NurseReview.Org - The Sensory System

0 %
100 %
Information about NurseReview.Org - The Sensory System

Published on April 30, 2008

Author: nclexvideos

Source: slideshare.net

Description

http://NurseReview.Org The Sensory System

The Sensory System

Examining the sensory system provides information regarding the integrity of the Spinothalamic Tract , posterior columns of the spinal cord and parietal lobes of the brain.

Examining the sensory system provides information regarding the integrity of the Spinothalamic Tract , posterior columns of the spinal cord and parietal lobes of the brain.

Client preparation Examination gown Sit comfortably on bed or exam table Explain re position changes Reassure and provide with clear directions

Examination gown

Sit comfortably on bed or exam table

Explain re position changes

Reassure and provide with clear directions

Equipment Cotton ball Objects to feel, quarter or key etc. Test tubes with hot/cold H2O Tuning fork, low pitched

Cotton ball

Objects to feel, quarter or key etc.

Test tubes with hot/cold H2O

Tuning fork, low pitched

Screening Test Only necessary to evaluate the following Lateral aspect of upper thighs Inner aspect of upper arms Dorsal or palmer surface of hands Bottom or dorsal surface of feet

Only necessary to evaluate the following

Lateral aspect of upper thighs

Inner aspect of upper arms

Dorsal or palmer surface of hands

Bottom or dorsal surface of feet

Neural Pathways Sensory impulses travel to the brain via 2 ascending neural pathways Spinothalamic tract Posterior columns Impulses originate in the afferent fibers of the peripheral nerves, are carried through the posterior dorsal root into the spinal cord.

Sensory impulses travel to the brain via

2 ascending neural pathways

Spinothalamic tract

Posterior columns

Impulses originate in the afferent fibers of the peripheral nerves, are carried through the posterior dorsal root into the spinal cord.

Lateral Spinothalamic Tract Pain Temperature Crude & Light Touch

Pain

Temperature

Crude & Light Touch

Posterior Columns Position Vibration Fine touch

Position

Vibration

Fine touch

Assessment Scatter stimuli over the distal and proximal parts of all extremities and trunk to cover most of the dermatomes. Abnormal symptoms may indicate need to test the entire body surface Pain Numbness Tingling

Scatter stimuli over the distal and proximal parts of all extremities and trunk to cover most of the dermatomes.

Abnormal symptoms may indicate need to test the entire body surface

Pain

Numbness

Tingling

Compare sensations on symmetric parts of the body If decrease in sensation Systematic testing From point of decreased sensation toward sensitive area Note where sensation changes Map borders of deficient area, Diagram

Compare sensations on symmetric parts of the body

If decrease in sensation

Systematic testing

From point of decreased sensation toward sensitive area

Note where sensation changes

Map borders of deficient area, Diagram

Note if the pattern of sensory loss is “distal” Glove & stocking ( hands & feet) Dermatones C3- front of neck T4 - nipples T10 – umbilicus C6 – thumb L1 inguinal

Note if the pattern of sensory loss is “distal”

Glove & stocking ( hands & feet)

Dermatones

C3- front of neck

T4 - nipples

T10 – umbilicus

C6 – thumb

L1 inguinal

Dermatones L4 – Knee L5 – Anterior ankle & foot Dermatone = bandof skin innervated by the sensory root of a single spinal nerve.

L4 – Knee

L5 – Anterior ankle & foot

Dermatone = bandof skin innervated by the sensory root of a single spinal nerve.

Light Touch Sensation Use wisp of cotton Ask clients to close both eyes and tell you what they feel and where Normal Findings Correctly identifies light touch In some older clients light touch and pain sensations may be decreased

Use wisp of cotton

Ask clients to close both eyes and tell you what they feel and where

Normal Findings

Correctly identifies light touch

In some older clients light touch and pain sensations may be decreased

Abnormal findings Disorders that can alter perception of sensations Peripheral neuropathies due to: Diabetes Folic acid deficiencies Alcoholism Lesions of the ascending spinal cord, brain stem, cranial nerves, and cerebral cortex

Disorders that can alter perception of sensations

Peripheral neuropathies due to:

Diabetes

Folic acid deficiencies

Alcoholism

Lesions of the ascending spinal cord, brain stem, cranial nerves, and cerebral cortex

Abnormal findings to Touch Anesthesia = absent Hypoesthesia = decreased Hyperesthesia = increased

Anesthesia = absent

Hypoesthesia = decreased

Hyperesthesia = increased

Pain Sensation Pin prick Tongue blade, dull & sharp Ask to distinguish 2 sec. b/t each stimulus to avoid summation (frequent consecutive stimuli percieved as one strong stimulus)

Pin prick

Tongue blade, dull & sharp

Ask to distinguish

2 sec. b/t each stimulus to avoid summation

(frequent consecutive stimuli percieved as one strong stimulus)

Abnormalities to pain Analgesia = absence of pain sensation Hypalgesia = decreased Hyperalgesia = increased Apply lightest pressure to obtain response

Analgesia = absence of pain sensation

Hypalgesia = decreased

Hyperalgesia = increased

Apply lightest pressure to obtain response

Temperature Only tested when pain sensation is abnormal. Temp. & pain travel in the lateral spinothalamic tract Test tubes, hot & cold H2O

Only tested when pain sensation is abnormal.

