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Nutrition and Your Athletes2

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Information about Nutrition and Your Athletes2
Education

Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Jade

Source: authorstream.com

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Nutrition and Your Athletes:  Nutrition and Your Athletes Casi Dailey Amanda Friedline Andrew Hickok Kristen Hutchins Ali Young Old Pyramid:  Old Pyramid http://www.pennhealth.com/health_info/diabetes1/images/1055.jpg New Pyramid:  New Pyramid http://www.ecommunity.com/nutrition/uploads/images/pyramid.jpg Recommended Daily Allowances:  Recommended Daily Allowances Grain Eat at least 3 ounces of whole grain bread, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. Look for “whole” before the grain name on the list of ingredients. 3 ounces for women 19-30 and 4 ounces for men 19-30 years old Vegetables: Eat more dark green veggies like broccoli, spinach, and other dark leafy greens Eat more orange veggies like carrots and sweet potatoes Eat more dry beans and peas like pinto beans, kidney beans, and lentils 2 ½ cups for women and 3 cups for men 19-30 years old Recommended Daily Allowances:  Recommended Daily Allowances Fruit: Eat a variety of fruit Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit Go easy on fruit juice 2 cups for both men and women 19-30 years old Milk/Dairy: Go low-fat or fat free when choosing milk, yogurt, and other milk products If you don’t or can’t consume milk, choose lactose-free products or other calcium sources such as fortified foods and beverages 3 cups for men and women 19-30 years old Recommended Daily Allowances:  Recommended Daily Allowances Meat and Protein: Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry Bake it , broil it, grill it Vary protein routine – choose more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds 5 ½ ounces for women 19-30 years old and 6 ½ ounces for men 19-30 years old Oils: Make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, and lard 6 teaspoons for women 19-30 years old and 7 teaspoons for men 19-30 years old Basal Metabolic Rate:  Basal Metabolic Rate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions; it is measured after 12 hours without food or exercise. It is the energy used for basic functions of the body; life-sustaining functions not including physical activity or digestion and absorption of food. It is affected by body weight, lean body mass, gender, and age. Increases with body weight; higher in heavier individuals Increases with lean body mass Generally higher in men than women because men have a greater lean body mass Decreases with age, partly due to decrease in lean body mass that usually occurs in older adults Calculating Energy Expenditure and Caloric Intake:  Calculating Energy Expenditure and Caloric Intake Estimated Energy Expenditure Requirement Equation: Men 19+ 662 – (9.53 * age) + PA[(15.91 * wt in kg) + (539.6 * ht in m)] Women 19+ 354 – (6.91 * age) + PA[9.361 * wt in kg) + (726 * ht in m)] *kg = pounds/2.2 *meters = ht in inches * .0254 Calculating Energy Expenditure and Caloric Intake:  Calculating Energy Expenditure and Caloric Intake MyPyramid Food Intake Pattern Calorie Levels: http://www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_Calorie_Levels.pdf#xml=http://65.216.150.153/texis/search/pdfhi.txt?query=Food+Intake+Pattern+Calorie+Intake&pr=MyPyramid&sufs=2&order=r&cq=&id=4592b6552 MyPyramid Tracker: online dietary and physical activity assessment tool that provides information on diet quality, physical activity status, related nutrition messages, and links to nutrient and physical activity information. It automatically calculates energy balance by subtracting the energy expended from physical activity from food calorie/energy intake. http://www.mypyramidtracker.gov/ BMR Calculator: http://www.weightlossforgood.co.uk/bmr_calculator.htm Fat:  Fat 9 kcal /gram Fats are necessary in a diet because they provide a concentrated source of energy Insulate body and cushion organs Fats give food its texture, flavor, and aroma Fats are good, but in moderation Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fat:  Fat 20-35% of total daily calories Omega-6 fatty acids 5-10% Omega-3 fatty acids (.6-1.2%) Trans fat and saturated fat keep as low as possible Average American: 33% total calories of fat; 11-12% saturated; 2-4% trans fat Protein:  Protein 4kcal/gram Form important parts of muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones, and cell membranes Made up of amino acids Incomplete vs. Complete Protein:  Protein Daily Intake: Adult: 0.8g/kg body weight Ex. 180 lb person needs 65g protein/day 10-35% total daily calories Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates 4 kcal/g Source of primary energy Brain, blood, and nervous system cells only use carbs for fuel Simple vs. complex Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates 45-65% total daily calories ~225-325 g/day in a 2000 calorie diet Consume complex carbohydrates Refined vs. Whole grains Vitamins:  Vitamins Organic substances needed in small amounts to regulate processes in the body 13 vitamins needed Unleash energy stored in carbohydrates, proteins, fats Body must obtain most vitamins from food Sources: fruits, grains, vegetables Vitamins:  Vitamins Taken as supplements can lead to overdose needed values of vitamins Rely on foods for vitamin source vs. supplements Minerals:  Minerals Inorganic elements needed in small amounts