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Published on November 1, 2007

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MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM Nurse Licensure Examination Review

Review of Anatomy and Physiology The musculo-skeletal system consists of the muscles, tendons, bones and cartilage together with the joints The primary function of which is to produce skeletal movements

The musculo-skeletal system consists of the muscles, tendons, bones and cartilage together with the joints

The primary function of which is to produce skeletal movements

Muscles Three types of muscles exist in the body 1. Skeletal Muscles Voluntary and striated 2. Cardiac muscles Involuntary and striated 3. Smooth/Visceral muscles Involuntary and NON-striated

Three types of muscles exist in the body

1. Skeletal Muscles

Voluntary and striated

2. Cardiac muscles

Involuntary and striated

3. Smooth/Visceral muscles

Involuntary and NON-striated

TENDONS Bands of fibrous connective tissue that tie bones to muscles

Bands of fibrous connective tissue that tie bones to muscles

LIGAMENTS Strong, dense and flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones to another bone

Strong, dense and flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones to another bone

BONES Variously classified according to shape, location and size Functions 1. Locomotion 2. Protection 3. Support and lever 4. Blood production 5. Mineral deposition

Variously classified according to shape, location and size

Functions

1. Locomotion

2. Protection

3. Support and lever

4. Blood production

5. Mineral deposition

JOINTS The part of the Skeleton where two or more bones are connected

The part of the Skeleton where two or more bones are connected

CARTILAGES A dense connective tissue that consists of fibers embedded in a strong gel-like substance

A dense connective tissue that consists of fibers embedded in a strong gel-like substance

BURSAE Sac containing fluid that are located around the joints to prevent friction

Sac containing fluid that are located around the joints to prevent friction

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM The nurse usually evaluates this small part of the over-all assessment and concentrates on the patient’s posture, body symmetry, gait and muscle and joint function

The nurse usually evaluates this small part of the over-all assessment and concentrates on the patient’s posture, body symmetry, gait and muscle and joint function

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. HISTORY 2. Physical Examination Perform a head to toe assessment Nurses need to inspect and palpate The special procedure is the assessment of joint and muscle movement Usually, a tape measure and a protractor are the only instruments

1. HISTORY

2. Physical Examination

Perform a head to toe assessment

Nurses need to inspect and palpate

The special procedure is the assessment of joint and muscle movement

Usually, a tape measure and a protractor are the only instruments

ASSESSMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM Gait Posture Muscular palpation Joint palpation Range of motion Muscle strength

Gait

Posture

Muscular palpation

Joint palpation

Range of motion

Muscle strength

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM LABORATORY PROCEDURES 1. BONE MARROW ASPIRATION Usually involves aspiration of the marrow to diagnose diseases like leukemia, aplastic anemia Usual site is the sternum and iliac crest Pre-test : Consent Intratest : Needle puncture may be painful Post-test : maintain pressure dressing and watch out for bleeding

LABORATORY PROCEDURES

1. BONE MARROW ASPIRATION

Usually involves aspiration of the marrow to diagnose diseases like leukemia, aplastic anemia

Usual site is the sternum and iliac crest

Pre-test : Consent

Intratest : Needle puncture may be painful

Post-test : maintain pressure dressing and watch out for bleeding

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM LABORATORY PROCEDURES 2. Arthroscopy A direct visualization of the joint cavity Pre-test : consent, explanation of procedure, NPO Intra-test : Sedative, Anesthesia, incision will be made Post-test : maintain dressing, ambulation as soon as awake, mild soreness of joint for 2 days, joint rest for a few days, ice application to relieve discomfort

LABORATORY PROCEDURES

2. Arthroscopy

A direct visualization of the joint cavity

Pre-test : consent, explanation of procedure, NPO

Intra-test : Sedative, Anesthesia, incision will be made

Post-test : maintain dressing, ambulation as soon as awake, mild soreness of joint for 2 days, joint rest for a few days, ice application to relieve discomfort

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM LABORATORY PROCEDURES 3. BONE SCAN Imaging study with the use of a contrast radioactive material Pre-test : Painless procedure, IV radioisotope is used, no special preparation, pregnancy is contraindicated Intra-test : IV injection, Waiting period of 2 hours before X-ray, Fluids allowed, Supine position for scanning Post-test : Increase fluid intake to flush out radioactive material

LABORATORY PROCEDURES

3. BONE SCAN

Imaging study with the use of a contrast radioactive material

Pre-test : Painless procedure, IV radioisotope is used, no special preparation, pregnancy is contraindicated

Intra-test : IV injection, Waiting period of 2 hours before X-ray, Fluids allowed, Supine position for scanning

Post-test : Increase fluid intake to flush out radioactive material

ASSESMENT OF THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM LABORATORY PROCEDURES 4. DXA- Dual-energy XRAY absorptiometry Assesses bone density to diagnose osteoporosis Uses LOW dose radiation to measure bone density Painless procedure, non-invasive, no special preparation Advise to remove jewelry

