Noun compounds in turkish yüksel göknel signed

33 %
67 %
Information about Noun compounds in turkish yüksel göknel signed

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: yukselgoknel77

Source: slideshare.net

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TURKISH YÜKSEL GÖKNEL 2013 Yüksel Göknel

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH NOUN COMPOUNDS in TURKISH İsim Tamlamaları All noun compounds function as nominal phrases (NP) in sentences. These compounds play a considerable part in transforming Turkish simple sentences to be used in Phrase Structures. Therefore, they have to be considered before going on with further explanations. Although these compounds are called noun compounds, they naturally cover pronouns and infinitives, as well. A noun compound is composed of two parts: the “possessor” (tamlayan), and the “possessed” (tamlanan) parts. When a pronoun is used in the possessor part of a compound, its possessor personal allomorphs change according to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language as follows: DEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS Belirtili İsim Tamlamaları Possessor Personal Suffixes Attached to the Possessor Parts of the Compounds: ben-im (be*nim) (my), sen-in (se*nin) (your), o-/n/un (o*nun) (his, her, its), biz-im (bi*zim) (our), siz-in (si*zin) (your), onlar-ın (on*la*rın) (their), okulun (o*ku*lun), sandalye-/n/in (san*dal*ye*nin), görüşme-/n/in(gö*rüş*me*nin) Note: Although all the words that are used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds function as determiners, they are called "possessive adjectives" in traditional grammars. As it is seen in the examples above, the possessor personal morphemes following the personal pronouns are ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un, biz-im, siz-in”, onlar-ın. If a noun is used in place of the third person singular pronoun, the allomorphs of the possessed nouns change according to the vowel rules. When these pronouns, common nouns, or proper nouns end with consonants, they take these suffixes, but if they end with vowels, they need the /n/ glides to attach to the same possessor personal morphemes to produce possessor determiners. ben-im (be*nim), sen-in (se*nin), o-/n/un (o*nun), biz-im (bi*zim), siz-in (si*zin), on.lar-ın (on*la*rın), okul-un (o*ku*lun), örtü-/n/ün (ör*tü*nün), çalış-ma-/n/ın (ça*lış*ma*nın), yüksel-me-/n/in (yük*sel*me*nin) All pronouns, common nouns, proper nouns, and infinitives can be used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds: 2

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH ben-im okul-um; okul-un kapı-/s/ı; Ali-/n/in çanta-/s/ı; çalış-ma-/n/ın sonuç-u pronoun common N proper N infinitive All common nouns, infinitives, and transformed nominalized sentences can be used in the possessed parts of the noun compounds, such as: ben-im okul-um Ahmet’-in gel-me-/s/i Ayşe-/n/in gülüş-ü ben-im git-tik-im common N infinitive infinitive infinitive The transformed nominalized sentences are used as subjects and objects, but the last “noun + infinitive” compound (ben-im git-tik-im) can be used both as subjects, objects, and as determiners in sentences: Onun çalış-tık-ı-/n/ı biliyorum. nominalized phrs (obj) I know that he works. nominalized sent (obj) onun çalış-tık-ı şirket nominalized phrs (det) V noun the company where he works D noun nominalized sent (det) Posessor Personal Suffixes Attached to the Possessed Parts of the Compounds (ben): ♫ [im, ım, üm, um, em, am]: (ben-im sepet-im), (ben-im baba-am) When the nouns end with consonants, these consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the allomorphs following them, but when they end with vowels, they combine with the first vowels of the identical vowels of the following allomorphs, which are showed in bold face. (ben): ♫ [im, ım, üm, um, em, am]: ben-im sepet-im (be*nim / se*pe*tim); ben-im okul-um (be*nim / o*ku*lum); ben-im araba-am (be*nim / a*ra*bam); ben-im baba-am (ba*bam); ben-im gül-me-em (be*nim /gül*mem); ben-im başla-ma-am (baş*la*mam); ben-im turşu-um (be*nim / tur*şum); ben-im çene-em (be*nim / çe*nem) (sen): ♫ [in, ın, ün, un, en, an]: sen-in defter-in (se*nin / def*te*rin), sen-in mesele-en (me*se*len), sen-in kutu-un (ku*tun), sen-in tarla-an (tar*lan), sen-in ev-in (e*vin), sen-in gözler-in (se*nin / göz*le*rin), sen-in yüz-me-en (se*nin / yüz*men) (o), or a proper noun, or a common noun): ♫ [i, ı, ü, u]: In the possessor part of a noun compound, either “o”, or a "noun", or an "infinitive" can be used. The possessor personal allomorphs attached to both the possessor and the possessed parts of the compouns are as follows: 3

