensitivity, and minimize the risk of kidney stones (4) .

Adequate Intake (AI) for Potassium (mg/day) Infants 0-6 months - 400; Infants 7-12 months - 700; Children 1-3 years - 3,000; Children 4-8 years - 3,800; Children 9-13 years - 4,500; Adolescents 14-18 years - 4,700; Adults 19 years and older - 4,700; Pregnancy14-50 years - 4,700; Breast-feeding14-50 years - 5,100

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/potassium/

PHOSPHORUS Phosphorus is present in most foods and is especially plentiful in protein-rich foods (meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products) and cereal grains. It combines with calcium (about two parts calcium for every part phosphorus ) to produce healthy bones and teeth. It also plays an important role in energy metabolism, affecting carbohydrate, fat, and protein. The energy derived for muscular work comes largely from phosphorus-containing compounds called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP). As with calcium, the absorption of phosphorus is dependent on vitamin D, and the adult RDA is 700 milligrams per day. Because phosphorus is so omnipresent in the food supply, phosphorus deficiencies are uncommon. If deficiencies occur, they are most likely to be seen in people on long-term antacids containing aluminum hydroxide. This type of antacid binds with phosphorus, making it unavailable for absorption. The adult UL for phosphorus is 4,000 milligrams per day, above which there may be interference with calcium absorption. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/phosphorus/

Phosphorus is present in most foods and is especially plentiful in protein-rich foods (meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products) and cereal grains. It combines with calcium (about two parts calcium for every part phosphorus ) to produce healthy bones and teeth. It also plays an important role in energy metabolism, affecting carbohydrate, fat, and protein. The energy derived for muscular work comes largely from phosphorus-containing compounds called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP). As with calcium, the absorption of phosphorus is dependent on vitamin D, and the adult RDA is 700 milligrams per day.

Because phosphorus is so omnipresent in the food supply, phosphorus deficiencies are uncommon. If deficiencies occur, they are most likely to be seen in people on long-term antacids containing aluminum hydroxide. This type of antacid binds with phosphorus, making it unavailable for absorption. The adult UL for phosphorus is 4,000 milligrams per day, above which there may be interference with calcium absorption.

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/phosphorus/

MAGNESSIUM Magnesium, a mineral present in most foods, is essential for human metabolism and for maintaining the electrical potential in nerve and muscle cells. When associated with widespread malnutrition , especially in alcoholics, a magnesium deficiency results in tremors and convulsions . Magnesium is involved in more than 300 reactions in which food is synthesized to new products, and it is a critical component in the processes that create muscular energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The adult DRI for magnesium ranges between 310 and 320 milligrams per day for females and 400 and 420 milligrams per day for males. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/magnesium/

Magnesium, a mineral present in most foods, is essential for human metabolism and for maintaining the electrical potential in nerve and muscle cells. When associated with widespread malnutrition , especially in alcoholics, a magnesium deficiency results in tremors and convulsions . Magnesium is involved in more than 300 reactions in which food is synthesized to new products, and it is a critical component in the processes that create muscular energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

The adult DRI for magnesium ranges between 310 and 320 milligrams per day for females and 400 and 420 milligrams per day for males.

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/magnesium/

Chloride Chloride is an extracellular mineral that is essential for the maintenance of fluid balance and, therefore, normal cell function. It is also an important component of gastric juices. Virtually all the chloride we consume is associated with table salt (sodium chloride), so sodium and chloride intakes parallel each other. Because chloride losses are closely linked to sodium losses, a deficiency of one is related to a deficiency of the other. Deficiencies typically occur with heavy sweating, frequent diarrhea , or frequent vomiting. Sweat losses are likely to deplete chloride and sodium to a greater degree than other minerals, including potassium and magnesium. The DRI-estimated chloride requirement is 2.3 grams per day for both adult men and women, while the safe upper limit for chloride is 3.6 grams per day. Excess chloride and sodium may both contribute to the development of hypertension . Most people consume excessive amounts of salt (which is 60 percent chloride), so chloride intake is typically 6,000 milligrams (6 grams) or more, a level that is well above normal requirements.

Chloride is an extracellular mineral that is essential for the maintenance of fluid balance and, therefore, normal cell function. It is also an important component of gastric juices. Virtually all the chloride we consume is associated with table salt (sodium chloride), so sodium and chloride intakes parallel each other. Because chloride losses are closely linked to sodium losses, a deficiency of one is related to a deficiency of the other. Deficiencies typically occur with heavy sweating, frequent diarrhea , or frequent vomiting. Sweat losses are likely to deplete chloride and sodium to a greater degree than other minerals, including potassium and magnesium.

The DRI-estimated chloride requirement is 2.3 grams per day for both adult men and women, while the safe upper limit for chloride is 3.6 grams per day. Excess chloride and sodium may both contribute to the development of hypertension .

Most people consume excessive amounts of salt (which is 60 percent chloride), so chloride intake is typically 6,000 milligrams (6 grams) or more, a level that is well above normal requirements.

PO Box 408, Abingdon MD 21009 [USA] Phone: 410-569-9117; www.hmmnutricare.com The Ultimate Wellness Foods Nature’s variety in instant meals! See Dr. Nieto’s other presentations: NUTRITION BASICS 2 – MICRONUTRIENTS MODERN NUTRITION – PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS UNCOVER THE POWER OF FIBER Dr. Mar Nieto Inventor of HMM Nutricare Products Outside Consultant of Nutriexcel

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