advertisement

NurseReview.Org - Cholinergic Blockers Updates (pharmacology summaries)

100 %
0 %
advertisement
Information about NurseReview.Org - Cholinergic Blockers Updates (pharmacology summaries)
Education

Published on September 10, 2008

Author: jben501

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Visit NurseReview.Org for more medical / nursing slides for your nclex, nle, ang cgfns exams.
advertisement

Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Cholinergic Agents and Cholinergic Blocking Agents

Cholinergic Agents Drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) The PSNS is the opposing system to the SNS

Drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)

The PSNS is the opposing system to the SNS

Cholinergic Agents Also known as cholinergic agonists or parasympathomimetics

Also known as

cholinergic agonists

or

parasympathomimetics

Instructors may wish to use EIC Image #56: The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems and Their Relationships to One Another

Cholinergic Agents Mimic the effects of the PSNS neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh)

Mimic the effects of the PSNS neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Cholinergic Receptors Two types, determined by: Location Action once stimulated Nicotinic receptors and Muscarinic receptors

Two types, determined by:

Location

Action once stimulated

Nicotinic receptors and Muscarinic receptors

Nicotinic Receptors Located in the ganglia of both the PSNS and SNS Named “nicotinic” because can be stimulated by the alkaloid nicotine

Located in the ganglia of both the PSNS and SNS

Named “nicotinic” because can be stimulated by the alkaloid nicotine

Muscarinic Receptors Located postsynaptically: Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glands of parasympathetic fibers Effector organs of cholinergic sympathetic fibers Named “muscarinic” because can be stimulated by the alkaloid muscarine

Located postsynaptically:

Smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle

Glands of parasympathetic fibers

Effector organs of cholinergic sympathetic fibers

Named “muscarinic” because can be stimulated by the alkaloid muscarine

Instructors may wish to insert EIC Image #57: The Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, and Somatic Nervous Systems This slide illustrates location of the nicotinic and muscarinic receptors within the PSNS.

This slide illustrates location of the nicotinic and muscarinic receptors within the PSNS.

Adrenergic Agents: Mechanism of Action Direct-acting (agonist) Bind to cholinergic receptors, causing stimulation Lisa L. Hernandez: Is there copy missing at the end? Inhibiting what? HHS: HHS:

Direct-acting (agonist)

Bind to cholinergic receptors, causing stimulation

Adrenergic Agents: Mechanism of Action Indirect-acting Inhibit the enzyme “cholinesterase” Result: more ACh is available at the receptors

Indirect-acting

Inhibit the enzyme “cholinesterase”

Result: more ACh is available at the receptors

Indirect-Acting Cholinergic Agents (Cholinesterase Inhibitors) Reversible Bind to cholinesterase for a period of minutes to hours Irreversible Bind to cholinesterase and form a permanent covalent bond The body must make new cholinesterase

Reversible

Bind to cholinesterase for a period of minutes to hours

Irreversible

Bind to cholinesterase and form a permanent covalent bond

The body must make new cholinesterase

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents Effects seen when the PSNS is stimulated. The PSNS is the “rest and digest” system.

Effects seen when the PSNS is stimulated.

The PSNS is the “rest and digest” system.

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents “SLUDGE” S alivation L acrimation U rinary incontinence D iarrhea G astrointestinal cramps E mesis

“SLUDGE”

S alivation

L acrimation

U rinary incontinence

D iarrhea

G astrointestinal cramps

E mesis

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents Stimulate intestine and bladder Increased gastric secretions Increased gastrointestinal motility Increased urinary frequency Stimulate pupil Constriction (miosis) Reduced intraocular pressure Increased salivation and sweating

Stimulate intestine and bladder

Increased gastric secretions

Increased gastrointestinal motility

Increased urinary frequency

Stimulate pupil

Constriction (miosis)

Reduced intraocular pressure

Increased salivation and sweating

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents Cardiovascular effects Decreased heart rate Vasodilation Respiratory effects Bronchial constriction, narrowed airways

Cardiovascular effects

Decreased heart rate

Vasodilation

Respiratory effects

Bronchial constriction, narrowed airways

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents At recommended doses, the cholinergics primarily affect the MUSCARINIC receptors. At high doses, cholinergics stimulate the NICOTINIC receptors.

