nuclear force

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Information about nuclear force

Published on January 31, 2009

Author: sheikmohamed


Nuclear Force : Within the nucleus, whether a proton or a neutron, is attracted by other nucleons with gravitational force. This force is of the order of 10-38 N. In addition to the gravitational force, an electrostatic force of repulsion is present between the nucleons is 1036 times greater than the attractive force between nucleons. Thus, the natural conclusion is that the nucleus is not a stable entity. But for stability, nature has provided another force, known as nuclear force which binds together the nucleons (protons and neutrons) in a nucleus, the nuclear force between two protons is the same as the force between two neutrons and that the force may be equal to the force between a neutron and a proton. This shows the charge-independent nature of these forces. Nuclear Force Slide 2: In any physical phenomenon governed by different forces, several quantities may change with time. However, some physical quantities remain in time. These quantities are the ‘conserved quantities’ of nature. This remarkable fact is the basis of many laws called conservation laws. There are nearly 14 conservation laws based on symmetry principles in physics and some of the important laws are described briefly here. A discussion of all the laws is beyond the scope of the text. However, a brief discussion on conservation of laws is done here. Slide 3: 1. Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum : If no external force acts on a system of colliding object, then the total momentum of the objects, in a given direction, before collision is equal to the total momentum of objects in the same direction after collision. 2. Law of Conservation of Mass Energy : The total of mass and energy in the universe remains conserved. 3. Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum: This law corresponds to the law of conservation of linear momentum. According to this law, if there is no external torque upon a system, then the angular momentum of the system remains constant. 4. Conservation of Charge The total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant. Slide 4: 5. Conservation of Baryons 6. Conservation of Leptons 7. Conservation of Isotopic spin 8. Conservation of Strangeness 9. Antiparticle Symmetry 10. Conservation of parity 11. Overall Antiparticle-parity Symmetry (CP)invariance) 12. CPT Invariance 13. Time Reversal Invariance 14. Conservation of Charm

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