LABORATORY PROCEDURES

4. DXA- Dual-energy XRAY absorptiometry

Assesses bone density to diagnose osteoporosis

Uses LOW dose radiation to measure bone density

Painless procedure, non-invasive, no special preparation

Advise to remove jewelry

 

Common musculoskeletal problems The Nursing Management

Nursing Management of common musculo-skeletal problems PAIN These can be related to joint inflammation, traction, surgical intervention 1. Assess patient’s perception of pain 2. Instruct patient alternative pain management like meditation, heat and cold application, TENS and guided imagery

PAIN

These can be related to joint inflammation, traction, surgical intervention

1. Assess patient’s perception of pain

2. Instruct patient alternative pain management like meditation, heat and cold application, TENS and guided imagery

Nursing Management PAIN 3. Administer analgesics as prescribed Usually NSAIDS Meperidine can be given for severe pain 4. Assess the effectiveness of pain measures

PAIN

3. Administer analgesics as prescribed

Usually NSAIDS

Meperidine can be given for severe pain

4. Assess the effectiveness of pain measures

Nursing Management IMPAIRED PHYSICAL MOBILITY 1. Instruct patient to perform range of motion exercises, either passive or active 2. Provide support in ambulation with assistive devices 3. Turn and change position every 2 hours 4. Encourage mobility for a short period and provide positive reinforcements for small accomplishments

IMPAIRED PHYSICAL MOBILITY

1. Instruct patient to perform range of motion exercises, either passive or active

2. Provide support in ambulation with assistive devices

3. Turn and change position every 2 hours

4. Encourage mobility for a short period and provide positive reinforcements for small accomplishments

Nursing Management SELF-CARE DEFICITS 1. Assess functional levels of the patient 2. Provide support for feeding problems Place patient in Fowler’s position Provide assistive device and supervise mealtime Offer finger foods that can be handled by patient Keep suction equipment ready

SELF-CARE DEFICITS

1. Assess functional levels of the patient

2. Provide support for feeding problems

Place patient in Fowler’s position

Provide assistive device and supervise mealtime

Offer finger foods that can be handled by patient

Keep suction equipment ready

Nursing Management SELF-CARE DEFICITS 3. Assist patient with difficulty bathing and hygiene Assist with bath only when patient has difficulty Provide ample time for patient to finish activity

SELF-CARE DEFICITS

3. Assist patient with difficulty bathing and hygiene

Assist with bath only when patient has difficulty

Provide ample time for patient to finish activity

Musculoskeletal Modalities Traction Cast

Traction

Cast

Nursing Management Traction A method of fracture immobilization by applying equipments to align bone fragments Used for immobilization, bone alignment and relief of muscle spasm

Traction

A method of fracture immobilization by applying equipments to align bone fragments

Used for immobilization, bone alignment and relief of muscle spasm

Traction Skin traction Skeletal traction

Skin traction

Skeletal traction

Traction Pulling force exerted on bones to reduce or immobilize fractures, reduce muscle spasm, correct or prevent deformities

Pulling force exerted on bones to reduce or immobilize fractures, reduce muscle spasm, correct or prevent deformities

 

 

Nursing Management Traction: General principles 1. ALWAYS ensure that the weights hang freely and do not touch the floor 2. NEVER remove the weights 3. Maintain proper body alignment 4. Ensure that the pulleys and ropes are properly functioning and fastened by tying square knot

Traction: General principles

1. ALWAYS ensure that the weights hang freely and do not touch the floor

2. NEVER remove the weights

3. Maintain proper body alignment

4. Ensure that the pulleys and ropes are properly functioning and fastened by tying square knot

Nursing Management Traction: General principles 5. Observe and prevent foot drop Provide foot plate 6. Observe for DVT, skin irritation and breakdown 7. Provide pin care for clients in skeletal traction- use of hydrogen peroxide

Traction: General principles

5. Observe and prevent foot drop

Provide foot plate

6. Observe for DVT, skin irritation and breakdown

7. Provide pin care for clients in skeletal traction- use of hydrogen peroxide

Nursing Management CAST Immobilizing tool made of plaster of Paris or fiberglass Provides immobilization of the fracture

CAST

Immobilizing tool made of plaster of Paris or fiberglass

Provides immobilization of the fracture

Nursing Management CAST: types Long arm Short arm Spica

CAST: types

Long arm

Short arm

Spica

Casting Materials Plaster of Paris Drying takes 1-3 days If dry, it is SHINY, WHITE, hard and resistant Fiberglass Lightweight and dries in 20-30 minutes Water resistant

Plaster of Paris

Drying takes 1-3 days

If dry, it is SHINY, WHITE, hard and resistant

Fiberglass

Lightweight and dries in 20-30 minutes

Water resistant

Nursing Management CAST: General Nursing Care 1. Allow the cast to dry (usually 24-72 hours) 2. Handle a wet cast with the PALMS not the fingertips 3. Keep the casted extremity ELEVATED using a pillow 4. Turn the extremity for equal drying. DO NOT USE DRYER for plaster cast

