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NS102 3a S07 Fighting Sail

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Information about NS102 3a S07 Fighting Sail
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Published on October 21, 2007

Author: Techy_Guy

Source: authorstream.com

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Lesson #3a: Fighting Sail:  Lesson #3a: Fighting Sail NS 102 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs 1588 - The Spanish Armada:  1588 - The Spanish Armada English Fleet 34 large warships 163 smaller vessels 2K guns 16K men Advantages: Range/Accuracy of Weapons Maneuverability Leadership Seamanship/Training Spanish Armada 62 large/xlarge warships 68 smaller vessels 1.1K guns 27K men Advantages: Firepower (larger guns) Total weight of broadside Marines (lots of them) Defeat of the Spanish Armada :  Defeat of the Spanish Armada War of the Spanish Armada :  War of the Spanish Armada Melee action at Gravelines, July 1588:  Melee action at Gravelines, July 1588 Slide6:  The Spanish Armada - 1588 “Mandé a mis barcos a luchar contra los ingleses, no contra los elementos“ – Philip I Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674):  Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Melee Tactics Line of Battle English “Fighting Instructions” Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics Line of Battle:  Line of Battle Man of War- Ship of the Line:  Man of War- Ship of the Line Fighting Sail: Tactical Constraints:  Fighting Sail: Tactical Constraints Physics (of sailing) Broadsides Signals (Command & Control) Compare to galley Tactical Comparison:  Tactical Comparison Ships of the Line:  Ships of the Line Only heavily gunned ships are able to remain in line ahead formation during battle. Greater than 80 guns required. Smaller ships (cruisers) detached for patrol, reconnaissance, blockade, and attacks on enemy merchant ships (commerce raiding). Fleet with better gunnery skills can gain the advantage. Importance of training sailors to fire guns rapidly and accurately. The “Long Gun”:  The “Long Gun” Ships and Cannon:  Ships and Cannon Permanent Fighting Instructions :  Permanent Fighting Instructions Sir Robert Blake (1599-1657) “Father of the Royal Navy” Permanent Fighting Instructions:  Permanent Fighting Instructions Wind Van Rear Center Battle of the Gabbard – Jun 1653:  Battle of the Gabbard – Jun 1653 Permanent Fighting Instructions:  Permanent Fighting Instructions Instructions become dogma Innovation stifled Inconclusive actions Admiral John Byng Executed 1757 for failure to “do his utmost” vs. French enemy. He complied with the PFI! The Napoleonic Wars: The PFI are set aside:  The Napoleonic Wars: The PFI are set aside Napoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation :  Napoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation Blockade, Amphibious Raids, Commerce Raiding, Logistics, Fleet engagements: Battle of the “Glorious” First of June -- 1794 Battle of Cape St. Vincent -- February 1797 Battle of Camperdown -- October 1797 Battle of the Nile -- 1 August 1798 Battle of Copenhagen -- 2 April 1801 Battle of Trafalgar -- 21 October 1805 Admiral Horatio Nelson Highly successful through the use of melee tactics. “Concept of Operations” to ship captains prior to battle. Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Horatio Nelson :  Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Horatio Nelson Slide23:  Emma, Lady Hamilton (Nelson’s mistress) Slide24:  Battle of Abukir Bay Aug 1798 “The Nelson Touch” Napoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation :  Napoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation Fleet engagements between Royal Navy and French Navy and French allies’ navies: Battle of the “Glorious” First of June -- 1794 Battle of Cape St. Vincent -- February 1797 Battle of Camperdown -- October 1797 Battle of the Nile -- 1 August 1798 Battle of Copenhagen -- 2 April 1801 Battle of Trafalgar -- 21 October 1805 Admiral Horatio Nelson Highly successful through the use of melee tactics. “Concept of Operations” to ship captains prior to battle. Napoleonic Tactics:  Napoleonic Tactics French Navy - Defensive Desired to hold the lee gage. Fired on the “up roll” to target rigging (masts and sails). Royal Navy - Offensive Desired to hold the weather gage. Fired on the “down roll” into the enemy hulls Tactical Maneuver:  Tactical Maneuver Weather Gage Held by the upwind fleet. (wind at their backs, can sail towards the enemy faster) Ability to determine the time and range of engagement of the enemy fleet. Lee Gage Held by the downwind fleet. (Has to tack into the wind to engage the enemy) Ability to determine the time of disengagement from the enemy fleet. (can run away fast with wind at back) Line Ahead Formations:  Line Ahead Formations Wind Weather Gage Lee Gage Formal Tactics:  Formal Tactics Wind Formal Tactics:  Formal Tactics Wind Formal Tactics:  Formal Tactics Wind “One on one” “Nelsonian” Tactical Theory:  “Nelsonian” Tactical Theory Concentrate firepower against the enemy fleet. Allows a superior weight of broadside. Conterminous line-ahead formation: firepower dispersed (one-on-one, per PFI) Must maneuver the fleet to gain the advantage in firepower. Massing Doubling Breaking the Line “Coordinated” melee: more flexible than PFI Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics Wind Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics “Massing” Wind Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics Wind Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics “Doubling” Wind Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics Wind Melee Tactics:  Melee Tactics “Breaking the Line” Wind Slide41:  “England expects that every man will do his duty.” Trafalgar, Oct 1805:  Trafalgar, Oct 1805 Slide43:  Nelson - Mortally wounded at Trafalgar. British Victory at Trafalgar:  British Victory at Trafalgar Great Britain secures command of the seas. French threat to invade England ended. Great Britain’s overseas commerce flourishes. Royal Navy gains ability to threaten U.S. commerce with France and other countries. British Victory at Trafalgar:  British Victory at Trafalgar French Navy declines in strength. Napoleon’s army still supreme on European continent. Continental System established in Europe to isolate Great Britain. Napoleonic Wars continue until Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo - 1815.

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