At recommended doses, the cholinergics primarily affect the MUSCARINIC receptors.

At high doses, cholinergics stimulate the NICOTINIC receptors.

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents DESIRED EFFECTS: from muscarinic receptor stimulation Many undesirable effects are due to stimulation of the nicotinic receptors

DESIRED EFFECTS: from muscarinic receptor stimulation

Many undesirable effects are due to stimulation of the nicotinic receptors

Cholinergic Agents: Therapeutic Uses Direct-Acting Agents Reduce intraocular pressure Useful for glaucoma and intraocular surgery Examples: acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine Topical application due to poor oral absorption

Direct-Acting Agents

Reduce intraocular pressure

Useful for glaucoma and intraocular surgery

Examples: acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine

Topical application due to poor oral absorption

Cholinergic Agents: Therapeutic Uses Direct-Acting Agent—bethanechol Increases tone and motility of bladder and GI tract Relaxes sphincters in bladder and GI tract, allowing them to empty Helpful for postsurgical atony of the bladder and GI tract Oral dose or SC injection

Direct-Acting Agent—bethanechol

Increases tone and motility of bladder and GI tract

Relaxes sphincters in bladder and GI tract, allowing them to empty

Helpful for postsurgical atony of the bladder and GI tract

Oral dose or SC injection

Cholinergic Agents: Therapeutic Uses Indirect-Acting Agents Cause skeletal muscle contractions Used for diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis Used to reverse neuromuscular blocking agents Used to reverse anticholinergic poisoning (antidote) Examples: physostigmine, pyridostigmine

Indirect-Acting Agents

Cause skeletal muscle contractions

Used for diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

Used to reverse neuromuscular blocking agents

Used to reverse anticholinergic poisoning (antidote)

Examples: physostigmine, pyridostigmine

Cholinergic Agents: Therapeutic Uses Indirect-Acting Agent—donepezil (Aricept) Used in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Helps to increase or maintain memory and learning capabilities.

Indirect-Acting Agent—donepezil (Aricept)

Used in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Helps to increase or maintain memory and learning capabilities.

Cholinergic Agents: Side Effects Side effects are a result of overstimulation of the PSNS. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, hypotension, conduction abnormalities (AV block and cardiac arrest) CNS: Headache, dizziness, convulsions Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea, vomiting

Side effects are a result of overstimulation of the PSNS.

Cardiovascular:

Bradycardia, hypotension, conduction abnormalities (AV block and cardiac arrest)

CNS:

Headache, dizziness, convulsions

Gastrointestinal:

Abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea, vomiting

Cholinergic Agents: Side Effects Side effects are a result of overstimulation of the PSNS. Respiratory: Increased bronchial secretions, bronchospasms Other: Lacrimation, sweating, salivation, loss of binocular accommodation, miosis

Side effects are a result of overstimulation of the PSNS.

Respiratory:

Increased bronchial secretions, bronchospasms

Other:

Lacrimation, sweating, salivation, loss of binocular accommodation, miosis

Cholinergic Agents: Interactions Anticholinergics, antihistamines, sympathomimetics Antagonize cholinergic agents, resulting in decreased responses

Anticholinergics, antihistamines, sympathomimetics

Antagonize cholinergic agents, resulting in decreased responses

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Keep in mind that these agents will stimulate the PSNS and mimic the action of ACh. Assess for allergies, presence of GI or GU obstructions, asthma, peptic ulcer disease, or coronary artery disease. Perform baseline assessment of VS and systems overview.

Keep in mind that these agents will stimulate the PSNS and mimic the action of ACh.

Assess for allergies, presence of GI or GU obstructions, asthma, peptic ulcer disease, or coronary artery disease.

Perform baseline assessment of VS and systems overview.

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Medications should be taken as ordered and not abruptly stopped. The doses should be spread evenly apart to optimize the effects of the medication. Overdosing can cause life-threatening problems. Patients should not adjust the dosages unless directed by the physician.

Medications should be taken as ordered and not abruptly stopped.

The doses should be spread evenly apart to optimize the effects of the medication.

Overdosing can cause life-threatening problems. Patients should not adjust the dosages unless directed by the physician.

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Encourage patients with myasthenia gravis to take medication 30 minutes before eating to help improve chewing and swallowing. When donepezil is prescribed for Alzheimer’s disease, be honest with caregivers and patients that the drug is for management of symptoms, not for a cure. Therapeutic effects of donepezil may not occur for up to 6 weeks.