to regulate body systems/functioning Aid in growth and maintenance of tissue Help release energy 17 essential minerals Major: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride Need more than 100mg/day of each Minerals:  Minerals Commonly lacking in American diet Iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium Food sources- Iron- meant Calcium- low/fat free dairy products Potassium- green leafy vegetables, bananas Magnesium- whole grains and leafy vegetables Water:  Water Makes up 50-60% of the body Live up to 50 days without food; Only few days without water Used in digestion and absorption Used as transportation of substances throughout body Regulate body temperature Water:  Water Foods and fluids provide 80-90% daily value intake Men- 3.7 Liters; 3.0L from beverages (13 cups)/day Female- 2.7 Liters; 2.2L from beverages (9 cups)/day Exercise and living in hot climates recommend more water intake to prevent dehydration Fluid Replacement:  Fluid Replacement Dehydration of 1-2% of body mass begins to compromise function Also increased risk of heat illness Not only hot-weather athletes are in danger of this dehydration Fluid Replacement:  Fluid Replacement Begin all exercise sessions hydrated Body weight Urine Color Pre-exercise hydration 2-3 hours before: 500-600 mL 10-20 minutes before: 200-300 mL Fluid Replacement:  Fluid Replacement During Exercise Depends on the nature of the sport i.e. football and track v. soccer and lacrosse 200-300 mL every 20 minutes Also go with individual needs Post-exercise Replace all lost fluid within 2 hours H20, Carbohydrates and Electrolytes Fluid Replacement:  Fluid Replacement Things to watch for: Thirst Irritability Dizziness Fatigue Cramps Headache Nausea Decreased Performance Environments to be cautious in: Humid Hot Sunny Weight Loss for Athletes:  Weight Loss for Athletes When is the best time for athletes to try to lose weight? Off Season Beginning of the season before competition What is a healthy goal? ½ to 1 pound per week Weight Loss for Athletes :  Weight Loss for Athletes What is the best way to lose weight? Eat a variety of foods Create a caloric deficit Eat 250-500 calories less Increase activity to burn 250-500 calories Choose lower calorie foods within the essential food groups Don’t skip meals Eat smaller portions Eat slower All food is OK in moderation! Weight Gain for Athletes:  Weight Gain for Athletes What is the best way for athletes to gain weight? Not with high fat or high sugar diets This adds unnecessary sugars and cholesterol to the diet Protein Supplements Must also increase exercise Increase resistance activity along with having a healthy diet Weight Gain for Athletes:  Weight Gain for Athletes What kind of diet is best for weight gain? Very similar to a normal athlete’s diet! Eat a variety of foods Add calories to the normal diet About 1000 Calories/week for 1 pound Make healthy decisions about increasing caloric intake Snack throughout the day Must be nutrient dense and not high in fat Weight Gain for Athletes:  Weight Gain for Athletes What else can I do besides change my diet and exercise regimen? Get 6-8 hours of sleep each night Set realistic goals Linebacker:  Linebacker 20 year old male athlete 290 lbs 6’2’’ EER- 4355.23 kcal Collegiate Football Player Linebacker Pre-game Meal:  Linebacker Pre-game Meal CHO- Should eat 2-3 hours prior to the beginning of competition CHO should consists of 70% of this athletes daily value CHO-250g (in order to help enhance exercise & maintain both muscle & liver glycogen) 1000k/cal (may come from food or sports drink depending on athletes preference) Pre-game Meal Cont.:  Pre-game Meal Cont. Fat Minimum of 5% of the athletes meal (less than 30g = 270 k/cal) Pre-game Meal Cont.:  Pre-game Meal Cont. Protein Should consist of 157g (628 k/cal) Cross Country Runner:  Cross Country Runner Female Collegiate cross country runner Age 21 Weight- 120 Height- 5’8” EER- 2773 kcal Cross Country Pre-game Meal:  Cross Country Pre-game Meal Eat 2-3 hours prior to race CHO 560kcal (140 grams) CHO is 80% of meal Cross Country Pre-game Meal:  Cross Country Pre-game Meal Protein 105 kcal (26.25 grams) Protein is 15% of meal Cross Country Pre-game meal:  Cross Country Pre-game meal Fat 35 kcals 4 grams Fat is less than 5 % of meal Sprinting Swimmer:  Sprinting Swimmer Male Collegiate Swimmer Weight:180 lbs Height:6’0’’ EER:4441 kcal Age: 18 years old Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal:  Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal Eat 2-3 hours before CHO 900 kcal 220 grams 75% of meal This athlete will continue to ingest CHO throughout the day at the meet. Options for him will include gels, sports drinks, or a power bar Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal:  Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal Protein 240 kcal 60 grams 20% of meal Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal:  Sprinting Swimmer Pre-game meal Fat 60 kcals 7 grams Should comprise less than 5% of the meal CHO:  CHO CHO Food Choices: Sports Drink (Gatorade, PowerAde, etc.) Whole Wheat (bread, bagels, crackers) Sandwich, waffle, crackers Energy Bars (Cliff bar, Power Bar) Fruit and Vegetables Fat:  Fat Food Choices: Fish Salad dressings Nuts (Cashews, peanuts, macadamia) Cook with canola oil or flaxseed oil in order to incorporate your Omega 3 & 6 fatty acids Soy Products Protein:  Protein Food choices: Chicken Eggs Beans Nuts (Almonds, Walnuts) Chickpeas Milk Tofu

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