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH possessor possessed …C-[in, ın, ün, un]; …C-[i, ı, ü, u] . ..C-[in, ın, ün, un] …V-[/s/i, /s/ı, /s/ü, /s/u] …V-[/n/in, /n/ın, /n/ün, /n/un] …C-[i, ı, ü, u] …V-[/n/in, /n/ın, /n/ün, /n/un] …V-[/s/i, /s/ı, /s/ü, /s/u] example Jack-in okul-u Jack-in araba-/s/ı perde-/n/in kumaş-ı Ayşe-/n/in anne-/s/i In the table above, “…C” represents a noun ending with a consonant; “…V” represents a noun or a pronoun ending with a vowel. In the examples below, the identical vowels that combine are written in bold face, and the consonants that detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes are single underlined. o-/n/un kalem-i (o*nun / ka*le*mi); köy-ün deli-/s/i (kö*yün / de*li*si); ev-in kedi-/s/i (e*vin / ke*di*si); cümle-/n/in son-u (cüm*le*nin / so*nu); okul-un şarkı-/s/ı (o*ku*lun / şar*kı*sı); deli-/n/in gül-me-/s/i (de*li*nin / gül*me*si); çalış-ma-/n/ın sonuç-u (ça*lış*ma*nın / so*nu*cu); ağla-ma-/n/ın neden-i (ağ*la*ma*nın / ne*de*ni); kız-ın güzel.lik-i (kı*zın / gü*zel*li*ği) (biz): ♫ [im.iz, ım.ız, üm.üz, um.uz, em.iz, am.ız]: biz-im okul-um.uz (bi*zim / o*ku*lu*muz); biz-im tencere-em.iz (bi*zim / ten*ce*re*miz); biz-im baba-am.ız (bi*zim / ba*ba*mız); biz-im köy-üm.üz (bi*zim / kö*yü*müz); biz-im sorun-um.uz (so*ru*nu*muz), biz-im bahçeem.iz (bah*çe*miz), biz-im anlaş-ma-am.ız (an*laş*ma*mız). (siz): ♫ [in.iz, ın.ız, ün.üz, un.uz, en.iz, an.ız]: siz-in davul-un.uz (si*zin / da*vu*lu*nuz); siz-in araba-an.ız (a*ra*ba*nız); siz-in kız-ın.ız (kı*zı*nız); siz-in kafa-an.ız (ka*fa*nız), siz-in bahçe-en.iz (si*zin / bah*çe*niz); siz-in torba-an.ız (tor*ba*nız); siz-in konuş-ma-an.ız (ko*nuş*ma*nız). (onlar): ♫ [i, ı, ü, u] or ([ler-i, lar-ı]): o/n/-lar-ın okul-u (on*la*rın / o*ku*lu); o/n/-lar-ın çiçek-ler-i (on*la*rın / çi*çek*le*ri); onlar-ın konuş-ma-lar-ı (on*la*rın / ko*nuş*ma*la*rı); o/n/-lar-ın anne-/s/i (on*la*rın / an*ne*si); o/n/-lar-ın kedi-/s/i (on*la*rın / ke*di*si) (ben-im) (ben-im) (ben-im) (ben-im) (ben-im) (ben-im) defter-im (be*nim / def*te*rim) (my notebook) baş-ım (ba*şım) (my head) göz-üm (gö*züm) (my eye) sakal-ım (sa*ka*lım) (my beard) sorun-um (so*ru*num) (my problem) kuş-um (ku*şum) (my bird) 4