Temp. & pain travel in the lateral spinothalamic tract

Test tubes, hot & cold H2O

Vibration Low pitched tuning fork (128Hz) Distal interphalangeal joint (finger & big toe) Ask what the patient feels. Ask to tell when the vibration stops and then touch the fork to stop it. If impaired- proceed to more proximal joints or bony prominances.

Low pitched tuning fork (128Hz)

Distal interphalangeal joint (finger & big toe)

Ask what the patient feels. Ask to tell when the vibration stops and then touch the fork to stop it. If impaired- proceed to more proximal joints or bony prominances.

Posterior Column Tract Vibration – often first sense to be lost in peripheral neuropathy. Loss = posterior column disease, lesion of peripheral nerve or root

Vibration – often first sense to be lost in peripheral neuropathy.

Loss = posterior column disease, lesion of peripheral nerve or root

Position ( Kinesthesia) Passive movement of extremity Finger or big toe up and down Hold by sides b/t thumb and index finger If position sense is impaired, move proximally to next joint If position sense intact distally , then it is OK proximally.

Passive movement of extremity

Finger or big toe up and down

Hold by sides b/t thumb and index finger

If position sense is impaired, move proximally to next joint

If position sense intact distally , then it is OK proximally.

Tactile Discrimination Sensory cortex Eyes closed during testing Stereognosis= identification of an object by feel Astereognosis, inability to recognize objects

Sensory cortex

Eyes closed during testing

Stereognosis= identification of an object by feel

Astereognosis, inability to recognize objects

Number identification= Graphesthesia Used when stereognosis prevented due to motor impairment for ex. In arthritis Use blunt end of pen/pencil to draw number Two-point discrimination Alternate double with single stimulus Minimal distance1 from 2 points= less than 5mm on finger pads

Number identification= Graphesthesia

Used when stereognosis prevented due to motor impairment for ex. In arthritis

Use blunt end of pen/pencil to draw number

Two-point discrimination

Alternate double with single stimulus

Minimal distance1 from 2 points= less than 5mm on finger pads

Point Localization Touch pt’s skin Open eyes and point to where touched Useful trunk & legs Extinction Simultaneously stimulate same area both sides of body Ask how many points felt and where

Point Localization

Touch pt’s skin

Open eyes and point to where touched

Useful trunk & legs

Extinction

Simultaneously stimulate same area both sides of body

Ask how many points felt and where

charting If normal Identifies light touch, dull and sharp sensations to trunk and extremities. Vibratory sensation, stereognosis, graphesthesia, two-point discrimination intact.

If normal

Identifies light touch, dull and sharp sensations to trunk and extremities.

Vibratory sensation, stereognosis, graphesthesia, two-point discrimination intact.

Abnormal results in these tests indicate lesions of the sensory cortex. These tests not done on children 6 yrs and younger. 65yrs &older loss of sensation of vibration at the ankle Position sense in big toe may be lost Tactile sensation impaired

Abnormal results in these tests indicate lesions of the sensory cortex.

These tests not done on children 6 yrs and younger.

65yrs &older

loss of sensation of vibration at the ankle

Position sense in big toe may be lost

Tactile sensation impaired

Infants and toddlers Little sensory testing Hypoesthesia Responds to pain by crying General reflex withdrawal of all limbs 7 – 9mos.can localize stimulus

Little sensory testing

Hypoesthesia

Responds to pain by crying

General reflex withdrawal of all limbs

7 – 9mos.can localize stimulus

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

nclex questions on the sensory system - Bing - pdfsdir.com

Related searches for nclex questions on the sensory system ... Apr 30, 2008 · http://NurseReview.Org The Sensory System. http://NurseReview.Org
Read more

NurseReview.Org - Cesarean birth - Scribd

NurseReview.org Cesarean Birth Cesarean birth ... Insert indwelling catheter to continuous gravity drainage system either just ... Sensory /Perceptual ...
Read more

Nursing Resource Slides: The Sensory System - nursereview.org

Nursing Resource Slides: The Sensory System. If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to our RSS feed. One advantage of subscribing to RSS feeds is ...
Read more

NurseReview.Org - The infant of an hiv positive mother

NURSEREVIEW. ORG THE INFANT OF AN HIV ... risk for Immature immune system, ... neglect/overprotection by caregivers may limit sensory/movement stimuli and ...
Read more

Sensory System in Humans - DnaTube.com

The purpose of sensory system is to sense your ... Sensory System in Humans. The purpose of sensory system is to sense your ... NurseReview.Org ...
Read more

System and balance of the Vestibular - DnaTube.com ...

Vestibular is a sensory system located in the inner ear. ... System and balance of the Vestibular. ... NurseReview.Org ...
Read more

NurseReview.Org - Reflexes - HubSlide

http://NurseReview.Org. Toggle navigation. BUSINESS; EDUCATION; TECHNOLOGY; TRAVEL; MORE TOPICS; Sign up
Read more

Nclex Medical Surgical: Neurosensory Disorder Nclex RN ...

Nclex Medical Surgical: Neurosensory Disorder Nclex RN Review Course. #1 source of information for nurses all over the world. NurseReview.Org ... sensory ...
Read more