NS102 21 S07 Desert Storm

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Information about NS102 21 S07 Desert Storm
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Published on September 12, 2007

Author: Crystal

Source: authorstream.com

NS 102: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs:  Lesson 21: Desert Storm, 1990-1991 NS 102: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs BackgroundWhy did Iraq invade?:  Background Why did Iraq invade? Kuwaiti Island dispute Continued border disputes Ar-Rumaylah oil field Large war debt from Iran-Iraq War Note: Iraq had 10% of World Oil Reserves Kuwait 10% Saudi Arabia 40% Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990:  Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990 Largest ground forces in the Persian Gulf 4th largest in world Armor andamp; Mechanized Infantry, Artillery Republican Guard, Regular Army, Popular Army Scud missiles; 750 km range Could reach Israel, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran Largest Air Force in Middle East Modern aircraft Navy: not much Invasion of Kuwait:  Invasion of Kuwait Iraqi forces mass at the Kuwait border in late July U.S. did not expect an invasion Hussein promises 'no attack' 2 Aug 1990, 0100: Kuwait invaded! 1900: Kuwait City was secured by Iraqi troops Kuwaiti Sheikh escapes Iraqis kill his younger brother Arab Royalty becomes concerned U.S. Response:  U.S. Response First Responders: 2 Aug: USN CVBGs reposition to Persian Gulf and Red Sea 14 Aug: 4th MEB Desert Shield Arab nations to USA prior to conflict: 'Stay away!' Saddam prompts new outlook USA/Saudi defense pact U.S. to provide forces to defend Saudi Arabia Will depart kingdom when mission complete Overall concern: Will Iraq continue south? Saudi Peninsula would give Iraq andgt;50% of world oil Iraqi plans to invade Saudi later found in Kuwait World Response:  World Response UN Resolutions passed Iraq must withdraw United Nations coalition force Trade Embargo U.S. Lead on creating coalition President Bush uses diplomacy Includes NATO and Arab allies + Syria Nearly 50 countries sign on Military and/or monetary support Coalition:  Coalition 38 countries send land, sea, air forces U.S., U.K., France, Canada send Navy Italy, Spain, Germany, Bahrain, Saudi, Turkey: provide bases Gulf Co-op Council: Saudi, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Oman, Kuwait provided access and logistics Noncombatant military units and humanitarian assistance Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria $54B donated 2/3 by Gulf states 1/3 by Japan and Germany Iraqi Occupation:  Iraqi Occupation Republican Guard replaced by Popular/Regular troops Medieval behavior Plunder andamp; pillage Atrocities Westerners interned Kuwaiti oil fields impounded Later many destroyed released millions of gallons of oil Slide9:  Operation Desert Shield(Defense of Saudi Arabia):  Operation Desert Shield (Defense of Saudi Arabia) U.S. National Policy Objectives: Withdrawal from Kuwait Restoration of Kuwait’s legitimate government Security and stability of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf Safety and protection of the lives of American citizens abroad Repayment of war reparations Destruction of weapons (Nuc, bio, chem, long range to be destroyed under UN supervision) Operation DESERT STORM“The Mother of all Battles?”:  Operation DESERT STORM 'The Mother of all Battles?' Four-phased campaign Strategic Air campaign Air supremacy in theater Battlefield prep Offensive ground campaign Desert Storm Objectives:  Desert Storm Objectives Naval Role in the Gulf War:  Naval Role in the Gulf War Initial deterrent to invasion of Saudi Arabia CVBGs Maritime Intercept Operations (MIO) Enforce UN sanctions/embargo Sealift/Logistics 95% of all equipment comes by sea Maritime Pre-positioning Ships (MPS) Provide first ‘heavy’ forces Naval Role in the Gulf War:  Naval Role in the Gulf War Air strikes against Iraqi targets Helped achieve air supremacy Six CVBGs Fire support Wisconsin andamp; Missouri BBBGs Amphib assault/Ground Combat Amphibious Task Force 1st MEF (1st andamp; 2nd USMC Divs) 4th MEB floating reserve and 'decoy' Spec Ops: SEAL Teams Air Campaign :  Air Campaign 17 Jan 1991 Air superiority achieved w/in hours USAF USN Tomahawk missiles Launched from surface ships and subs Carrier air strikes Service contribution controversy USN carrier aircraft ~ 1/3 of U.S. missions Slide16:  Maritime Campaign:  Maritime Campaign Phase 1 and 2 Participate in air and establish sea control/supremacy Phase 3 Maintain air/sea supremacy Attack enemy ground forces w/aircraft and naval gunfire Phase 4 All of the above Amphibious feints, demos Ground assault (1st MEF) Naval Gunfire Support: NGFS:  Naval Gunfire Support: NGFS Battleships Wisconsin and Missouri 16-inch guns to support ground UAV Real time battle assessment ASUW:  ASUW 143 Iraqi naval vessels destroyed/damaged All Iraqi ports/bases damaged All northern Persian Gulf oil platforms secured No attacks by Iraqi surface on coalition Mine Warfare (MIW):  Mine Warfare (MIW) Iraqi Navy lays minefields No pre-emption Concern for premature kick off U.S. andamp; Coalition MIW assets USS Tripoli and USS Princeton damaged by mines Slide21:  Amphibious Warfare:  Amphibious Warfare Amphibious Task Force (ATF) Threat of amphibious assault Kuwaiti coast? Shatt al-Arab (Basra)? Raids Umm Al- Maradim off Kuwait Faylaka Island Ash Shuaybah port Facility Bubiyan Island Landing of 5th MEB in Saudi Arabia Iraqi forces distracted by eastern flank Ground Campaign:  Ground Campaign 24-28 Feb - 100 hour campaign 1st MEF Direct assault on main defensive lines 20-40% casualties expected Day 1: 20 miles penetration/8000 Iraqi POWs Day 3: Kuwait Airport recaptured 4 MEB: threat of amphib assault Slide24:  Slide25:  Iraq: Asymmetrical Resistance:  Iraq: Asymmetrical Resistance 'Scorched Earth' Hundreds of oil wells set on fire Tanker sunk and set on fire Trenches: flaming oil Iraqis hoped to deter Amphib assault Enormous environmental damage “Highway of Death”:  'Highway of Death' End Game:  End Game Knockout blow through western desert 'Highway of Death' CJCS Colin Powell concerns re carnage President Bush declares end to hostilities after 100 hrs RG escapes Cease fire negotiations No Fly Zone Iraqi helos: humanitarian missions Shiite uprisings Suppressed by RG and helos Saddam maintains control Able to remain in power Conclusions:  Conclusions Estimated Iraqi losses 100,000 soldier dead, wounded and captured, 3847 tanks, 1450 armored personnel carriers, 2917 artillery pieces and 32 aircraft 86,000 est. prisoners U.S. losses : 313 combatant and non combatant Importance of power projection from the sea Unity of command

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