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH Jack’in okul-u (ce*kin / o*ku*lu) (Jack’s school) Since a personal possessor morpheme in the possessed part of a compound is enough to help someone understand the possessor pronoun in the possessor part of a compound, the parts in the brackets above may be ignored unless they are intentionally stressed. One can say (ki*ta”bım) in place of (be*nim / ki*ta*bım). If only the possessed part of the compound is used, the stress is on “bım”. If both parts are used, the stress is on “nim”. If a possessed noun in a compound ends with a vowel, and the first vowel of a personal possessor morpheme starts with the same vowel, these two identical vowels combine, and are verbalized as a single vowel: ben-im araba-am (be*ni*ma*ra*bam); (a*ra*bam) (my car) liaison) ben-im mesele-em (be*nim / me*se*lem); (me*se*lem) (my problem) ben-im tarla-am (be*nim / tar*lam); (tar*lam) (my field) ben-im kafa-am (be*nim / ka*fam); (ka*fam) (my head) ben-im sandalye-em (be*nim / san*dal*yem); (san*dal*yem) (my chair) ben-im pipo-um (be*nim / pi*pom); (pi*pom) (my pipe) (The “u” drops.) ben-im karı-ım (be*nim / ka*rım); (ka*rım) (my wife) ben-im deri-im (be*nim / de*rim); (de*rim) (my skin) ben-im su-/y/um (be*nim / su*yum); (su*yum) (my water) ben-im anne-em (be*ni*man*nem); (an*nem) (my mother) (liaison) . If the possessed noun of a compound ends with the unvoiced /p/, /k/, /ç/, or /t/ consonants, they change into their counterpart voiced consonants /b/, /ğ/, /c/, or /d/ respectively: Bebek-im (be*be*ğim) (my baby) (The /k/ changes into /ğ/) Köpek-im (kö*pe*ğim) (my dog) (The /k/ changes into /ğ/) Çorap-ım (ço*ra*bım) (my sock) (The /p/ changes into /b/) Araç-ım (a*ra*cım) (my vehicle) (The /ç/ changes into /c/) Dert-im (der*dim) (my trouble) (The /t/ changes into /d/) All the monosyllabic roots, and most words ending with /t/ do not change their last consonants when they are suffixed: at-ım (a*tım) (my horse); süt-üm (sü*tüm) (my milk); kürk-üm (kür*küm) (my fur); ip-im (i*pim) (my rope); saç-ım (sa*çım) (my hair); hap-ım (ha*pım) (my pill); sepet-im (se*pe*tim) (my basket); saat-im (sa*a*tim) (my watch); demet-im (de*me*tim) (my bunch); kürk-ün (kür*kün) (your fur); at-lar-ım.ız (at*la*rı*mız) (our horses). 5

