Nutrients

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Information about Nutrients
Education

Published on March 7, 2008

Author: Lindon

Source: authorstream.com

Knowledge and Skills #15 The student analyzes basic nutrition needs and results of dietary practices.:  Knowledge and Skills #15 The student analyzes basic nutrition needs and results of dietary practices. Slide3:  A list classifications, sources, and functions of nutrients B compare personal diets to various guidelines C explain the effects of the life cycle, illness, and disease on individual dietary needs D analyze the problems and characteristics associated with eating disorders Slide4:  E discuss the effects of dietary practices on wellness and achievement. F apply nutrition principles related to individual and family health decisions. G determine cultural, economic, and societal influences on dietary practices and contemporary meal management. Slide5:  H. Analyze nutrition information on food labels. Slide7:  ….how food nourishes the body and is the foundation for good health. Slide8:  Based on scientific data of the nutrients needed to ensure adequate nutrition for people in the U.S. A set of nutrient standards established for the maintenance of good nutrition Based on the energy and nutrients that are needed for good health and that reduce the risk of chronic disease. Slide9:  Knowledge related to nutrition and health has increased dramatically. New knowledge includes findings that show the interrelationships of: Diet Nutrition Many chronic diseases EAR/UL Slide11:  Carbohydrates-body’s main source of energy Fats-a concentrated source of energy Proteins-Nutrients that help build, repair, and maintain body tissues Vitamins-Chemicals that help regulate many vital body processes and aid other nutrients in doing their job Minerals-non-living substances that help the body work properly and sometimes become part of body tissues Water-Is a nutrient because it is essential to life Slide12:  Life – sustaining chemical substances that nourish and promote the growth of the human body. No one food contains all of the nutrients necessary for the body to function effectively. A balanced diet that incorporates appropriate amounts of the six essential nutrients, as well as recommended servings from the food groups, is necessary. Individuals should choose foods of high nutrient density rather than foods with empty calories Slide13:  Foods that are excellent sources of essential nutrients with few, if any, empty calories. Slide14:  Foods that provide calories or energy but little or no nutritive value. Slide15:  What requires energy? Your body get energy from carbohydrates, as well as protein and fat. Kilocalories also know as calories is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius. 2,800 calories-teen males, active men and some very active women. 2,200 calories for most children, teen females, active women, and inactive men. 1,600-calroies for many inactive women and most older adults Slide18:  Is the main component of every cell in the human body Performs 3 important functions—Body uses protein for the following: Growth and repair of new and damaged tissues. Regulating all body functions, and transporting other nutrients and oxygen throughout the body Supplying energy when adequate amounts are not supplied by carbohydrates and fats. Slide19:  Comprised of compounds called amino acids. Amino acids often referred to the building blocks of protein. 22 different amino acids. 13 of these are manufactured in the body, Remaining 9 must be supplied by the diet. The body can not function without these 9 essential amino acids. Slide20:  The body cannot function without these 9 essential amino acids. 2. essential amino acids- essential that they be furnished by the diet Slide21:  Protein foods that supply all nine of the essential amino acids are called complete proteins. Slide25:  Average American adult eats twice as much protein as is needed Recommended that 10-15% of calories come from protein for most children and adults. Protein needs increase during time of growth: Childhood Adolescence Pregnancy Lactation Consult RDA for gender/age guidelines Slide27:  Nutrients that supply energy for body functions. 2. 50-55% of calories should come from complex carbohydrates 3. Carbohydrates are broken down in the body into: Sugars Starches fiber Slide28:  SUGARS Slide29:  MONOSACCHARIDES SIMPLEST FORM OF CARBOHYDRATES GLUCOSE, GALACTOSE , AND FRUCTOSE Sugars and starches are broken down in the body into the simple sugar GLUCOSE. The major sugar found in the bloodstream and supplies energy for the body. FRUCTOSE – found in honey/fruits Known as the sweetest of the sugars. GALACTOSE- not found in nature, but is one of the two MONOSACCHARIDES available after the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar) Slide30:  Formed when two glucose molecules are joined together Broken down into MONOSACCHARIDES during digestion Sucrose, maltose, and lactose Sucrose- found in white refined table sugar,brown sugar,confectioner’s sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, molasses, and maple syrup Maltose-malt sugar which is found in sprouting cereal grains. Lactose is ? sugar and found only in ? Slide32:  POLYSACCHARIDES Starch cellulose glycogen Slide33:  Starch Most abundant polysaccharide Found in roots, legumes, grains, vegetables Must be broken down into glucose by the body before it can be utilized. Slide34:  Cellulose- fibrous material found in plants Fiber/roughage Cannot be digested by humans Sources: vegetables, fruits whole grain cereals Slide35:  Known as animal starch Is the storage form of carbohydrates found in the liver and muscles In liver – easily broken down into blood glucose Muscle glycogen supplies glucose for muscle use (especially important during periods of intense exercise) Slide36:  SUPPLY ENERGY SUPPLY FIBER AID IN THE DIGESTION OF FATS Slide38:  Organic compounds necessary for: normal growth maintenance of health, Reproduction Help the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy an Assist in the formation of bones and tissues Essential for maintaining good health as the body cannot survive without them Slide39:  Cannot be dissolved in water so.. Stored in body fat until they are transported to the cells by the blood. Slide40:  (RETINOL) RESPONSIBLE FOR NIGHT AND COLOR VISION GROWTH OF BONES AND TEETH PRODUCTION OF HEALTHY SKIN Slide41:  Dark green and dark yellow vegetables Fruits Egg yolks Whole milk Liver Butter Fish oils Slide42:  Important for the normal growth and development of bones and teeth. Aids in the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. Slide43:  Egg yolks Liver Fish liver oil Fortified milk Primary source: sun Slide44:  PROTECTS CELLS FROM OXIDATION A chemical change that occurs as a result of exposure to oxygen Slide45:  Vegetable oils Wheat germ Whole-grain bread and cereal products Liver Fish liver oils Green leafy vegetables Of vitamin E Slide46:  Necessary for blood clotting Sources Green leafy vegetables Broccoli Peas Liver Cheese eggs Slide49:  Helps break down carbohydrates in the body Helps the body release energy from food Necessary for cell respiration Promotion of normal appetite/digestion/maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Slide50:  Enriched whole-grain products Liver Peas pork Heat sensitive Easily leached into the cooking liquid Proper food storage/preparation practices are essential to maintain the thiamin level in foods Slide51:  Necessary for the body to break down carbohydrates To keep the skin,tongue,and lips in normal condition Easily destroyed by exposure to light—especially sunlight Important to store these foods either in a pantry or in the refrigerator to prevent nutrient loss Slide52:  Cheese Eggs Enriched breads Leafy green vegetables Lean meats legumes Slide53:  Vital to the nervous system Helps cells convert food to energy and is beneficial for the mouth, skin, and tongue Helps the digestive tract to function properly. Research into the effects of niacin in lowering blood cholesterol. Due to the toxic side effects of high doses of niacin, self-prescribed niacin supplements are not recommended. Slide54:  Liver Lean meats Whole grains Nuts legumes Slide55:  Also called folacin or folic acid Necessary for the body to produce normal red blood cells and for the biochemical reactions of cells in the production of energy Prenatal development- brain stem Slide56:  Wheat germ Wheat bran Yeast leafy green vegetables Liver legumes Slide57:  Essential in the breakdown of carbohydrates,lipids,and proteins in the body. Sources: Liver ,kidneys, egg yolk Vegetables Fruits (especially bananas, grapefruit, watermelon, and strawberries) Slide58:  Aids in the metabolism of fat and the formation of cholesterol and hormones. Sources: All plant and animal tissues Liverwurst, meats, poultry, egg yolk Wheat germ and rice germ,oatmeal, Tomato paste, sweet potatoes , milk Slide59:  Needed to help nervous tissues function normally To maintain the health of the skin and red blood cells Participate in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Sources: liver,lean meats, cereals, vegetables, and milk Slide60:  Necessary in the development of normal growth, normal functioning of all body cells, metabolism of foliate and protection against pernicious anemia Found only in animal protein. liver, clams, oysters, muscle meats, eggs, chicken, and milk. Slide61:  Aids in the formation of hemoglobin Helps fight infection Aids in healing of wounds Aids in the formation and maintenance of collagen Aids in the absorption of iron and calcium Slide62:  Citrus fruits Cantaloupe Strawberries Dark leafy green vegetables Broccoli Cabbage Green peppers Slide63:  Research continues into the role vitamins and minerals play in preventing chronic disease and in maintaining health and wellness. The RDA developed by the National Academy of Sciences, serve as a guideline for determining the amounts of nutrients a specific person needs each day. Slide65:  Necessary for building bones, tissues, and other compounds. Necessary for regulating body processes. Slide66:  Found in