CAST: General Nursing Care

1. Allow the cast to dry (usually 24-72 hours)

2. Handle a wet cast with the PALMS not the fingertips

3. Keep the casted extremity ELEVATED using a pillow

4. Turn the extremity for equal drying. DO NOT USE DRYER for plaster cast

Nursing Management CAST: General Nursing Care 5. Petal the edges of the cast to prevent crumbling of the edges 6. Examine the skin for pressure areas and Regularly check the pulses and skin

CAST: General Nursing Care

5. Petal the edges of the cast to prevent crumbling of the edges

6. Examine the skin for pressure areas and Regularly check the pulses and skin

Nursing Management CAST: General Nursing Care 7. Instruct the patient not to place sticks or small objects inside the cast 8. Monitor for the following: pain, swelling, discoloration, coolness, tingling or lack of sensation and diminished pulses

CAST: General Nursing Care

7. Instruct the patient not to place sticks or small objects inside the cast

8. Monitor for the following: pain, swelling, discoloration, coolness, tingling or lack of sensation and diminished pulses

Common Musculoskeletal conditions Nursing management

METABOLIC BONE DISORDERS Osteoporosis A disease of the bone characterized by a decrease in the bone mass and density with a change in bone structure

Osteoporosis

A disease of the bone characterized by a decrease in the bone mass and density with a change in bone structure

METABOLIC BONE DISORDERS Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology Normal homeostatic bone turnover is altered  rate of bone RESORPTION is greater than bone FORMATION  reduction in total bone mass  reduction in bone mineral density  prone to FRACTURE

Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology

Normal homeostatic bone turnover is altered  rate of bone RESORPTION is greater than bone FORMATION  reduction in total bone mass  reduction in bone mineral density  prone to FRACTURE

METABOLIC BONE DISORDERS Osteoporosis: TYPES 1. Primary Osteoporosis- advanced age, post-menopausal 2. Secondary osteoporosis- Steroid overuse, Renal failure

Osteoporosis: TYPES

1. Primary Osteoporosis- advanced age, post-menopausal

2. Secondary osteoporosis- Steroid overuse, Renal failure

METABOLIC BONE DISORDERS RISK factors for the development of Osteoporosis 1. Sedentary lifestyle 2. Age 3. Diet- caffeine, alcohol, low Ca and Vit D 4. Post-menopausal 5. Genetics- caucasian and asian 6. Immobility

RISK factors for the development of Osteoporosis

1. Sedentary lifestyle

2. Age

3. Diet- caffeine, alcohol, low Ca and Vit D

4. Post-menopausal

5. Genetics- caucasian and asian

6. Immobility

METABOLIC DISORDER ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Low stature 2. Fracture Femur 3. Bone pain

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Low stature

2. Fracture

Femur

3. Bone pain

METABOLIC DISORDER LABORATORY FINDINGS 1. DEXA-scan Provides information about bone mineral density T-score is at least 2.5 SD below the young adult mean value 2. X-ray studies

LABORATORY FINDINGS

1. DEXA-scan

Provides information about bone mineral density

T-score is at least 2.5 SD below the young adult mean value

2. X-ray studies

METABOLIC DISORDER Medical management of Osteoporosis 1. Diet therapy with calcium and Vitamin D 2. Hormone replacement therapy 3. Biphosphonates- Alendronate, risedronate produce increased bone mass by inhibiting the OSTEOCLAST 4. Moderate weight bearing exercises 5. Management of fractures

Medical management of Osteoporosis

1. Diet therapy with calcium and Vitamin D

2. Hormone replacement therapy

3. Biphosphonates- Alendronate, risedronate produce increased bone mass by inhibiting the OSTEOCLAST

4. Moderate weight bearing exercises

5. Management of fractures

METABOLIC DISORDER Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions 1. Promote understanding of osteoporosis and the treatment regimen Provide adequate dietary supplement of calcium and vitamin D Instruct to employ a regular program of moderate exercises and physical activity Manage the constipating side-effect of calcium supplements

Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions

1. Promote understanding of osteoporosis and the treatment regimen

Provide adequate dietary supplement of calcium and vitamin D

Instruct to employ a regular program of moderate exercises and physical activity

Manage the constipating side-effect of calcium supplements

METABOLIC DISORDER Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions Take calcium supplements with meals Take alendronate with an EMPTY stomach with water Instruct on intake of Hormonal replacement

Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions

Take calcium supplements with meals

Take alendronate with an EMPTY stomach with water

Instruct on intake of Hormonal replacement

METABOLIC DISORDER Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions 2. Relieve the pain Instruct the patient to rest on a firm mattress Suggest that knee flexion will cause relaxation of back muscles Heat application may provide comfort Encourage good posture and body mechanics Instruct to avoid twisting and heavy lifting

Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions

2. Relieve the pain

Instruct the patient to rest on a firm mattress

Suggest that knee flexion will cause relaxation of back muscles

Heat application may provide comfort

Encourage good posture and body mechanics

Instruct to avoid twisting and heavy lifting

METABOLIC DISORDER Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions 3. Improve bowel elimination Constipation is a problem of calcium supplements and immobility Advise intake of HIGH fiber diet and increased fluids

Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions

3. Improve bowel elimination

Constipation is a problem of calcium supplements and immobility

Advise intake of HIGH fiber diet and increased fluids

METABOLIC DISORDER Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions 4. Prevent injury Instruct to use isometric exercise to strengthen the trunk muscles AVOID sudden jarring, bending and strenuous lifting Provide a safe environment

Osteoporosis Nursing Interventions

4. Prevent injury

Instruct to use isometric exercise to strengthen the trunk muscles

AVOID sudden jarring, bending and strenuous lifting

Provide a safe environment

Juvenile rheumatoid Arthritis Definition: AUTO-IMMUNE inflammatory joint disorder of UNKNOWN cause SYSTEMIC chronic disorder of connective tissue Diagnosed BEFORE age 16 years old

Definition:

AUTO-IMMUNE inflammatory joint disorder of UNKNOWN cause

SYSTEMIC chronic disorder of connective tissue

Diagnosed BEFORE age 16 years old

Juvenile rheumatoid Arthritis PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : unknown Affected by stress, climate and genetics Common in girls 2-5 and 9-12 y.o.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : unknown

Affected by stress, climate and genetics

Common in girls 2-5 and 9-12 y.o.

Juvenile rheumatoid Arthritis Poor prognosis Very Good prognosis Anorexia, anemia, fatigue Five or more joints Less than 4 joints Five or more joints Weight Bearing joints IRIDOCYCLITIS Salmon-pink rash Morning joint stiffness and fever MILD joint pain and swelling FEVER Polyarticular Pauci-articular Systemic JRA

JRA Symptoms may decrease as child enters adulthood With periods of remissions and exacerbations

Symptoms may decrease as child enters adulthood

With periods of remissions and exacerbations

JRA Medical Management ASPIRIN and NSAIDs- mainstay treatment Slow-acting anti-rheumatic drugs Corticosteroids

Medical Management

ASPIRIN and NSAIDs- mainstay treatment

Slow-acting anti-rheumatic drugs

Corticosteroids

JRA Nursing Management Encourage normal performance of daily activities Assist child in ROM exercises Administer medications Encourage social and emotional development

Nursing Management

Encourage normal performance of daily activities

Assist child in ROM exercises

Administer medications

Encourage social and emotional development

JRA Nursing Management During acute attack: SPLINT the joints NEUTRAL positioning Warm or cold packs

Nursing Management

During acute attack:

SPLINT the joints

NEUTRAL positioning

Warm or cold packs

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS The most common form of degenerative joint disorder

OSTEOARTHRITIS

The most common form of degenerative joint disorder

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS Chronic, NON-systemic disorder of joints

OSTEOARTHRITIS

Chronic, NON-systemic disorder of joints

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Pathophysiology Injury, genetic, Previous joint damage, Obesity , Advanced age  Stimulate the chondrocytes to release chemicals  chemicals will cause cartilage degeneration, reactive inflammation of the synovial lining and bone stiffening

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Pathophysiology

Injury, genetic, Previous joint damage, Obesity , Advanced age  Stimulate the chondrocytes to release chemicals  chemicals will cause cartilage degeneration, reactive inflammation of the synovial lining and bone stiffening

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Risk factors 1. Increased age 2. Obesity 3. Repetitive use of joints with previous joint damage 4. Anatomical deformity 5. genetic susceptibility

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Risk factors

1. Increased age

2. Obesity

3. Repetitive use of joints with previous joint damage

4. Anatomical deformity

5. genetic susceptibility

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings 1. Joint pain 2. Joint stiffness 3. Functional joint impairment limitation The joint involvement is ASYMMETRICAL This is not systemic, there is no FEVER, no severe swelling Atrophy of unused muscles Usual joint are the WEIGHT bearing joints

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings

1. Joint pain

2. Joint stiffness

3. Functional joint impairment limitation

The joint involvement is ASYMMETRICAL

This is not systemic, there is no FEVER, no severe swelling

Atrophy of unused muscles

Usual joint are the WEIGHT bearing joints

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings 1. Joint pain Caused by Inflamed synovium Stretching of the joint capsule Irritation of nerve endings

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings

1. Joint pain

Caused by

Inflamed synovium

Stretching of the joint capsule

Irritation of nerve endings

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings 2. Stiffness commonly occurs in the morning after awakening Lasts only for less than 30 minutes DECREASES with movement Crepitation may be elicited

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Assessment findings

2. Stiffness

commonly occurs in the morning after awakening

Lasts only for less than 30 minutes

DECREASES with movement

Crepitation may be elicited

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Diagnostic findings 1. X-ray Narrowing of joint space Loss of cartilage Osteophytes 2. Blood tests will show no evidence of systemic inflammation and are not useful