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH When “senin” is used in the possessor position, the possessed nouns are suffixed with [in, ın, ün, un, en, an] possessor personal allomorphs: defter-in (def*te*rin) (your notebook) baş-ın (ba*şın) (your head) göz-ler-in (göz*le*rin) (your eyes) tuz-un (tu*zun) (your salt) baba-an (ba*ban) (your father) sandalye-en (san*dal*yen) (your chair) If possessed nouns end with vowels or /p, t, k, ç/ unvoiced consonants, they undergo the same changes as they do in the examples above: köpek-in (kö*pe*ğin), çorap-ın (ço*ra*bın), gömlek-in (göm*le*ğin), bıçak-ın (bı*ça*ğın); but süt-ün (sü*tün), sepet-in (se*pe*tin), araba-an (a*ra*ban) The third person possessed nouns are suffixed with [i, ı, ü, u] allomorphs: ev-i (e*vi), okul-u (o*ku*lu), kalem-i (ka*le*mi), ceket-i (ce*ke*ti), düğün-ü (dü*ğü*nü), göz-ü (gö*zü), baş-ı (ba*şı), kaş-ı (ka*şı), oğul-u (oğ*lu) When a third person possessed noun ends with a vowel, it takes an /s/ glide when it is attached to a possessor personal suffix: araba-/s/ı (a*ra*ba*sı) (his car); bahçe-/s/i (bah*çe*si) (his garden); tarla-/s/ı (tar*la*/ı) (his farm); halı-/s/ı (ha*lı*sı) (his carpet); leke-/s/i (le*ke*si) (its stain); öfke-/s/i (öf*ke*si) (his rage); kapı-/s/ı (ka*pı*sı) (his door); gaga-/s/ı (ga*ga*sı) (its beak); anne-/s/i (an*ne*si); baba-/s/ı (ba*ba*sı); çeşme-/s/i (çeş*me*si) (its tap); yama-/s/ı (ya*ma*sı) (its patch); gel-me-/s/i (gel*me*si) (his coming) If the possessor adjectives are used together with the possessed parts of the compounds, the possessor adjectives become dominant and the stress goes onto the possessor adjectives: Onun arabası (o*nun / a*ra*ba*sı); onun bahçesi (o*nun / bah*çe*si) The /p, t, k, ç / unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, ğ, c / respectively as in the examples below. This consonant change does not change the meaning of words. o-/n/un corap-ı (o*nun / ço*ra*bı) (his sock); o-/n/un dolap-ı (o*nun / do*la*bı) (his cupboard); o-/n/un amaç-ı (o*nun / a*ma*cı) (his goal); onun sokak-ı (o*nun / so*ka*ğı) (his street); onun kapak-ı, (o*nun / ka* 6

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH pa*ğı) (its lid); onun bacak-ı (o*nun / ba*ca*ğı) (his leg); onun ip-i (o*nun / i*pi); onun süt-ü (o*nun / sü*tü) A noun (or an infinitive) in a possessor position is used just like a third person possessor pronoun. When a noun in the possessor position ends with a vowel, it needs an /n/ glide to attached to ♫ [in, ın, ün, un] allomorphs. As the third person singular pronoun is “o”, which has only one vowel, it also needs the same /n/ glide to be attached to [un] allomorph. Interrogative possessors can also be used in the possessor parts of the compounds: o-/n/un kapı-/s/ı (o*nun / ka*pı*sı) (its door); oda-/n/ın kapı-/s/ı (o*da*nın / ka*pı*sı) (the door of the room); o-/n/un yakıt-ı (o*nun / ya*kı*tı) (its fuel); araba-/n/ın yakıt-ı (a*ra*ba*nın / ya*kı*tı) (the fuel of the car); okul-un otobüs-ü (o*ku*lun / o*to*bü*sü) (the bus of the school); bahçe-/n/in kapı-/s/ı (bah*çe*nin / ka*pı*sı) (the gate of the garden); Kim-in tarla-/s/ı? (ki*min↝ / tar*la*sı↝) çiftçi-/n/in tarla-/s/ı (çift*çi*nin / tar*la*sı) (the farm of the farmer); Nere-/n/in halı-/s/ı? (ne↝re*nin / ha*lı*sı↝); oda-/n/ın halı-/s/ı (o*da*nın / ha*lı*sı) (the carpet of the room); Kim-in karı-/s/ı? (ki*min↝ / ka*rı*sı↝); Jack’in karı-/s/ı. (ja*kin / ka*rı*sı) (Jack’s wife); yürü-me-/n/in yarar-ı (yü*rü*me*nin / ya*ra:*rı) (the benefit of walking); Ne-/y/in renk-i? (ne*yin↝ / ren*gi↝) şarap-ın renk-i (şa*ra*bın / ren*gi) (the color of the wine); çiçek-in güzellik-i (çi*çe*ğin / gü*zel*li*ği) (the beauty of the flower) When the noun compounds ending with vowels are suffixed by the allomorphs of the [İ], [E], [DE], or [DEN] morphemes, they take the /n/ glides: Jack, Mary’-/n/in köpek-i-/n/i ısır-dı. (jack ~/ me*ri*nin / kö*pe*ği*ni / ı*sır*dı ↷) Jack bit Mary’s dog. Jack, Mary’/n/in köpek-i-/n/e bir taş at-tı. (jack~ / mary*nin / kö*pe*ği*ne / bir / taş / at*tı ↷) Jack threw a stone at Mary’s dog. Köpek, Mary’/n/in bahçe-/s/i/n/-de. (kö*pek~ / mary*nin / bah*çe*sin*de ↷) The dog is in Mary’s garden. Ben, Mary’/n/in okulu/n/-dan gel-i.yor-um. (ben / mary*nin / o*ku*lun*dan / ge*li*yo*rum ↷) I’m coming from Mary’s school. 7