Encourage patients with myasthenia gravis to take medication 30 minutes before eating to help improve chewing and swallowing.

When donepezil is prescribed for Alzheimer’s disease, be honest with caregivers and patients that the drug is for management of symptoms, not for a cure.

Therapeutic effects of donepezil may not occur for up to 6 weeks.

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Atropine is the antidote for cholinergics. It should be available in the patient’s room for immediate use if needed. Patients should notify their physician if they experience muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, or difficulty breathing.

Atropine is the antidote for cholinergics. It should be available in the patient’s room for immediate use if needed.

Patients should notify their physician if they experience muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, or difficulty breathing.

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for side effects, including: Increased respiratory Abdominal cramping secretions Bronchospasms Dysrhythmias Difficulty breathing Hypotension Nausea and vomiting Bradycardia Diarrhea Increased sweating Increase in frequency and urgency of voiding patterns

Monitor for side effects, including:

Increased respiratory Abdominal cramping secretions

Bronchospasms Dysrhythmias

Difficulty breathing Hypotension

Nausea and vomiting Bradycardia

Diarrhea Increased sweating

Increase in frequency and urgency of voiding patterns

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for therapeutic effects: Alleviated signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis In postoperative patients with decreased GI peristalsis, look for: Increased bowel sounds Passage of flatus Occurrence of bowel movements In patients with urinary retention/hypotonic bladder, urination should occur within 60 minutes of bethanecol administration

Monitor for therapeutic effects:

Alleviated signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis

In postoperative patients with decreased GI peristalsis, look for:

Increased bowel sounds

Passage of flatus

Occurrence of bowel movements

In patients with urinary retention/hypotonic bladder, urination should occur within 60 minutes of bethanecol administration

Cholinergic Blocking Agents Drugs that block or inhibit the actions of acetylcholine (ACh) in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)

Drugs that block or inhibit the actions of acetylcholine (ACh) in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Mechanism of Action Competitive antagonists Compete with ACh Block ACh at the muscarinic receptors in the PSNS As a result, ACh is unable to bind to the receptor site and cause a cholinergic effect.

Competitive antagonists

Compete with ACh

Block ACh at the muscarinic receptors in the PSNS

As a result, ACh is unable to bind to the receptor site and cause a cholinergic effect.

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Mechanism of Action Once these drugs bind to receptors, they inhibit nerve transmission at these receptors.

Once these drugs bind to receptors, they inhibit nerve transmission at these receptors.

Instructors may wish to use EIC Image #58: Site of Action of Cholinergic Blockers Within the PSNS

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Chemical Class Natural Synthetic/Semisynthetic atropine anisotropine clidinium belladonna dicyclomine glycopyrrolate hyoscyamine hexocyclium homatropine scopolamine ipratropium isopropamide oxybutynin propantheline tolterodine tridihexethyl

Natural Synthetic/Semisynthetic

atropine anisotropine clidinium

belladonna dicyclomine glycopyrrolate

hyoscyamine hexocyclium homatropine

scopolamine ipratropium isopropamide

oxybutynin propantheline

tolterodine tridihexethyl

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Blocking Agents Cardiovascular Small doses: decrease heart rate Large doses: increase heart rate CNS Small doses: decrease muscle rigidity and tremors Large doses: drowsiness, disorientation, hallucinations

Cardiovascular

Small doses: decrease heart rate

Large doses: increase heart rate

CNS

Small doses: decrease muscle rigidity and tremors

Large doses: drowsiness, disorientation, hallucinations

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Blocking Agents Eye Dilated pupils (mydriasis) Decreased accommodation due to paralysis of ciliary muscles (cycloplegia) Gastrointestinal Relax smooth muscle tone of GI tract Decrease intestinal and gastric secretions Decrease motility and peristalsis

Eye

Dilated pupils (mydriasis)

Decreased accommodation due to paralysis of ciliary muscles (cycloplegia)

Gastrointestinal

Relax smooth muscle tone of GI tract

Decrease intestinal and gastric secretions

Decrease motility and peristalsis

Drug Effects of Cholinergic Blocking Agents Genitourinary Relaxed detrusor muscle Increased constriction of internal sphincter Result: urinary retention Glandular Decreased bronchial secretions, salivation, sweating Respiratory Decreased bronchial secretions Dilated bronchial airways