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Diagnostic findings

1. X-ray

Narrowing of joint space

Loss of cartilage

Osteophytes

2. Blood tests will show no evidence of systemic inflammation and are not useful

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Medical management 1. Weight reduction 2. Use of splinting devices to support joints 3. Occupational and physical therapy 4. Pharmacologic management Use of PARACETAMOL, NSAIDS Use of Glucosamine and chondroitin Topical analgesics Intra-articular steroids to decrease inflam

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Medical management

1. Weight reduction

2. Use of splinting devices to support joints

3. Occupational and physical therapy

4. Pharmacologic management

Use of PARACETAMOL, NSAIDS

Use of Glucosamine and chondroitin

Topical analgesics

Intra-articular steroids to decrease inflam

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Nursing Interventions 1. Provide relief of PAIN Administer prescribed analgesics Application of heat modalities. ICE PACKS may be used in the early acute stage!!! Plan daily activities when pain is less severe Pain meds before exercising

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Nursing Interventions

1. Provide relief of PAIN

Administer prescribed analgesics

Application of heat modalities. ICE PACKS may be used in the early acute stage!!!

Plan daily activities when pain is less severe

Pain meds before exercising

DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS: Nursing Interventions 2. Advise patient to reduce weight Aerobic exercise Walking 3. Administer prescribed medications NSAIDS

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Nursing Interventions

2. Advise patient to reduce weight

Aerobic exercise

Walking

3. Administer prescribed medications

NSAIDS

Rheumatoid arthritis A type of chronic systemic inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue disorder affecting more women (ages 35-45) than men

A type of chronic systemic inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue disorder affecting more women (ages 35-45) than men

Rheumatoid arthritis FACTORS: Genetic Auto-immune connective tissue disorders Fatigue, emotional stress, cold, infection

FACTORS:

Genetic

Auto-immune connective tissue disorders

Fatigue, emotional stress, cold, infection

Rheumatoid arthritis Pathophysiology Immune reaction in the synovium  attracts neutrophils  releases enzymes  breakdown of collagen  irritates the synovial lining  causing synovial inflammation edema and pannus formation and joint erosions and swelling

Pathophysiology

Immune reaction in the synovium  attracts neutrophils  releases enzymes  breakdown of collagen  irritates the synovial lining  causing synovial inflammation edema and pannus formation and joint erosions and swelling

Rheumatoid arthritis ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. PAIN 2. Joint swelling and stiffness- SYMMETRICAL, Bilateral 3. Warmth, erythema and lack of function 4. Fever , weight loss, anemia , fatigue 5. Palpation of join reveals spongy tissue 6. Hesitancy in joint movement

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. PAIN

2. Joint swelling and stiffness- SYMMETRICAL, Bilateral

3. Warmth, erythema and lack of function

4. Fever , weight loss, anemia , fatigue

5. Palpation of join reveals spongy tissue

6. Hesitancy in joint movement

Rheumatoid arthritis ASSESSMENT FINDINGS Joint involvement is SYMMETRICAL and BILATERAL Characteristically beginning in the hands, wrist and feet Joint STIFFNESS occurs early morning, lasts MORE than 30 minutes, not relieved by movement, diminishes as the day progresses

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

Joint involvement is SYMMETRICAL and BILATERAL

Characteristically beginning in the hands, wrist and feet

Joint STIFFNESS occurs early morning, lasts MORE than 30 minutes, not relieved by movement, diminishes as the day progresses

Rheumatoid arthritis ASSESSMENT FINDINGS Joints are swollen and warm Painful when moved Deformities are common in the hands and feet causing misalignment Rheumatoid nodules may be found in the subcutaneous tissues

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

Joints are swollen and warm

Painful when moved

Deformities are common in the hands and feet causing misalignment

Rheumatoid nodules may be found in the subcutaneous tissues

Rheumatoid arthritis Diagnostic test 1. X-ray Shows bony erosion 2. Blood studies reveal (+) rheumatoid factor, elevated ESR and CRP and ANTI-nuclear antibody 3. Arthrocentesis shows synovial fluid that is cloudy, milky or dark yellow containing numerous WBC and inflammatory proteins

Diagnostic test

1. X-ray

Shows bony erosion

2. Blood studies reveal (+) rheumatoid factor, elevated ESR and CRP and ANTI-nuclear antibody

3. Arthrocentesis shows synovial fluid that is cloudy, milky or dark yellow containing numerous WBC and inflammatory proteins

Rheumatoid arthritis MEDICAL MANAGEMENT 1. Therapeutic dose of NSAIDS and Aspirin to reduce inflammation 2. Chemotherapy with methotrexate, antimalarials, gold therapy and steroid 3. For advanced cases- arthroplasty, synovectomy 4. Nutritional therapy