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH The inflectional plural allomorphs [ler, lar] are attached to noun roots or stems first, and then the other allomorphs follow: çocuk-lar-ım (ço*cuk*la*rım), okul-lar-ım.ız (o*kul*la*rı*mız), çiçek-ler-i (çi*çek*le*ri), araba-lar-ın.ız (a*ra*ba*la*rı*nız), komşu-lar-ım.ız (kom*şu*la*rı*mız), saat-ler-im (sa*at*le*rim), sepet-ler-in.iz (se*pet*le*ri*niz) The personal allomorphs below are attached to the plural allomorphs above: (ben-im) kitap-lar-ım (ki*tap*la*rım) (my books); (sen-in) çiçek-ler-in (çi*çek*le*rin) (your flowers); (biz-im) oyuncak-lar-ım.ız (o*yun*cak*la*rı*mız) (our toys). As the possessor pronouns in the compounds are generally ignored, only the possessed parts of the compounds are used. When the possessor parts are used together with the possessed parts of a compound, the possessor parts are stressed. However, when only the possessed parts are used, the stress goes onto the possessed part: "ben-im kitaplar-ım" (be*nim / ki*tap*la*rım); → "kitaplar-ım (ki*tap*la*rım) Kitap-lar-ım (ki*tap*la*rım) (my books); kedi-ler-im.iz (ke*di*le*ri*miz) (our cats); köpek-ler-i (kö*pek*le*ri) (his dogs); sepet-ler-im.iz (se*pet*le*ri*miz) (our baskets); dost-lar-ım (dost*la*rım) (my friends); soru-lar-ım (so*ru*la*rım) (my questions); sorun-lar-ım.ız (so*run*la*rı*mız) (our problems); kafa-am (ka*fam) (my head); pencere-em (pen*ce*rem) (my window); kafaan (ka*fan) (your head); kafa-/s/ı (ka*fa*/s/ı) (his head); okul-u (o*ku*lu) (his school); giysi-/s/i (giy*si*si) (her dress); araba-an.ız (a*ra*ba*nız) (your car); kapı-ın.ız (ka*pı*nız) (your door); yüz-ü-ün.üz (yü*zü*nüz) (your face). Contrary to the English intonation, in a Turkish “adjective + noun” compound, the stressed syllable is on the adjective, not on the noun. In Turkish: sarı gül (sa*rı / gül); in English: "yellow rose" (ye*low / rose).When the first, the second or the third person plural possessor pronouns are used in the possessor part of a noun compound such as “bizim”, “sizin”, and “onların”, both the singular and the plural possessed nouns can be used in the possessed part of a noun compound: bizim arabamız, or bizim arabalarımız; sizin kediniz, or sizin kedileriniz; onların odası, or onların odaları; bizim evimiz, or bizim evlerimiz. 8