Genitourinary

Relaxed detrusor muscle

Increased constriction of internal sphincter

Result: urinary retention

Glandular

Decreased bronchial secretions, salivation, sweating

Respiratory

Decreased bronchial secretions

Dilated bronchial airways

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses CNS Decreased muscle rigidity and muscle tremors Parkinson’s disease Drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions

CNS

Decreased muscle rigidity and muscle tremors

Parkinson’s disease

Drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Cardiovascular Affect the heart’s conduction system Low doses: slow the heart rate High doses: block inhibitory vagal effects on the SA and AV node pacemaker cells Result: increased heart rate

Cardiovascular

Affect the heart’s conduction system

Low doses: slow the heart rate

High doses: block inhibitory vagal effects on the SA and AV node pacemaker cells

Result: increased heart rate

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Atropine Used primarily for cardiovascular disorders Sinus node dysfunction Symptomatic second-degree heart block Sinus bradycardia with hemodynamic compromise (advanced life support)

Atropine

Used primarily for cardiovascular disorders

Sinus node dysfunction

Symptomatic second-degree heart block

Sinus bradycardia with hemodynamic compromise (advanced life support)

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Respiratory Blocking the cholinergic stimulation of the PSNS allows unopposed action of the SNS. Results: Decreased secretions from nose, mouth, pharynx, bronchi Relaxed smooth muscles in bronchi and bronchioles Decreased airway resistance Bronchodilation

Respiratory

Blocking the cholinergic stimulation of the PSNS allows unopposed action of the SNS.

Results:

Decreased secretions from nose, mouth, pharynx, bronchi

Relaxed smooth muscles in bronchi and bronchioles

Decreased airway resistance

Bronchodilation

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Respiratory agents are used to treat: Exercise-induced bronchospasms Chronic bronchitis Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Respiratory agents are used to treat:

Exercise-induced bronchospasms

Chronic bronchitis

Asthma

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Gastrointestinal PSNS controls gastric secretions and smooth muscles that produce gastric motility. Blockade of PSNS results in: Decreased secretions Relaxation of smooth muscle Decreased GI motility and peristalsis

Gastrointestinal

PSNS controls gastric secretions and smooth muscles that produce gastric motility.

Blockade of PSNS results in:

Decreased secretions

Relaxation of smooth muscle

Decreased GI motility and peristalsis

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Gastrointestinal agents are used to treat: Peptic ulcer disease Irritable bowel disease GI hypersecretory states

Gastrointestinal agents are used to treat:

Peptic ulcer disease

Irritable bowel disease

GI hypersecretory states

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Therapeutic Uses Genitourinary Relaxed detrusor muscles of the bladder Increased constriction of the internal sphincter Reflex neurogenic bladder Incontinence

Genitourinary

Relaxed detrusor muscles of the bladder

Increased constriction of the internal sphincter

Reflex neurogenic bladder

Incontinence

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Side Effects Body System Side/Adverse Effects Cardiovascular Increased heart rate, dysrhythmias CNS CNS excitation, restlessness, irritability, disorientation, hallucinations, delirium

Body System Side/Adverse Effects

Cardiovascular Increased heart rate, dysrhythmias

CNS CNS excitation, restlessness, irritability, disorientation, hallucinations, delirium

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Side Effects Body System Side/Adverse Effects Eye Dilated pupils, decreased visual accommodation, increased intraocular pressure Gastrointestinal Decreased salivation, decreased gastric secretions, decreased motility

Body System Side/Adverse Effects

Eye Dilated pupils, decreased visual accommodation, increased intraocular pressure

Gastrointestinal Decreased salivation, decreased gastric secretions, decreased motility

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Side Effects Body System Side/Adverse Effects Genitourinary Urinary retention Glandular Decreased sweating Respiratory Decreased bronchial secretions

Body System Side/Adverse Effects

Genitourinary Urinary retention

Glandular Decreased sweating

Respiratory Decreased bronchial secretions

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Interactions Antihistamines, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs When given with cholinergic blocking agents, cause ADDITIVE cholinergic effects, resulting in increased effects

Antihistamines, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs

When given with cholinergic blocking agents, cause ADDITIVE cholinergic effects, resulting in increased effects

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications Keep in mind that these agents will block the action of ACh in the PSNS. Assess for allergies, presence of BPH, glaucoma, tachycardia, MI, CHF, hiatal hernia, and GI or GU obstruction. Perform baseline assessment of VS and systems overview.