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

1. Therapeutic dose of NSAIDS and Aspirin to reduce inflammation

2. Chemotherapy with methotrexate, antimalarials, gold therapy and steroid

3. For advanced cases- arthroplasty, synovectomy

4. Nutritional therapy

Rheumatoid arthritis MEDICAL MANAGEMENT GOLD THERAPY: IM or Oral preparation Takes several months (3-6) before effects can be seen Can damage the kidney and causes bone marrow depression

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

GOLD THERAPY:

IM or Oral preparation

Takes several months (3-6) before effects can be seen

Can damage the kidney and causes bone marrow depression

Rheumatoid arthritis Nursing MANAGEMENT 1. Relieve pain and discomfort USE splints to immobilize the affected extremity during acute stage of the disease and inflammation to REDUCE DEFORMITY Administer prescribed medications Suggest application of COLD packs during the acute phase of pain, then HEAT application as the inflammation subsides

Nursing MANAGEMENT

1. Relieve pain and discomfort

USE splints to immobilize the affected extremity during acute stage of the disease and inflammation to REDUCE DEFORMITY

Administer prescribed medications

Suggest application of COLD packs during the acute phase of pain, then HEAT application as the inflammation subsides

Rheumatoid arthritis Nursing MANAGEMENT 2. Decrease patient fatigue Schedule activity when pain is less severe Provide adequate periods of rests 3. Promote restorative sleep

Nursing MANAGEMENT

2. Decrease patient fatigue

Schedule activity when pain is less severe

Provide adequate periods of rests

3. Promote restorative sleep

Rheumatoid arthritis Nursing Management 4. Increase patient mobility Advise proper posture and body mechanics Support joint in functional position Advise ACTIVE ROME

Nursing Management

4. Increase patient mobility

Advise proper posture and body mechanics

Support joint in functional position

Advise ACTIVE ROME

Rheumatoid arthritis Nursing Management 5. Provide Diet therapy Patients experience anorexia, nausea and weight loss Regular diet with caloric restrictions because steroids may increase appetite Supplements of vitamins, iron and PROTEIN

Nursing Management

5. Provide Diet therapy

Patients experience anorexia, nausea and weight loss

Regular diet with caloric restrictions because steroids may increase appetite

Supplements of vitamins, iron and PROTEIN

Rheumatoid arthritis 6. Increase Mobility and prevent deformity: Lie FLAT on a firm mattress Lie PRONE several times to prevent HIP FLEXION contracture Use one pillow under the head because of risk of dorsal kyphosis NO Pillow under the joints because this promotes flexion contractures

6. Increase Mobility and prevent deformity:

Lie FLAT on a firm mattress

Lie PRONE several times to prevent HIP FLEXION contracture

Use one pillow under the head because of risk of dorsal kyphosis

NO Pillow under the joints because this promotes flexion contractures

Hot versus Cold ACUTE ATTACK After acute attack Use to control inflammation and pain Use to RELIEVE joint stiffness, pain and muscle spasm Cold HOT

Gouty arthritis A systemic disease caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint and body tissues CAUSES: 1. Primary gout- disorder of Purine metabolism 2. Secondary gout- excessive uric acid in the blood like leukemia

A systemic disease caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint and body tissues

CAUSES:

1. Primary gout- disorder of Purine metabolism

2. Secondary gout- excessive uric acid in the blood like leukemia

 

 

Gouty arthritis ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Severe pain in the involved joints, initially the big toe 2. Swelling and inflammation of the joint 3. TOPHI- yellowish-whitish, irregular deposits in the skin that break open and reveal a gritty appearance 4. PODAGRA

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Severe pain in the involved joints, initially the big toe

2. Swelling and inflammation of the joint

3. TOPHI- yellowish-whitish, irregular deposits in the skin that break open and reveal a gritty appearance

4. PODAGRA

Gouty arthritis ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 5. Fever, malaise 6. Body weakness and headache 7. Renal stones

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

5. Fever, malaise

6. Body weakness and headache

7. Renal stones

Gouty arthritis DIAGNOSTIC TEST Elevated levels of uric acid in the blood Uric acid stones in the kidney

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Elevated levels of uric acid in the blood

Uric acid stones in the kidney

Gouty arthritis Medical management 1. Allupurinol- take it WITH FOOD Rash signifies allergic reaction 2. Colchicine For acute attack

Medical management

1. Allupurinol- take it WITH FOOD

Rash signifies allergic reaction

2. Colchicine

For acute attack

Gouty arthritis Nursing Intervention 1. Provide a diet with LOW purine Avoid Organ meats, aged and processed foods STRICT dietary restriction is NOT necessary 2. Encourage an increased fluid intake (2-3L/day) to prevent stone formation 3. Instruct the patient to avoid alcohol 4. Provide alkaline ash diet to increase urinary pH 5. Provide bed rest during early attack of gout