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH INDEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS Belirtisiz İsim Tamlamaları The “possessor + possessed” compounds described above are all definite. When “odanın kapısı” is said, it means “the door of the room”. However, when we say “kapı zil-i” instead of “kapı-/n/ın zil-i”, we mean “door bell”, where “door” is indefinite. The indefinite Turkish noun compounds are structurally different from the English indefinite noun compounds. For instance, in the Turkish compounds, the allomorphs of [İ] are attached to the second parts of the compounds, such as “okul çanta-/s/ı”, but in English, only two nouns are used as “school bag”. When the possessed parts end with consonants, they take the allomorphs of [İ], but when they end with vowels, they take the /s/ glides together with the allomorphs of [İ]. The indefinite interrogative possessors can also be used in the possessor parts of these compounds: Here are some examples of the indefinite noun compounds: Ne çanta-/s/ı? (ne↝ / çan*ta*sı↝); Okul çanta-/s/ı (o*kul / çan*ta*sı) (school bag); Ne soru-lar-ı? (ne↝ / so*ru*la*rı↝); Sınav soru-lar-ı (sı*nav / so*ru*la*rı) (examination questions); öğrenci kavga-/s/ı (öğ*ren*ci / kav*ga*sı) (student fight); otomobil yarış-ı (o*to*mo*bil / ya*rı*şı) (car race); insan hak-lar-ı (in*san / hak*la*rı) (human rights); Ne reçel-i? elma reçel-i (el*ma / re*çe*li) (apple jam); Ne kaza-s/ı? (ne↝ / ka*za:*sı↝); araba kaza-/s/ı (a*ra*ba / ka*za:*sı) (car accident); kalem kutu-su (ka*lem / ku*tu*su) (pencil box); kış bahçe-/s/i (kış / bah*çe*si) (winter garden); işsizlik sorun-u (iş*siz*lik / so*ru*nu) (unemployment problem); yaz eğlence-/s/i (yaz / eğ*len*ce*si) (summer entertainment); güneş gözlük-ler-i (gü*neş / göz*lük*le*ri) (sunglasses); patates salata-/s/ı (pa*ta*tes / sa*la*ta*sı) (potato salad); hava kirlilik-i (ha*va / kir*li*li*ği) (air pollution); baş ağrı-/s/ı (ba*şağ*rı*sı) (headache); it dalaş-ı (it / da*la*şı) (dog fight); mürekkep leke-si (mü*rek*kep / le*ke*s/) (ink stain) NOUN COMPOUNDS WITHOUT SUFFIXES Takısız Tamlama There are some other noun compounds that are made up of two nouns: tahta kutu (tah*ta / ku*tu) (wooden box); altın bilezik (al*tın / bi*le*zik) (golden bracelet); porselen fincan (por*se*len / fin*can) (china cup); demir kapı (de*mir / ka*pı) (iron door); taş bina (taş / bi*na:) (stone building); plastik oyuncak (plas*tik / o*yun*cak) (plastic toy); bakır tel (ba*kır / tel) (copper wire); mermer heykel (mer*mer / hey*kel) (marble statue); kız arkadaş 9

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH (kı*zar*ka*daş) (girl friend); erkek arkadaş (er*ke*kar*ka*daş) (boy friend); gümüş para (gü*müş / pa*ra) (silver coin); tahta köprü (tah*ta / köp*rü) (wooden bridge); Beyaz Saray (be*yaz / sa*ray) (The White House). The pronouns used in the possessor position of the noun compounds are also used in place of “mine”, “yours”, “his”, “hers”, “ours”, ” theirs” and “Jack’s” as in the following: Bu kitap benim. This book is mine. Şu ayakkabılar onun. Those shoes are hers. Bu araba Jack’in. This car is Jack’s. Şu gömlek senin. That shirt is yours. Şu şeyler onların. Those things are theirs. Bu yanlışlar bizim. These mistakes are ours. This similarity could be seen in the following two sentences: Bu benim kitabım. This is my book. Bu kitap benim. This book is mine. Bu senin araban. This is your car. Bu araba senin. This car is yours. Sometimes the [Kİ] morpheme, which does not follow the vowel harmony rules and consequently has no allomorphs, is attached to “benim”, “senin”, “o-nun”, “Jack’in” possessor pronouns. This morpheme generally means “this one among others”: Bu çanta benim-ki. (bu / çan*ta / be*nim*ki ↷) This bag is mine (among others). Şu koltuk sizin-ki. (şu / kol*tuk / si*zin*ki ↷) This seat is yours (among others). Bu masa Jack’in-ki. This table is Jack’s (among others). Bu araba Oğuz’un-ki. This car is Oğuz’s (among others). The first parts of the noun compounds are syntactically determiners. For instance, in the expressions, “the car”, “this car”, “all cars”, and “my car”; “the”, “this”, “all”, and “my” have determining functions. Therefore, one cannot put “a“, “an”,“the”, or “some” before these words, such as *“the this car”, *“the all cars”, *“a my car”. 10