Keep in mind that these agents will block the action of ACh in the PSNS.

Assess for allergies, presence of BPH, glaucoma, tachycardia, MI, CHF, hiatal hernia, and GI or GU obstruction.

Perform baseline assessment of VS and systems overview.

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications Medications should be taken exactly as prescribed to have the maximum therapeutic effect. Overdosing can cause life-threatening problems. Blurred vision may cause problems with driving or operating machinery. Patients may experience sensitivity to light and may want to wear dark glasses or sunglasses.

Medications should be taken exactly as prescribed to have the maximum therapeutic effect.

Overdosing can cause life-threatening problems.

Blurred vision may cause problems with driving or operating machinery.

Patients may experience sensitivity to light and may want to wear dark glasses or sunglasses.

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications When giving ophthalmic solutions, apply pressure to the inner canthus to prevent systemic absorption. Dry mouth may occur; can be handled by chewing gum, frequent mouth care, and hard candy. Check with physician before taking any other medication, including OTC medications. ANTIDOTE for atropine is physostigmine salicylate (Antilirium).

When giving ophthalmic solutions, apply pressure to the inner canthus to prevent systemic absorption.

Dry mouth may occur; can be handled by chewing gum, frequent mouth care, and hard candy.

Check with physician before taking any other medication, including OTC medications.

ANTIDOTE for atropine is physostigmine salicylate (Antilirium).

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications Anticholinergics may lead to higher risk for heat stroke due to effects on heat-regulating mechanisms. Teach patients to limit physical exertion, and avoid high temperatures and strenuous exercise. Emphasize the importance of adequate fluid and salt intake.

Anticholinergics may lead to higher risk for heat stroke due to effects on heat-regulating mechanisms.

Teach patients to limit physical exertion, and avoid high temperatures and strenuous exercise.

Emphasize the importance of adequate fluid and salt intake.

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications Patients should report the following to their physician: urinary hesitancy and/or retention, constipation, palpitations, tremors, confusion, sedation or amnesia, excessive dry mouth (especially if they have chronic lung infections or disease), or fever

Patients should report the following to their physician: urinary hesitancy and/or retention, constipation, palpitations, tremors, confusion, sedation or amnesia, excessive dry mouth (especially if they have chronic lung infections or disease), or fever

Cholinergic Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for therapeutic effects: For patients with Parkinson’s disease: fewer tremors and decreased salivation and drooling For patients with peptic ulcer disease: decreased abdominal pain

Monitor for therapeutic effects:

For patients with Parkinson’s disease: fewer tremors and decreased salivation and drooling

For patients with peptic ulcer disease: decreased abdominal pain

Cholinergic Blocking Agents: Nursing Implications Monitor for side effects, including: Constipation Tachycardia Tremors Confusion Hallucinations Sedation Urinary retention Hot, dry skin Fever CNS depression (occurs with large doses of atropine)

Monitor for side effects, including:

Constipation Tachycardia

Tremors Confusion

Hallucinations Sedation

Urinary retention Hot, dry skin

Fever

CNS depression (occurs with large doses of atropine)

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Cholinergic Blockers Updates (Nclex Pharmacology Summaries ...

Cholinergic Blockers Updates (Nclex Pharmacology Summaries & WorkSheets) ... Cholinergic Blockers Updates (Pharmacology Summaries ... NCLEX Question ...
Read more

Pharmacology Cardiac Worksheets | Tricia Joy

Cholinergic Blockers Updates ... Cholinergic Blockers Updates (Nclex Pharmacology Summaries WorkSheets) ... NurseReview.Org ...
Read more

Adrenergic Blockers - Interactive Nclex Pharmacology Tutorial

Adrenergic Blockers - Interactive Pharmacology Tutorial Slideshow transcript ... Beta Blockers: Side Effects Body ... Cholinergic Blockers Updates ...
Read more

Pharmacological Blog: Cholinergic Antagonists

... (also called cholinergic blockers, ... Summary of cholinergic ... ganglionic blockers often serve as tools in experimental pharmacology.
Read more