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NPAPSP Analysis

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Information about NPAPSP Analysis
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Published on November 20, 2007

Author: Moorehead

Source: authorstream.com

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NPAPSP Protected Areas Analysis Consortium::  NPAPSP Protected Areas Analysis Consortium: Lead consultant: Jan Meerman NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis The marine realm, compared with the terrestrial realm is largely un-protected. Only 14 % is protected and the largest part of that again as extractive reserves. NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis The site scoring system provided three different types of output: Scoring based on biophysical criteria Scoring based on management and land use criteria Scoring based on the combination of biophysical, management and land use criteria NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Site Scoring System:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Site Scoring System Top 10 protected areas according to a ranking system incorporating Biophysical as well as Management and Land use criteria gives the following results: Aguacaliente Wildlife Sanctuary, Bacalar Chico Marine Reserve, Community Baboon Sanctuary, Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary, Glovers Reef Marine Reserve, Halfmoon Caye Natural Monument, Hol Chan Marine Reserve, Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Shipstern Nature Reserve and Runaway Creek Private Reserve. Note that there are 4 Private Protected Areas in this top category! NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis A Gap Analysis tries to identify gaps in an existing system. In a protected areas gap analysis, this would translate to the question; “which conservation features (species, ecosystems, features or other) are not met within the existing protected areas system. An ecosystem is the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. Since vegetation patterns are at the base of the biological environment. Vegetation patterns have been chosen as “proxy” for ecosystems. And since actual distribution patterns and data for specific species are scarce and generally incomplete, ecosystems were been taken as a proxy for biodiversity patterns. Setting of conservation targets:  Setting of conservation targets Setting of conservation targets:  Setting of conservation targets Setting of conservation targets:  Setting of conservation targets NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis: Criteria:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis: Criteria Slope: Areas with steep slopes are unsuitable for development and have high erosion risks. Rarity: Ecosystems with coverage of < 5,000 acres were considered “rare”. Environmental Services: In some cases these are particularly pronounced. Example: Coastal fringe mangroves and Riverine mangroves (erosion control, nurseries). Timber: Some forest types are more important for timber production than others. Fisheries: Ecosystems particularly important for fisheries are covered here. Endemic species: Belize is not particularly rich in endemic species. However there seem to be 2 ecosystems that harbor the bulk of the endemic species (Steep Karts hills and Savanna’s) Last of the wild: Large contiguous areas of more or less intact habitat. Low agricultural value: Areas with very low agricultural value are less suitable for agricultural development. Wetlands: Wetlands are considered important locations for biodiversity and water control. NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis: Location of currently under-represented ecosystems:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis Gap Analysis: Location of currently under-represented ecosystems NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis MARXAN planning tool:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis MARXAN planning tool While the site scoring system evaluates the existing protected areas system, there is the need for an analysis of management priorities. Priorities can be based on a multitude of targets. With the large variety of conservation targets there is a need to use a Conservation Planning Optimization Tool. Slide15:  Marxan analysis: Human footprint: Before continuing with the Marxan analysis itself, an analysis needed to be made of a human needs or human footprint. Conservation planning needs to look at the human footprint on the landscape. Essentially, the question needs to be asked: which are the areas where human needs come first. Example: Human footprint by Hugo Ramos (WCS) Calculation of footprint:  Communities Lists all the communities in Belize and assigns 5 km buffers around them. In the case of villages nearly entirely dependant on agriculture, a 7km buffer was assigned. (Sources: CSO & Meerman & Clabaugh, 2004: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Data System (BERDS)). Buffer size based on some empirical evidence on the readiness of people to establish economic activities near their place of settlement. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Poverty assessment Provides a ranking per district based on the assumption that poor communities are more dependant on natural resources than more affluent communities. (source: CSO). In the case of Belize, the Toledo district has a markedly higher poverty index than any of the other districts. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Main Roads All the main roads (paved or otherwise) were assigned 5km buffers (source: Meerman & Clabaugh, 2004: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Data System (BERDS)). This again based on the readiness of people to establish economic activities near main roads. This 5 km buffer probably too wide in narrow valleys, such as locally along the Hummingbird highway. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Other Roads All other roads were assigned 2 km buffers (source: Meerman & Clabaugh, 2004: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Data System (BERDS)). Buffer size arbitrary but in relation to the buffer size of the main roads. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Tracks Smaller tracks and trails were assigned 500m buffers (forest trails left out especially in areas where these trails serve management purposes) (source: Meerman & Clabaugh, 2004: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Data System (BERDS)). Buffer size arbitrary but in relation to the buffer size of the main roads. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Agriculture Existing Agriculture and aquaculture in all its forms based on the 2005 ecosystems map (Meerman, 2005). Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Good soil Identified as polygons larger than 1000 acres with agricultural land value class 1 and 2 based on King et al 1992. Not all this “good soil” is currently occupied but this layer is important since it indicates the potential for upcoming pressure. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Fire Risk Based on the assumption that wildfires present a risk for biodiversity conservation. Takes into account only high risk classes 10 -18 = highest risk. (source: Meerman & Clabaugh, 2004: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Data System (BERDS)). Fire risk is a threat but some ecosystems in Belize are the result of centuries of human induced fires and as such fire is a difficult factor in calculating the human footprint. The value of fire risk is therefore smaller than for the other footprints (Maximum hexagon value 100) Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Coastal developments Various Coastal Developments (based on 19 Oct 2004 Marine Risk Assessment Workshop). Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Boating lanes Skiff and boating lanes. Adapted from State of the Coastal Zone Report 1995. Map 4. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Incursions For the terrestrial realm based on the 2004 ecosystems map (Meerman, 2005) for agricultural incursions from the Guatemalan sided and assigned a 4 km buffer. Other incursions such as hunting and xate harvesting were not mapped since they also occur away from the border at the hands of Belizeans and are difficult to quantify. Also includes actual penetration of Guatemalan and Honduran fishermen on the marine side based on 19 Oct 2004 Marine Risk Assessment Workshop. Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Trawling Shrimp trawling (based on 19 Oct 2004 Marine Risk Assessment Workshop). Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Siltation Agricultural runoff in south (based on 19 Oct 2004 Marine Risk Assessment Workshop). Maximum hexagon value 1000. Calculation of footprint Calculation of footprint:  Coral resilience Resilience of Coral Reef to coral bleaching. Based on data provided by the consortium (level 2 & 3 resilience). This data is not really a cost but for practical purposes it has been introduced as a “negative” cost. In this way more resilient reefs have more chance of being selected in the analysis. Hexagon value always negative with a maximum of -1000. Calculation of footprint Slide30:  Human Footprint: MARXAN planning tool:  MARXAN planning tool Biodiversity Data:  Biodiversity Data Problem with existing biodiversity data is that we do not have sufficient spatially specific data to include them in a spatial analysis such as Marxan The Example of Jaguar data here clearly shows how the “distribution” does not really reflect the actual distribution as we all know it. Including such data would skew the analysis toward the selection of sites of which we have spatial data. Meanwhile, other areas (which may be more important) will be left out Biodiversity Data:  Biodiversity Data Similar example of Ocelated Turkey data equally shows how the “distribution” does not really reflect the actual distribution as we all know it. While incorporation of such data in the Marxan analysis was not possible, this does not imply they should be discounted Biodiversity Data:  Biodiversity Data A good example of very important Biodiversity data that can not be discounted is the measured difference in the populations of Jaguars Three research sites gave different population densities for this species. Ultimately data such as these need to be included during final PA planning. Unfortunately, there is very little data of this quality. Biodiversity data incorporated:  Biodiversity data incorporated Mostly seabird colonies (which have discrete spatial attributes), Marine target species and some endemic species (marked with “E”). In general, only biodiversity data were included of which sufficient geo-referenced data were available. Birds Agami Boat-billed Heron Bridled Tern Brown Noddy Brown Pelican Double-cr Cormorant Great Blue Heron Great Egret Green Heron Keel-billed Motmot Laughing Gull Least Tern Little Blue Heron Frigatebird Red-footed Booby Redish Egret Roseate Spoonbill Roseate Tern Sandwich Tern Snowy Egret Sooty Tern Tricolored Heron White Ibis American Woodstork Yellow-cr Night Heron Jabiru Scarlet Macaw Waders/ducks important wetlands Mammals Manatee Reptiles: Loggerhead Turtle Hawksbill Green Turtle Crocodylus acutus Phyllodactylus insularis (E) Amphibians Rana juliani (E) Fish Spawning sites (Lutjanidae, Serranidae) Invertebrates Epigomphus maya (E) Erpetogomphus leptophis (E) Citheracanthus meermani (E) Conch nursery sites Flora Ceratozamia robusta Zamia variegata Zamia sp nov1 (E) Zamia sp nov2 (E) Aristolochia belizensis (E) Passiflora urbaniana (E) Passiflora lancetillensis Setting of other conservation targets:  Setting of other conservation targets other features were taken into consideration: Slide37:  Results: Marxan Analysis Results: Locked option Slide38:  Results: Marxan Analysis Results: Seeded option NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions:  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Conclusions NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: :  NPAPSP Protected Area Analysis: Next Steps: Download reports: http://biological-diversity.info/NPAPSP.htm NPAPSP Protected Areas Analys:  NPAPSP Protected Areas Analys Lead consultant: Jan Meerman End

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