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH The possessor parts of the definite noun compounds are words like “the” and “some”; therefore, in English, people say “ the gate of the garden”, but in Turkish, people say “bahçe-/n/in kapı-/s/ı”, where “bahçe-/n/in” is a determin-er, so we can formulate “bahce-/n/in kapı-/s/ı” as “D + N”. “NOUN + INFINITIVE” COMPOUNDS “İsim + Mastar” Tamlamaları The infinitives, as they are nouns, are also used in the “possessor + possessed” compounds. All noun compounds are of several kinds: “pronoun + noun” ⟶ o/n/un araba-/s/ı (his car) “noun + noun” ⟶ oda-/n/ın kapı-/s/ı (the door of the room) “pronoun + infinitive” ⟶ o/n/un anla-ma-/s/ı (his understanding), o/n/un okul-a geç gel-me-/s/i (his coming to school late) “infinitive + noun”⟶ gecik-me-/n/in ceza-/s/ı (the punishment of being late) “infinitive+infinitive”⟶öde-me-/n/in gecik-me-/s/i (the delay of the payment) Some examples are as follows: ben-im git-me-em (my going); o-/n/un bakış-ı (her looking); siz-in git-tik-in.iz (git*ti*ği*niz) (that you went); biz-im buluş-ma-am.ız (our meeting); biz-im çalış-ma-am.ız-ın sonuç-u (bi*zim / ça*lış*ma*mı*zın / so*nu*cu) (the result of our working); işsizlik-in art-ma-/s/ı (iş*siz*li*ğin / art*ma*sı) (the increase of the unemployment); okul-a geç kal-ma-/n/ın sonuç-u (o*ku*la / geç / kal*ma*nın / so*nu*cu) (the result of coming to school late). In the compounds above, the identical vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes while the oral system of the Turkish language is reorganizing the morphemes in harmony with the Turkish sound system. The parallelism between the above compounds and those of the following ones are obvious: ben-im tencere-em, onun baş-ı, siz-in bilet-in.iz, ben-im ev-im As it is seen, the infinitives are nouns that are produced from verb roots, stems and frames by adding [me, ma], [iş, ış, üş, uş], and [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] allomorphs. These infinitives, except the [mek, mak] 11

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH infinitives that are used in the possessor parts, are used in noun compounds in sentences as Nominal Phrases such as: ben-im gül-me-em, sen-in gül-üş-ün, o-/n/un ağla-dık-ı (ağ*la*dı*ğı), biz-im bekle-me-em.iz, Ahmet’-in çalış-ma-ma-/s/ı, onlar-ın gel-me-me-/s/i, çocukun bul-un-ma-/s/ı, biz-im bul-uş-ma-am.ız, araba-/n/ın çal-ın-ma-/s/ı… It is possible in Turkish to produce chain noun compounds by lengthening the compounds above as far as the word that ends the chain because all natural languages are infinitely productive within the framework of the “NP + VP” innate logical sentence pattern: gençler-in spor yap-ma-/s/ı ⟶ possessor + possessed yapma-/s/ı-/n/ın önem-i ⟶ possessor + possessed önem-i-/n/ın anla-şıl-ma-/s/ı ⟶ possessor + possessed gerek-ir. ⟶ VP Gençler-in spor yapma-/s/ı-/n/ın önem-i-/n/in anla-şıl-ma-/s/ı gerek-ir. NP VP (genç*le*rin / spor / yap*ma*sı*nın / ö*ne*mi*nin / an*la*şıl*ma*sı / ge*re*kir) It is necessary to understand the importance of the youngsters’ playing sports. PREPOSITIONS (ENG) and POSTPOSITIONS (TURK) (edatlar) The English prepositions “on”, “in”, “under”, “near”, “behind”, “in front of” are all nouns in Turkish: üst (on), alt (under), yakın (near), iç (in), arka (behind, back), ön (front) … As all the words above can be attached to the allomorphs of the morphemes [İ], [E], [DE] and [DEN], they are nouns. Besides these morphemes, the allomorphs of [İ], which are also the allomorphs of the possessed morpheme [İ], can be attached to the above nouns to form the possessed parts of the noun compounds: Masa-/n/ın üst-ü (ma*sa*nı*nüs*tü) (the upper side of the table) (liaison) Kutu-/n/un iç-i (ku*tu*nu*ni*çi) (the inside of the box) (liaison) Karyola-/n/ın alt-ı (kar*yo*la*nı*nal*tı) (the underside of the bed) (liaison) Sandalye-/n/in arka-/s/ı (san*dal*ye*ni*nar*ka*/s/ı) (the back of the chair) The two parts of the compounds above can also be separately said: (ma*sa*nın / üs*tü), (ku*tu*nun / i*çi), (kar*yo*la*nın / al*tı), (san*dal*ye*nin / ar*ka*sı). 12