Nursing Intervention

1. Provide a diet with LOW purine

Avoid Organ meats, aged and processed foods

STRICT dietary restriction is NOT necessary

2. Encourage an increased fluid intake (2-3L/day) to prevent stone formation

3. Instruct the patient to avoid alcohol

4. Provide alkaline ash diet to increase urinary pH

5. Provide bed rest during early attack of gout

Gouty arthritis Nursing Intervention 6. Position the affected extremity in mild flexion 7. Administer anti-gout medication and analgesics

Nursing Intervention

6. Position the affected extremity in mild flexion

7. Administer anti-gout medication and analgesics

Fracture A break in the continuity of the bone and is defined according to its type and extent

A break in the continuity of the bone and is defined according to its type and extent

Fracture Severe mechanical Stress to bone  bone fracture Direct Blows Crushing forces Sudden twisting motion Extreme muscle contraction

Severe mechanical Stress to bone  bone fracture

Direct Blows

Crushing forces

Sudden twisting motion

Extreme muscle contraction

Fracture TYPES OF FRACTURE 1. Complete fracture Involves a break across the entire cross-section 2. Incomplete fracture The break occurs through only a part of the cross-section

TYPES OF FRACTURE

1. Complete fracture

Involves a break across the entire cross-section

2. Incomplete fracture

The break occurs through only a part of the cross-section

 

Fracture TYPES OF FRACTURE 1. Closed fracture The fracture that does not cause a break in the skin 2. Open fracture The fracture that involves a break in the skin

TYPES OF FRACTURE

1. Closed fracture

The fracture that does not cause a break in the skin

2. Open fracture

The fracture that involves a break in the skin

 

Fracture TYPES OF FRACTURE 1. Comminuted fracture A fracture that involves production of several bone fragments 2. Simple fracture A fracture that involves break of bone into two parts or one

TYPES OF FRACTURE

1. Comminuted fracture

A fracture that involves production of several bone fragments

2. Simple fracture

A fracture that involves break of bone into two parts or one

Fracture ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Pain or tenderness over the involved area 2. Loss of function 3. Deformity 4. Shortening 5. Crepitus 6. Swelling and discoloration

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Pain or tenderness over the involved area

2. Loss of function

3. Deformity

4. Shortening

5. Crepitus

6. Swelling and discoloration

Fracture ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Pain Continuous and increases in severity Muscles spasm accompanies the fracture is a reaction of the body to immobilize the fractured bone

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Pain

Continuous and increases in severity

Muscles spasm accompanies the fracture is a reaction of the body to immobilize the fractured bone

Fracture ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 2. Loss of function Abnormal movement and pain can result to this manifestation

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

2. Loss of function

Abnormal movement and pain can result to this manifestation

Fracture ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 3. Deformity Displacement, angulations or rotation of the fragments Causes deformity

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

3. Deformity

Displacement, angulations or rotation of the fragments Causes deformity

Fracture ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 4. Crepitus A grating sensation produced when the bone fragments rub each other

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

4. Crepitus

A grating sensation produced when the bone fragments rub each other

Fracture DIAGNOSTIC TEST X-ray

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

X-ray

Fracture EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE 1. Immobilize any suspected fracture 2. Support the extremity above and below when moving the affected part from a vehicle 3. Suggested temporary splints- hard board, stick, rolled sheets 4. Apply sling if forearm fracture is suspected or the suspected fractured arm maybe bandaged to the chest

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE

1. Immobilize any suspected fracture

2. Support the extremity above and below when moving the affected part from a vehicle

3. Suggested temporary splints- hard board, stick, rolled sheets

4. Apply sling if forearm fracture is suspected or the suspected fractured arm maybe bandaged to the chest

Fracture EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE 5. Open fracture is managed by covering a clean/sterile gauze to prevent contamination 6. DO NOT attempt to reduce the facture

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE

5. Open fracture is managed by covering a clean/sterile gauze to prevent contamination

6. DO NOT attempt to reduce the facture

Fracture MEDICAL MANAGEMENT 1. Reduction of fracture either open or closed, Immobilization and Restoration of function 2. Antibiotics, Muscle relaxants and Pain medications

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

1. Reduction of fracture either open or closed, Immobilization and Restoration of function

2. Antibiotics, Muscle relaxants and Pain medications

Fracture General Nursing MANAGEMENT For CLOSED FRACTURE 1. Assist in reduction and immobilization 2. Administer pain medication and muscle relaxants 3. teach patient to care for the cast 4. Teach patient about potential complication of fracture and to report infection, poor alignment and continuous pain

General Nursing MANAGEMENT

For CLOSED FRACTURE

1. Assist in reduction and immobilization

2. Administer pain medication and muscle relaxants

3. teach patient to care for the cast

4. Teach patient about potential complication of fracture and to report infection, poor alignment and continuous pain

Fracture General Nursing MANAGEMENT For OPEN FRACTURE 1. Prevent wound and bone infection Administer prescribed antibiotics Administer tetanus prophylaxis Assist in serial wound debridement 2. Elevate the extremity to prevent edema formation 3. Administer care of traction and cast