large amounts in the body • Needed for bone rigidity, blood clotbng, muscle contraction, normal nerve functions • Just because an individual eats food containing calcium does not mean that the body absorbs the calcium. Factors that increase calcium absorption include: an overall balanced diet intake of vitamins D and C intake of certain amino acids • Factors that decrease calcium absorption include: a vitamin D deficiency fat malabsorpfion eating large amounts of fiber lack dlzxercise li4@ik ! lactos'e' deficiency or lactose intolerance Slide67:  • needed for bone rigidity blood clotting, muscle contraction, normal nerve functions Slide68:  Just because an individual eats food containing calcium does not mean that the body absorbs the calcium Factors that increase calcium absorption include: an overall balanced diet intake of vitamins D and C intake of certain amino acids Slide69:  Factors that decrease calcium absorption include: a vitamin D deficiency fat malabsorption eating large amounts of fiber lack exercise stress lactose deficiency or lactose intolerance Slide70:  Milk and milk products, Soft-boned fish, Calcium-fortified orange juice Leafy green vegetables, broccoli Slide71:  Helps build strong bones and teeth Significant factor in all phases of calcium metabolism Slide72:  Meat, poultry, liver fish, eggs, Milk and other dairy products Raw oranges, cherries, peaches, Rice, potatoes, and wheat flour Slide73:  Helps regulate Body temperature Muscle contractions The nervous system Helps cells utilize Carbohydrates Fats proteins Slide74:  Green leafy vegetables Nuts- brazil,almonds, cashews Muscle meats Salmon Cheddar cheese Beef liver Milk Eggs Slide75:  Work together to: Regulate the flow of fluids in the body Help regulate the nervous system Help regulate the muscle functions, including heart Help regulate nutrient absorption in the cells Slide76:  Sodium and Chloride: Table salt Potassium: Meats, Milk, Bananas, Leafy green vegetables, and citrus fruits. Slide77:  Minerals found in small amounts in the body. Trace elements are: Iron, Iodine, Zinc and Fluorine Slide78:  Found primarily in the blood, where it combines with protein to form hemoglobin Sources: Liver/organ meats, egg yolks, dried legumes, shellfish, leafy green vegetable, enriched breads Slide79:  Needed for the lungs to release oxygen. Sources: Oysters, herring, egg yolks organ meats Slide80:  Necessary in the formation of hemoglobin Sources: Liver Bran flakes Cocoa powder Slide81:  Role is not well-understood Sources: Nuts, Rice, whole grains Beans Leafy green vegetables Slide82:  Works in conjunction with vitamin E to protect cells from destruction. May have a role in the prevention of cancer. Sources: Fish, organ meats, shellfish, and eggs. Grains/other plants grown in selenium-rich soil . Slide83:  Maintains the normal glucose uptake into cells and helps insulin bind to cells. Sources: Vegetable oils, egg yolks, whole grains, and meats. Fruits and vegetables Slide84:  Needed for the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin- necessary for oxidation rates of cells. Sources: Iodized salt, ocean fish Seaweed , milk Slide85:  Needed to prevent tooth decay. Sources: Fluoridated drinking water, fluoridated toothpaste Seafood, tea,fruits/veggies grown in areas where natural fluoride level in water is high. Slide86:  Semisolid, energy-filled organic compounds found in animal and plant tissues. Slide87:  Interchangeably with term fats Describes fats, oils, and fat-related substances. Lipids in simplest forms are called fatty acids. Slide88:  Major form of fat in the body and in foods. Chemical compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen , and oxygen. Slide89:  Fats/lipids are important sources of energy needed by the body. Calories from fat should not exceed 30% of the total daily calorie intake. Slide90:  F U N C T I O N S Provide energy Transport/absorb fat-soluble vitamins Cushion vital organs in the body Comprise part of the structure of body cells Supply essential fatty acids Add flavor to foods Satisfy appetites by delaying hunger Insulate body/protect nerves & blood Vessels Slide91:  Should not exceed 10% of the total calories from fat. Butter chocolate egg yolks Lard shortening Have the most hydrogen—the Ugly Slide92:  Have less hydrogen than saturated fats. Some cooking oils – Canola Olive oil Some peanut butter/some salad dressings. Slide93:  Least amount of hydrogen. Brazil nuts some cooking oils Some peanut butter Soft margarine Walnuts Slide94:  Solvent for nutrients/hormones. Transports nutrients to the cells. Rids the body of waste products. Lubricates the joints Facilitates food passage Slide95:  Regulates body temperature through conduction of heat, perspiration & excretion. Body typically uses two to two and one-half liters of water per day. Recommended that the daily diet include at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day. Slide96:  Sources: Beverages soup water Milk Vegetables 87% Fresh fruits 86% Eggs 74% Beef 60% Bread 36%

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