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TORKISH When the above compounds are used as objects, they take the allomorphs of the defining [İ] morpheme linked by the /n/ glides: Masa-/n/ın üst-ü-/n/ü temizledi-im. (ma*sa*nın / üs*tü*nü / te*miz*le*dim ↷) I cleaned the surface of the table. In the sentence above, the first /ü/ is the personal possessed allomorph; the second /ü/ is the defining morpheme, and the /n/ phonemes are the glides linking the successive /a/ /ı/, and /ü/ /ü/ vowels. In such compounds, either of the stressable syllables of the possessor or the possessed parts of a compound can be stressed. The dominant word syllables are symbolized in bold face, and the secondarily stressed syllables are showed in italics. The weakly stressed syllables are printed in regular type. See how the meanings of the sentences change when the primarily stressed words change in the following sentences: (ma*sa*nın / üs*tü*nü / te*miz*le*dim↷) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the upper side of any other furniture. (ma*sa*nın / üs*tü*nü / te*miz*le*dim↷) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the underside or the legs of it. (ma*sa*nın / üs*tü*nü / te*miz*le*dim ↷) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, so I have done my work. If you wish, you can download and read the full free version of this book "TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YUKSEL GOKNEL May 2013" in your browser. 13

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

NOUN COMPOUNDS in TURKISH

noun compounds in turkish yÜksel gÖknel 2013. noun compounds in torkish 2 noun compounds in turkish İsim tamlamalar ...
Read more

Yüksel Göknel

YÜKSEL GÖKNEL ... Definite noun compounds in Turkish are suffixed by possessor personal allomorphs both at the possessor and the possessed parts of a noun
Read more

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YÜKSEL GÖKNEL ...

yÜksel gÖknel turkish grammar updated academic edition 2013 1 turkish grammar updated academic edition 2013 ege reklam basım sanatları san.tic. ltd ...
Read more

TURKISH GRAMMAR YÜKSEL GÖKNEL 2010

TURKISH GRAMMAR YÜKSEL GÖKNEL 2010 - Free ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text file (.txt) or read book online for free. Scribd is the world's ...
Read more

TURKISH GRAMMAR YUKSEL GOKNELThe tenses in turkish signed ...

Noun compounds in turkish yüksel göknel signed 1. NOUN COMPOUNDS in TURKISH YÜKSEL GÖKNEL2013 Yüksel Göknel 2.
Read more

How infinitives, gerunds, morphemes and syllables are used ...

How infinitives, gerunds, morphemes and syllables are used in turkish, yuksel goknel, 2014 signed. ... morphemes and syllables are used in turkish ...
Read more

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YÜKSEL GÖKNEL ...

... / english, turkish, bilingual, grammar turkish, grammar. docslide.net. upload ... turkish grammar updated academic edition yÜksel gÖknel 2013-signed ...
Read more