General Nursing MANAGEMENT

For OPEN FRACTURE

1. Prevent wound and bone infection

Administer prescribed antibiotics

Administer tetanus prophylaxis

Assist in serial wound debridement

2. Elevate the extremity to prevent edema formation

3. Administer care of traction and cast

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS Early 1. Shock 2. Fat embolism 3. Compartment syndrome 4. Infection 5. DVT

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS

Early

1. Shock

2. Fat embolism

3. Compartment syndrome

4. Infection

5. DVT

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS Late 1. Delayed union 2. Avascular necrosis 3. Delayed reaction to fixation devices 4. Complex regional syndrome

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS

Late

1. Delayed union

2. Avascular necrosis

3. Delayed reaction to fixation devices

4. Complex regional syndrome

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism Occurs usually in fractures of the long bones Fat globules may move into the blood stream because the marrow pressure is greater than capillary pressure Fat globules occlude the small blood vessels of the lungs, brain kidneys and other organs

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism

Occurs usually in fractures of the long bones

Fat globules may move into the blood stream because the marrow pressure is greater than capillary pressure

Fat globules occlude the small blood vessels of the lungs, brain kidneys and other organs

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism Onset is rapid, within 24-72 hours ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Sudden dyspnea and respiratory distress 2. tachycardia 3. Chest pain 4. Crackles, wheezes and cough 5. Petechial rashes over the chest, axilla and hard palate

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism

Onset is rapid, within 24-72 hours

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Sudden dyspnea and respiratory distress

2. tachycardia

3. Chest pain

4. Crackles, wheezes and cough

5. Petechial rashes over the chest, axilla and hard palate

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism Nursing Management 1. Support the respiratory function Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death Administer O2 in high concentration Prepare for possible intubation and ventilator support

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism

Nursing Management

1. Support the respiratory function

Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death

Administer O2 in high concentration

Prepare for possible intubation and ventilator support

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism Nursing Management 2. Administer drugs Corticosteroids Dopamine Morphine

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism

Nursing Management

2. Administer drugs

Corticosteroids

Dopamine

Morphine

Fracture FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism Nursing Management 3. Institute preventive measures Immediate immobilization of fracture Minimal fracture manipulation Adequate support for fractured bone during turning and positioning Maintain adequate hydration and electrolyte balance

FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS: Fat Embolism

Nursing Management

3. Institute preventive measures

Immediate immobilization of fracture

Minimal fracture manipulation

Adequate support for fractured bone during turning and positioning

Maintain adequate hydration and electrolyte balance

Fracture Early complication: Compartment syndrome A complication that develops when tissue perfusion in the muscles is less than required for tissue viability

Early complication: Compartment syndrome

A complication that develops when tissue perfusion in the muscles is less than required for tissue viability

Fracture Early complication: Compartment syndrome ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Pain- Deep, throbbing and UNRELIEVED pain by opiods Pain is due to reduction in the size of the muscle compartment by tight cast Pain is due to increased mass in the compartment by edema, swelling or hemorrhage

Early complication: Compartment syndrome

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Pain- Deep, throbbing and UNRELIEVED pain by opiods

Pain is due to reduction in the size of the muscle compartment by tight cast

Pain is due to increased mass in the compartment by edema, swelling or hemorrhage

Fracture Early complication: Compartment syndrome ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 2. Paresthesia- burning or tingling sensation 3. Numbness 4. Motor weakness 5. Pulselessness, impaired capillary refill time and cyanotic skin

Early complication: Compartment syndrome

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

2. Paresthesia- burning or tingling sensation

3. Numbness

4. Motor weakness

5. Pulselessness, impaired capillary refill time and cyanotic skin

Fracture Early complication: Compartment syndrome Medical and Nursing management 1. Assess frequently the neurovascular status of the casted extremity 2. Elevate the extremity above the level of the heart 3. Assist in cast removal and FASCIOTOMY

Early complication: Compartment syndrome

Medical and Nursing management

1. Assess frequently the neurovascular status of the casted extremity

2. Elevate the extremity above the level of the heart

3. Assist in cast removal and FASCIOTOMY

Strains Excessive stretching of a muscle or tendon Nursing management 1. Immobilize affected part 2. Apply cold packs initially, then heat packs 3. Limit joint activity 4. Administer NSAIDs and muscle relaxants

Excessive stretching of a muscle or tendon

Nursing management

1. Immobilize affected part

2. Apply cold packs initially, then heat packs

3. Limit joint activity

4. Administer NSAIDs and muscle relaxants

Sprains Excessive stretching of the LIGAMENTS Nursing management 1. Immobilize extremity and advise rest 2. Apply cold packs initially then heat packs 3. Compression bandage may be applied to relieve edema 4. Assist in cast application 5. Administer NSAIDS

Excessive stretching of the LIGAMENTS

Nursing management

1. Immobilize extremity and advise rest

2. Apply cold packs initially then heat packs

3. Compression bandage may be applied to relieve edema

4. Assist in cast application

5. Administer NSAIDS

End of Musculoskeletal

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